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Overreliance on herbicides for weed control has led to the evolution of herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth populations. Farm managers should consider the long-term consequences of their short-term management decisions, especially when considering the soil weed seedbank. The objectives of this research were to (1) determine how soybean population and POST herbicide application timing affects in-season Palmer amaranth control and soybean yield, and (2) how those variables influence Palmer amaranth densities and cotton yields the following season. Soybeans were planted (19-cm row spacing) at a low-, medium-, and high-density population (268,000, 546,000, and 778,000 plants ha–1, respectively). Fomesafen and clethodim (280 and 210 g ai ha–1, respectively) were applied at the VE, V1, or V2 to V3 soybean growth stage. Nontreated plots were also included to assess the effect of soybean population alone. The following season, cotton was planted into these plots so as to understand the effects of soybean planting population on Palmer amaranth densities in the subsequent crop. When an herbicide application occurred at the V1 or V2 to V3 soybean stage, weed control in the high-density soybean population increased 17% to 23% compared to the low-density population. Economic return was not influenced by soybean population and was increased 72% to 94% with herbicide application compared to no treatment. In the subsequent cotton crop, Palmer amaranth densities were 24% to 39% lower 3 wk after planting when following soybean sprayed with herbicides compared to soybean without herbicides. Additionally, Palmer amaranth densities in cotton were 19% lower when soybean was treated at the VE stage compared to later stages. Thus, increasing soybean population can improve Palmer amaranth control without adversely affecting economic returns and can reduce future weed densities. Reducing the weed seedbank and selection pressure from herbicides are critical in mitigating resistance evolution.
Suicide is in Austria one of the most causes of death in the age group 15–54. World wide every year 1.000.000 of people die by suicide, in Europe the number of total suicide per year is 40.000, approxymately 13.500 young man and women aged 15–24 years die by suicide. Suicidology is a science which automatically leads to active work in prevention. Preventive strategies of the last two decades results in a marked decrease of Suicide rates in most countries of the world. However different preventive concepts seems to show similar results in reducing suicide rates. So it is not easy to identify the right way in suicide prevention. We analyzed the publications of the last years and tried to find out what are the characteristics approaches of the the countries with a successful suicide prevention. It seems that countries which istitutionalized suicide prevention by creating institutes on an university level had a good fundament for research and applied research is the best groundwork for establishing preventive projects. Applied research is as well the best ground base for establishing educational programs which are the start in all well functioning national suicide prevention programs.
Peer relationships play a critical role in the development of adolescents, not only for the acquisition of social skills but also for the sense of personal identity and competence. Thus the quality of peer relationships influences actual and future mental health of the adolescent.
SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) is a randomized controlled trial, funded by the EU, evaluating interventions for mental health promotion and suicide prevention. The study comprised 12,395 high-school students from 11 European countries.
We investigated the differences on psychological problems between students with poor and good peer relationships.
1,195 adolescents (mean age 15.3 ± 0.6; 68% females) from the Molise region constituted the Italian sample. Adolescents were identified as with poor peer relationships if they never or just sometimes get along with people of their age, feel that peers like having them in the group and feel that peers were kind and helpful. Psychometric measures were used to assess mental health problems such as depression (Beck Depression Inventory II), anxiety (Zung Self-Assessment Anxiety Scale), well-being (WHO-5) and suicidal ideation (Paykel Suicide Scale).
Adolescents who reported poor peer relationships scored significantly higher (p < .005) on the scales assessing depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation and significantly lower (p < .001) on the WHO-5.
Particularly in adolescence peer relationships may influence psychological well-being and vice versa mental health influences the openness to the others. So promoting mental health and contemporary improve social skills could lead adolescents to a better life.
Smoking among adolescents is still a major public health problem and a global concern. Early onset and long-term smoking are associated with physical and psychological health problems.
To identify risk factors and comorbidities for occasional and daily smoking among European adolescents.
In the context of the Europe-wide 'Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study we surveyed 12,328 youths at the age of 13 to 17 from 11 countries. We applied questions from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey to determine nicotine consumption as well as other risk behaviors. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Becks Depression Inventory-II, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale,the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory and the Paykel Suicide Scale.
On average 30.9% of adolescents reported daily smoking and the onset of smoking was reported by 35.3% between the age of 12 and 13 already. Multinomial logistic regression model showed significant correlations between adolescent smoking and migration background, living in single parent households, no physical activity, parental smoking and physical fights. Further it revealed significant associations of adolescent smoking with alcohol consumption, illegal drug use, anxiety, conduct problems, hyperactivity, suicidal ideation, self-injury and internet-dependence.
Our data show that adolescent smoking is associated with psychosocial factors, especially family setting and parental behaviors. Further, smoking and psychiatric problems are highly correlated. Therefore, early preventive measures are necessary and essential not only for adolescents but also for their parents.
