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Many of the scientific programs proposed for implementation at existing and future synchrotron radiation sources involve measurement of the spatial distribution of transmitted or diffracted x-ray beams. The design of a general purpose position-sensitive detector for use in such experiments must address several conflicting requirements. Ideally, such a detector would meet the following criteria: high detection efficiency over a wide energy range, large dynamic range in measured photon intensities and response to a wide range of measurement intervals. Existing detector systems only partially meet these requirements, although much work has gone into improving the current technology.
There are no available medications for the management of alcohol dependence for patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD).
To conduct a multisite, double blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence, with or without liver disease (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01711125).
Patients (n = 104) were randomised to placebo, baclofen 30 mg/day or 75 mg/day for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included survival time to lapse (any drinking), relapse (≥5 drinks per day in men and ≥4 in women), and the composite outcome of drinks per drinking day, number of heavy drinking days, and percentage days abstinent.
There was a significant effect of baclofen (composite groups) on time to lapse (χ2 = 6.44, P<0.05, Cohen's d = 0.56) and relapse (χ2 = 4.62, P<0.05, d = 0.52). A significant treatment effect of baclofen was observed for percentage days abstinent (placebo 43%, baclofen 30 mg 69%, baclofen 75 mg 65%; P<0.05). There was one serious adverse event (overdose) directly related to medication (75 mg).
Baclofen may be an effective treatment option for patients with ALD. However, given the profile of adverse events, the role for this medication might be best limited to specialist services.
“The Fatal Eggs,” written in 1924 and published in early 1925, was the first of Bulgakov's works to attract widespread attention—and a storm of controversy. Recipient of a few positive reviews as well as uniformly enthusiastic praise—privately expressed—from writers and editors, the novella was also the object of virulent attack from a number of (mostly proletarian) critics. Among the attackers were those who saw the work as a thinly veiled allegory and Professor Persikov's discovery of the “revolutionary” red ray as an allusion to the socialist experiments of the bolsheviks.
The High Throughput Experimentation (HTE) project of the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP, http://solarfuelshub.org/) performs accelerated discovery of new earth-abundant photoabsorbers and electrocatalysts. Through collaboration within the DOE solar fuels hub and with the broader research community, the new materials will be utilized in devices that efficiently convert solar energy, water and carbon dioxide into transportation fuels. JCAP-HTE builds high-throughput pipelines for the synthesis, screening and characterization of photoelectrochemical materials. In addition to a summary of these pipelines, we will describe several new screening instruments for high throughput (photo-)electrochemical measurements. These instruments are not only optimized for screening against solar fuels requirements, but also provide new tools for the broader combinatorial materials science community. We will also describe the high throughput discovery, follow-on verification, and device implementation of a new quaternary metal oxide catalyst. This rapid technology development from discovery to device implementation is a hallmark of the multi-faceted JCAP research effort.
In this study, we use a quantum well (QW) probe structure to explore the size dependent effects of sidewall recombination in GaN. Mesas 0.8-7 μm in width with pitches of 4 μm, 8 μm, and 12 μm were etched into the QW probe structure, exposing the QW at the sidewalls. Several etch conditions were investigated. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements, using a He-Cd laser as an excitation source and laser spot size of approximately 230 μm, were taken before and after the mesas were etched. The effects of sidewall formation were quantified by comparing the maximum PL intensity of the QW before and after etch. Higher remaining PL intensity was observed for etch conditions which used both Ar ions and Cl2 gas instead of only Ar ions. The fraction of remaining PL decreased with decreasing mesa width, however the remaining PL intensity was relatively large even for small features. The preliminary data suggested that GaN is relatively insensitive to sidewall damage.
Much effort has been put into improving the temporal stability of electric field-induced chromophore alignment in molecularly doped or functionalized polymers for second order nonlinear optical device applications. Characterization of the alignment decay in electric field-poled films is complicated by charge injection during poling. In order to optimize poling schemes and to accurately determine the orientational mobility of the chromophores it is necessary to develop methods to measure the spatial extent and time-dependence of any residual fields in the polymer films. Such Measurements will also be important for the development of polymer-based electro-optic devices, and in fact for any guided wave application in these materials since the residual field may induce a spatial dependence in the refractive index.
Not only are alcoholism and externalizing disorders frequently comorbid, they often co-occur in families across generations; for example, paternal alcoholism predicts offspring conduct disorder just as it does offspring alcoholism. To clarify this relationship, the current study examined the ‘common genes’ hypothesis utilizing a children-of-twins research design. Participants were male monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who were concordant or discordant for alcohol dependence together with their offspring and the mothers of those offspring. All participants were conducted through a structured psychiatric interview. Offspring risk of conduct disorder was examined as a function of alcoholism genetic risk (due to paternal and co-twin alcohol dependence) and alcoholism environmental risk (due to being reared by a father with an alcohol dependence diagnosis). After controlling for potentially confounding variables, the offspring of alcohol- dependent fathers were significantly more likely to exhibit conduct disorder diagnoses than were off- spring of nonalcohol-dependent fathers, thus indicating diagnostic crossover in generational family transmission. Comparing offspring at high genetic and high environmental risk with offspring at high genetic and low environmental risk indicated that genetic factors were most likely responsible for the alcoholism–conduct disorder association. The observed diagnostic crossover (from paternal alcoholism to offspring conduct disorder) across generations in the context of both high and low environmental risk (while genetic risk remained high) supported the common genes hypothesis.