This study aimed to evaluate risk factors associated with shedding of pathogenic Leptospira species in urine at animal and herd levels. In total, 200 dairy farms were randomly selected from the DairyNZ database. Urine samples were taken from 20 lactating, clinically normal cows in each herd between January and April 2016 and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using gyrB as the target gene. Overall, 26.5% of 200 farms had at least one PCR positive cow and 2.4% of 4000 cows were shedding Leptospira in the urine. Using a questionnaire, information about risk factors at cow and farm level was collected via face-to-face interviews with farm owners and managers. Animals on all but one farm had been vaccinated against Hardjo and Pomona and cows on 54 of 200 (27%) farms had also been vaccinated against Copenhageni in at least one age group (calves, heifers and cows). Associations found to be statistically significant in univariate analysis (at P < 0.2) were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Factors associated with shedding included cattle age (Odds ratio (OR) 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.95), keeping sheep (OR 5.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46–21.25) or dogs (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07–1.97) and managing milking cows in a single as opposed to multiple groups (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.20–0.99). We conclude that younger cattle were more likely to be shedding Leptospira than older cattle and that the presence of sheep and dogs was associated with an increased risk of shedding in cows. Larger herds were at higher risk of having Leptospira shedders. However, none of the environmental risk factors that were assessed (e.g. access to standing water, drinking-water source), or wildlife abundance on-farm, or pasture were associated with shedding, possibly due to low statistical power, given the low overall shedding rate.