Bipolar disorder is characterized by depressive and manic episodes, each with its own specific outcomes. To guarantee the best therapy it is important and necessary to assess the episodes of the disease and its exact degree of severity at an early stage.
During a time period of 12 weeks, 9 patients suffering from bipolar disorder were provided with a commercially available smartphone in order to collect behavioral patterns by the phone's internal sensors. These sensors included acceleration, GPS-traces, phone-call behavior and sound. During the trial the patients were also asked to fill out a daily self-assessment questionnaire that included a self-rating. Additionally, to gain ground truth psychological state examinations were performed every three weeks.
The sensor traces are very similar to the diagnosed scores and thus clearly provide an accurate representation of the patient's state. Further, our data suggest a strong empirical evidence that the sensor based data are, on average, a more reliable and objective way of monitoring the mental state and mood than the patient's self-assessment.
The MONARCA system introduces new opportunities for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. The acquired data allow for identifying changes in the patient's condition at an early stage and therefore support the timely intervention by psychiatrists.
According to previous studies the prevalence of adolescent depression is 4–8% both in the USA and Europe. the aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of adolescent depression separately in several European countries.
Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study, which included 11 countries (Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Romania, Slovenia and Spain) and Sweden served as the coordinating centre. Depression was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Adolescents with a score of 20 or greater on the BDI-II were defined as depressed. Multiple imputations were conducted to address missing data.
Out of 14,115 students who consented to participate, finally 12,395 adolescents (5,568 (44.92%) boys and 6,827 (55.08%) girls) were enrolled into the study. the mean age of the students was 14.81 years (SD = .83). Significant differences were detected in the ratio of non-depressed and depressed adolescents among countries (χ2(20) = 385.352 p = .000). the prevalence of depressed adolescents ranged from 7.1% to 19.4%. the prevalence of depressed adolescents according to country in increasing order is: Hungary: 7.1%, Austria: 7.6%, Romania: 7.6%, Estonia: 7.9%, Ireland: 8.5%, Spain: 8.6%, Italy: 9.2%, Slovenia: 11.4%, Germany: 12.9%, France: 15.4%, Israel: 19.4%.
Based on a screening tool our data underlines the importance of taking account country specific prevalence rates of adolescent depression.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth continues to be challenging to control across the U.S. cotton belt. Timely application of POST herbicides and herbicides applied at planting or during the season with residual activity are utilized routinely to control this weed. Although glyphosate controls large Palmer amaranth that is not GR, herbicides such as glufosinate used in resistance management programs for GR Palmer amaranth must be applied when weeds are small. Dicamba can complement both glyphosate and glufosinate in controlling GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotypes in resistant cultivars. Two studies were conducted to determine Palmer amaranth control, weed biomass, and cotton yield, as well as to estimate economic net return when herbicides were applied 2, 3, 4, and 5 wk after planting (WAP). In one experiment POST-only applications were made. In the second experiment PRE herbicides were included. In general, Palmer amaranth was controlled at least 98% by herbicides applied at least three times regardless of timing of application or herbicide sequence. Glyphosate plus dicamba applied at 4 and 5 WAP controlled Palmer amaranth similarly compared to three applications by 8 WAP; however, yield was reduced 23% because of early-season interference. The inclusion of PRE herbicides benefited treatments that did not include herbicides applied 2 or 3 WAP. Glyphosate plus dicamba applied as the only herbicides 5 WAP provided 69% control of Palmer amaranth. PRE herbicides increased control to 96% for this POST treatment. Economic returns were similar when three or more POST applications were applied, with or without PRE herbicides.
Psychiatric patients constitute a high-risk population for suicide. In-patient status and the period after discharge are of particular interest concerning risk assessment.
To assess risk factors for in-patient and post-discharge suicides.
The Tyrol suicide register was linked with the registers of three psychiatric departments/hospitals of the region. Suicides were categorized according to whether the suicide was committed during a hospital stay or within 12 weeks after discharge or whether the suicide subject had not recently been hospitalized. Groups were compared with regard to demographic and clinical variables. Further, case-control comparisons were performed for the in-patient and post-discharge groups.
During the study period (2004–2011) 30 in-patients, 89 post-discharge and 592 not recently hospitalized suicides were identified. Groups differed in terms of gender distribution, history of suicide attempts, warning signals and suicide methods. Compared with controls matched for a number of variables, in-patient suicides were significantly more suicidal and depressed at admission, reported more often a recent life event and showed less often aggressive behavior and plans for the future. Post-discharge suicides had more often a history of attempted suicide, depressive and thought disorder symptomatology, a ward change and an unplanned discharge and less often a scheduled appointment with a non-psychiatric physician.
