To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The second year of life is a period of nutritional vulnerability. We aimed to investigate the dietary patterns and nutrient intakes from 1 to 2 years of age during the 12-month follow-up period of the Growing Up Milk – Lite (GUMLi) trial. The GUMLi trial was a multi-centre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 160 healthy 1-year-old children in Auckland, New Zealand and Brisbane, Australia. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-randomisation, using a validated FFQ. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis of the frequency of food item consumption per d. The effect of the intervention on dietary patterns and intake of eleven nutrients over the duration of the trial were investigated using random effects mixed models. A total of three dietary patterns were identified at baseline: ‘junk/snack foods’, ‘healthy/guideline foods’ and ‘breast milk/formula’. A significant group difference was observed in ‘breast milk/formula’ dietary pattern z scores at 12 months post-randomisation, where those in the GUMLi group loaded more positively on this pattern, suggesting more frequent consumption of breast milk. No difference was seen in the other two dietary patterns. Significant intervention effects were seen on nutrient intake between the GUMLi (intervention) and cows’ milk (control) groups, with lower protein and vitamin B12, and higher Fe, vitamin D, vitamin C and Zn intake in the GUMLi (intervention) group. The consumption of GUMLi did not affect dietary patterns, however, GUMLi participants had lower protein intake and higher Fe, vitamins D and C and Zn intake at 2 years of age.
To examine the feasibility of using social media to assess the consumer nutrition environment by comparing sentiment expressed in Yelp reviews with information obtained from a direct observation audit instrument for grocery stores.
Trained raters used the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S) in 100 grocery stores from July 2015 to March 2016. Yelp reviews were available for sixty-nine of these stores and were retrieved in February 2017 using the Yelp Application Program Interface. A sentiment analysis was conducted to quantify the perceptions of the consumer nutrition environment in the review text. Pearson correlation coefficients (ρ) were used to compare NEMS-S scores with Yelp review text on food availability, quality, price and shopping experience.
Detroit, Michigan, USA.
Yelp reviews contained more comments about food availability and the overall shopping experience than food price and food quality. Negative sentiment about food prices in Yelp review text and the number of dollar signs on Yelp were positively correlated with observed food prices in stores (ρ=0·413 and 0·462, respectively). Stores with greater food availability were rated as more expensive on Yelp. Other aspects of the food store environment (e.g. overall quality and shopping experience) were captured only in Yelp.
While Yelp cannot replace in-person audits for collecting detailed information on the availability, quality and cost of specific food items, Yelp holds promise as a cost-effective means to gather information on the overall cost, quality and experience of food stores, which may be relevant for nutrition outcomes.
Recent findings highlight that there are prenatal risks for affective disorders that are mediated by glucocorticoid mechanisms, and may be specific to females. There is also evidence of sex differences in prenatal programming mechanisms and developmental psychopathology, whereby effects are in opposite directions in males and females. As birth weight is a risk for affective disorders, we sought to investigate whether maternal prenatal cortisol may have sex-specific effects on fetal growth. Participants were 241 mothers selected from the Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS) cohort (n=1233) using a psychosocial risk stratifier, so that responses could be weighted back to the general population. Mothers provided saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol, at home over 2 days at 32 weeks gestation (on waking, 30-min post-waking and during the evening). Measures of infant birth weight (corrected for gestational age) were taken from hospital records. General population estimates of associations between variables were obtained using inverse probability weights. Maternal log of the area under the curve cortisol predicted infant birth weight in a sex-dependent manner (interaction term P=0.029). There was a positive and statistically significant association between prenatal cortisol in males, and a negative association in females that was not statistically significant. A sex interaction in the same direction was evident when using the waking (P=0.015), and 30-min post-waking (P=0.013) cortisol, but not the evening measure. There was no interaction between prenatal cortisol and sex to predict gestational age. Our findings add to an emerging literature that suggests that there may be sex-specific mechanisms that underpin fetal programming.
Non-completion of equestrian competition by competitors may occur for a variety of reasons. However, limited work has been conducted to establish the likely factors causing non-completion. Non-completion by a competitor needs to be carefully considered within any overall analysis of competition data. Non-completing competitors within sporting competitions are potential complicating and confounding factors in the analysis of performance data (Whitaker and Hill, in press). Within a population it is important to establish if there are systematic or nonrandom reasons for non completion; or whether non-completion is entirely a random event (Little and Rubin 1987). If systematic or nonrandom effects are occurring in competition they need to be considered carefully in the wider analysis of the whole population. This will include the application of appropriate statistical methods to the data sets. These may include such techniques as Regression Analysis, Approximate Bayesian Bootstrap, Hot Deck Method or Summary of Single Input Method (ibid).
The relations between genetic change in domestic livestock and infectious disease (including both its epidemiology and the animal's reaction to it) are examined. The overall picture is confusing because there are different, and seemingly unrelated, ways of considering the issue. An attempt is made to put these together into a more general framework. Four processes of particular interest are distinguished and discussed in more detail: (i) the way a population's genetic potential for immunocompetence can be changed by breeding, (ii) the way an animal's immunocompetence is influenced by that animal's production potential, in combination with the environmental resources that are available to it at a given time, (iii) the way the disease status of an animal (and a population of animals) is influenced by its immunocompetence, and (iv) the way the production level of an animal is influenced by activation of its immune system. Ultimately, all four processes influence the realised level of production.
This comes down to four questions that need to be addressed: (i) can we use genetic variation in immunocompetence in animal breeding? (ii) does a higher production potential (today's direction of breeding) have a negative impact on immunocompetence? (iii) does improved immunocompetence result in improved health? and (iv) how large is the negative impact of disease on production?
In nutritional terms productivity in dairy cows is best expressed in multiples of their energy requirements for maintenance, which is directly related to Metabolic Body Weight (MBW). Energy requirements can further be specified as those for free energy (fME), ketogenic energy (kME), glucogenic energy (gME) and aminogenic energy (aME). For maintenance, energy is required in an approximate ratio fME:gME:aME of 85:5:10.For a production level of 6x maintenance the required ratio of fME:kME:gME:aME is approximately 18:31:29:22, hence 70% of the required ME has to be delivered as specific nutrients.
During their productive life, dairy cattle alternate periods with high and periods with low risk of an inadequate nutrient supply. A period of high risk is between 10 days pre-partum and 90 days postpartum. High risk in this period means a high susceptibility for metabolic and reproductive disorders, many of which are interrelated. Negative Energy Balance (NEB) in early lactation is a metabolic status that is almost inevitable in high yielding dairy cows. In severe cases this is an important predisposing factor for metabolic disorders (paturient paresis, fatty liver, ketosis, displaced abomasum) and reproductive disorders (undetected heat, delayed ovarian cycle, reduced fertility, increased between calving interval).
Adequate nutrient supply is required from 2 weeks pre-partum onwards. Critical issues are energy density, distribution between structural and non-structural carbohydrates and distribution between fME, kME, gME and aME. Practical solutions, which can help alleviate the metabolic and reproductive problems, could be a nutrient based feed evaluation system, a lower peak yield combined with an improved persistence and maybe a deliberately increased calving interval.
The assessment of dressage tests within equine competition is undertaken via a judge (or panel of up to three judges at the higher levels of the sport). Judges assess and award marks for a series of pre-determined movements; such marks are given in line with criteria laid down by relevant governing equestrian organisations. Additionally, judges undergo training and assessment designed to enable them to adhere to the required guidelines as closely as possible. The equestrian sport of eventing is a three phased sport consisting of the completion of a dressage test, speed and endurance test (cross country) and round of show jumps. The speed and endurance phase is considered the most important and influential phase of competition; the sport's governing body, the International Equestrian Federation (FEI), describe it as the ‘major test’ (FEI). Various authors (Duell and Russek-Cohen, 1995; Whitaker et al, 2004; Whitaker and Hill, 2005) have demonstrated that the dressage phase contributes to the largest percentage of penalty points within the overall final penalty score from all the phases of competition.
Eventing is a three phased equestrian sport involving the completion of dressage, speed and endurance phases (cross country course) and show jumping phase. Penalty points are accrued during each phase of competition;. Competitors are ranked within competition on the basis of overall penalty points accrued (lowest points – winning the competition). The relative influence of each phase of the competition is currently being debated by the Federation Equestre Internationale (FEI) and its membership. The reasons for this, amongst other factors, include concerns over equine welfare, financial commitment to infrastructure and accessibility of nations developing within the sport. The essence of eventing, a speed and endurance contest, has been based around the cross country phase; the FEI refers to the phase as ‘the major test’ (FEI 2003) and British Eventing (BE) state ‘‘the relative influence on the whole competition exerted by dressage should be slightly more than that exerted by the show jumping, but considerably less than that exerted by the cross country’’ (BE 2004).