Suicide victims differ with regard to whether they die during, shortly after or not associated with a hospitalization. Compared to controls there are specific risk factors for those who commit suicide during a hospital stay and within 12 weeks after discharge.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
A gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch configuration has been used to drive convergent radiative shock waves into different gases at velocities of 20–50 km s−1. On application of the 1.4 MA, 240 ns rise-time current pulse produced by the Magpie generator at Imperial College London, a series of cylindrically convergent shock waves are sequentially launched into the gas-fill from the inner wall of the liner. This occurs without any bulk motion of the liner wall itself. The timing and trajectories of the shocks are used as a diagnostic tool for understanding the response of the liner z-pinch wall to a large pulsed current. This analysis provides useful data on the liner resistivity, and a means to test equation of state (EOS) and material strength models within MHD simulation codes. In addition to providing information on liner response, the convergent shocks are interesting to study in their own right. The shocks are strong enough for radiation transport to influence the shock wave structure. In particular, we see evidence for both radiative preheating of material ahead of the shockwaves and radiative cooling instabilities in the shocked gas. Some preliminary results from initial gas-filled liner experiments with an applied axial magnetic field are also discussed.
Four field experiments were conducted on wheat, using the bread-making cultivar Hereward, over 3 years to study the interactions between nitrogen (N) and strobilurin fungicides with respect to yield and grain N. In one of the field experiments, above-ground dry matter (DM) yield was greater when the plots were treated with a mixture of triazole and strobilurin than when either no fungicide or triazole alone was applied. On plots that received no N fertilizer, above-ground DM and grain yield were lower for the plots treated with fungicides than for plots not treated with fungicide, which implied that the benefit of applying fungicides could only be exploited with N fertilization. There was no difference in above-ground N accumulation between fungicide programmes; however, greater N accumulation in grains was observed following the application of a mixture of triazole and the strobilurin trifloxystrobin compared with plots treated with either no fungicide or triazole alone. This increase in grain N appeared to be attributable more to improved translocation of N to grains rather than to increased N uptake from the soil. The two strobilurin fungicide ingredients kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin, each mixed with a triazole and tested in the present study, performed differently. Better performance, especially with respect to grain N yield, was observed most frequently with trifloxystrobin compared to kresoxim-methyl.
Four field experiments were conducted over 3 years to study whether adding a strobilurin fungicide to a triazole fungicide programme for disease control in winter wheat had any influence, in combination with different rates of fertilizer nitrogen (N), on the severity of foliar diseases, the degree of leaf senescence and consequently on yield. Septoria tritici was the dominant foliar disease observed in all experiments. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) tended to be greater for untreated plots than those treated with fungicides; however, the performance of the programme containing a strobilurin fungicide did not always exceed that of the triazole-only programme. Fitting a quadratic equation to relationships between leaf N concentration and the proportion of leaf area covered with S. tritici on a relative scale across the four experiments indicated a possibility that there could be an optimum N concentration in host plants for S. tritici to develop, rather than a simple increase or decrease with a rise in plant N concentration. Plant height tended to be reduced following an application of a mixture of epoxiconazole and trifloxystrobin; however, it was not clear whether there was any association between plant height and the severity of S. tritici. S. tritici caused a reduction in mean grain weight (MGW) in most of the experiments. It was concluded that an optimum leaf N concentration may exist for S. tritici in winter wheat.
Let G be a compact, connected, abelian group with dual group Γ. The set E ⊂ has zero discrete harmonic density (z.d.h.d.) if for every open U ⊂ G and μ ∈ Md(G) there exists ν ∈ Md(U) with = on E. I0 sets in the duals of these groups have z.d.h.d. We give properties of such sets, exhibit non-Sidon sets having z.d.h.d., and prove union theorems. In particular, we prove that unions of I0 sets have z.d.h.d. and provide a new approach to two long-standing problems involving Sidon sets.
In the dual object of an infinite compact, connected group, every infinite Sidon set contains an infinite subset on which full interpolation can be performed using very small classes of measures (discrete measures on arbitrarily small sets or nonnegative discrete measures). In particular, the Figà-Talamanca–Rider subset of an infinite product of compact, connected, simple Lie groups has these kinds of interpolation. This substantially improves previous interpolation results.
A subset $E$ of the locally compact abelian group $\Gamma$ is “$\varepsilon$-Kronecker” if every continuous function from $E$ to the unit circle can be uniformly approximated on $E$ by a character with error less than $\varepsilon$. The set $E\subset \Gamma$ is $I_0$ if every bounded function on $E$ can be interpolated by the Fourier Stieltjes transform of a discrete measure on the dual group.
We show that products (sums) of $\varepsilon$-Kronecker sets can be all of the group if the number of terms is sufficiently large, but are shown to be $U_0$ sets (sets of uniqueness in the weak sense) if the number is small. Results about cluster points of products are extended from Hadamard to $\varepsilon$-Kronecker sets. One consequence of that is that finite unions of translates of a fixed $\varepsilon$-Kronecker set are $I_0$.