In commercial egg type chicken breeding three and four way crosses are used to produce commercial layers. The primary breeders are using closed nucleus breeding programmes, with birds kept under maximum biosecurity. All grand parents and parents are produced from a closed nucleus for the world wide demand of commercial layers. The breeding goals have been focused for several decades on increasing number of eggs per hen housed. Additional traits have become more important during the last decade, i.e. feed efficiency, internal and external egg quality and general adaptability. Prior to each selection, weights for individual traits within the selection index are adjusted to meet market demands. Breeding stock and commercial layers have to be bred to perform adequately in a variety of systems ranging from large intensive cage units to free range management under different environmental conditions world-wide.
Despite intensive selection for egg production the decrease in genetic variation observed in closed commercial lines is not yet critical. Peak production is approaching the biological limit of one egg a day. During this period genetic and phenotypic variation have been significantly reduced. But for early production (sexual maturity) and late production (persistency) genetic variation is still high. In a mating scheme avoiding full and half sib matings no serious inbreeding depression is observed. To achieve continued future genetic progress, selection pressure will shift to other traits like internal and external egg quality and perhaps behaviour traits which still respond to selection.
Primary breeders are responding to this challenge by testing pedigreed cross-line hens in a wide range of environments and housing systems while the pure-line elite stock is kept under conditions of maximum biosecurity. Marker assisted selection is already part of commercial breeding programmes. In the past, blood typing has been used to improve Marek's resistance, whereas today anonymous microsatellites which are linked to traits of economic interest are used for selection. In particular, selection between full sib males can give a major improvement.
The whole industry is getting more specialised. While the genetic potential of the birds is improved management and nutrition have also to be adapted to changing demands. The general goal for the future is to breed chickens with the ability to function well within a wider range of production conditions and do not respond to the slightest stress.
A greater understanding of the population characteristics of sport horse populations is required to enable potential breed improvement programmes to be formulated correctly and be effective in their outcomes. To date limited research has been conducted into the UK sport horse population.
A selected group of progeny (n=339) sired by elite eventing stallions was examined. In the context of this study elite sires were defined as those that were ranked 1-10 by total lifetime points won by competing progeny up to the end of 2000 (British Horse Database, 2000). Comparative analysis was undertaken between the selected group and all competing eventing horses in 2000 (n=9387) (British Horse Database, 2000). Data collected for both groups included, total lifetime points won at eventing and dressage and total lifetime money won at show jumping. Basic descriptive statistics were produced for each data set (Table 1). Product moment correlations were performed for all discipline areas (Table 2). Data transformation was applied using LOG+1(Hassenstein, Roehe, and Kalm, 1996).
Broiler breeders conduct their breeding programs only in optimal environments, claiming that because farmers are instructed to provide the broilers with optimal management, genotype by environment interactions (GxE) are not important for the broiler industry. However, with the rapid development of the poultry industry worldwide, high-performance broiler stocks are now being imported to developing countries where environmental control, mainly the mitigation of hot climates, is not feasible. Moreover, results from several studies suggest that due to the increase in genetic potential for rapid growth rate, resulting from successful breeding programs, broilers are becoming more sensitive to rather small environmental deviations from optimal conditions (Leenstra and Cahaner, 1991; Cahaner and Leenstra, 1992; Cahaner et al., 1993; Settar et al., 1999; Yunis et al, 1999). Hence, also in developed countries, many broilers will be, or are already being reared under suboptimal hot environments.
Selective breeding has been an important component in the increased output and efficiency of animal production since the 1950's. At the same time there has been increasing moral concern over the welfare of modern farmed animals with much of the focus on the environment and management of farm animals and relatively little consideration of the impact of genetic change on welfare. This is now changing, partly because of some well-publicised examples where selection has led to ‘undesirable’ side effects, and because of the perceived welfare risk of emerging biotechnologies. This paper will address whether and how moral concerns over animal welfare should place limitations on genetic change in animal production.
The major ruminant species, dairy and beef cattle and sheep, represent a rather heterogeneous group as regards genetic improvement, which to a large extent reflects their respective breeding structures. In the UK, the beef cattle and sheep industries still span many different breeds, have small herds/flocks, and have been relatively unaffected by agribusiness investment, and are assumed to have a traditional pyramid breeding structure, in which progress is determined by a small number of breeders. Recording of production information, which to date has focussed on terminal sire characteristics, is relatively recent, and until the use of across herd evaluations, genetic progress was probably limited. However in recent years there have been gains in both growth and muscling. There is little evidence or concern for undesired consequences in commercial flocks, partly because of the extensive use of crossbreeding in these industries, which exploits both breed complementarity and heterosis.
By contrast, the dairy industry is now dominated by purebred Holsteins. Increasingly breeding activities are both global in scope and dominated by a small number of large breeding companies. Because most traits of interest are only expressed in the female, improvement programmes have continued to focus on progeny testing, with test daughters in many herds. Most recording schemes and promotional activities emphasise production and type traits. The dairy industry is also notable for the publication of bull progeny test results, so that top bulls can then be used as sires of the next generation of by all companies. These bull evaluations now extend to international rankings.
Data from the US indicates continuing genetic progress for production traits in the Holstein, particularly since the 1960s, by when progeny testing had been established, frozen semen widely used, and adequate statistical procedures in place for evaluating bulls. Genetic progress is also evident for type traits. There is now growing concern and evidence of undesirable genetic changes in fertility, disease incidence and overall stress, despite improved nutrition and general management. Altering this situation will require both the recording of such traits and the use of that information by breeding companies, especially in sire selection.
The poultry meat industry, in continual pursuit of improved efficiency, has demanded rapid growth rate. Primary breeding companies have responded to industry pressure and growth rate has increased in an almost linear fashion. Despite the obvious advantages to industry profitability, it can be argued that increased growth has placed more emphasis on the demand tissues of growth than those systems or organs that supply the substrates for rapid growth and/or are essential to support the increase in body mass. One of the consequences is that modern broilers are not as adaptable to their environments as their predecessors were. Rapid growth has also produced problems not seen in slower growing birds. Skeletal and cardiovascular disease (sudden death syndrome (SDS), ascites) are examples of growth related problems. Although it can not be said that rapid growth automatically will result in these problems, there is no doubt that the!re is a relationship.
Genetic progress in poultry species for meat production has contributed to the consistent growth in world production of poultry meat. The poultry species have a number of advantages over the larger species used for meat production. It is possible to maintain large pedigreed populations and use their high reproductive rates to transfer genetic progress to the production generations in less than five years. These populations continue to maintain high heritabilities despite, in some cases, prolonged selection. The history of selection progress in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) is reviewed and compared with rates of progress in the duck (Anas platyrhyncos) and the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).
The rates of genetic change for production traits such as growth, feed efficiency and yield have changed the physiology of the birds. Changes in selection criteria have been made to improve the robustness of the production stock. This allows them to perform well in a wider range of environments. These have been combined with improved definitions of the optimum environments for the birds to minimise any impact on welfare and health. This paper describes examples of selection in the broiler chicken aimed at improving skeletal quality and resistance to ascites. A number of the factors influencing future selection criteria are discussed. Breeding programmes have adapted to respond quickly to adverse genetic correlated responses. The need to combine selection for a large number of traits requires that the programmes are very efficient and use the best statistical techniques available for multivariate breeding value estimation.
The UK currently has limited success at producing show jumping horses of international standard (WBFSH, 2002). For improvement to occur a greater understanding of the population dynamics of the show jumping population is required
A selected group of progeny (n=304) sired by elite show jumping stallions was examined. Elite sires were defined as those that were ranked 1-10 in the 2001 Sport Horse Annual (British Horse Database, 2000) by total lifetime earnings of progeny competing in 2000. Comparative analysis was conducted with all competing show jumping horses (n=22421) in 2000 (British Horse Database, 2000). Data collected comprised of total lifetime money won at show jumping, total lifetime points won at eventing and dressage. Descriptive statistics were produced for each data set (Table 1). Product Moment Correlations were performed for all discipline areas (Table 2). Data transformation was applied using LOG+1(Hassenstein, Roehe and Kalm, 1996) to account for the skewness in all data sets.