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This study aimed at comparing the factors associated with the natural progression between typical progressors (TPs) and rapid progressors (RPs) in HIV-infected individuals. A retrospective study was conducted on 2095 eligible HIV-infected individuals from 1995 to 2016 in a high-risk area of Henan Province, China. Propensity score matching was used to balance covariates, and the conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the factors of natural disease progression among HIV infectors. A total of 379 pairs of RPs and TPs were matched. The standardised difference values of all covariates were less than 10%. HIV-infected individuals transmitted through sexual transmission (odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36–0.85) were more likely to progress to AIDS compared with those infected through contaminated blood. Older age at diagnosis of HIV-infected individuals (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58–0.89) exhibited a faster progression to AIDS. HIV-infected individuals identified through a unique survey (OR 7.01, 95% CI 2.99–16.44) were less likely to progress to AIDS compared with those identified through medical institutions. HIV-infected individuals who had higher baseline CD4+T cell counts (OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.59–4.38) had a slower progression to AIDS. These findings provide evidence for natural disease progression from HIV to AIDS between TPs and RPs.
Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between the juvenile growth rate and adult traits related to survival. However, this hypothesized negative correlation is difficult to test robustly because many trade-offs are mild, and environmental variables, such as changes in nutrient availability, can ameliorate the trade-off or make it more pronounced. Thus, it is reasonable to expect that the expression of the trade-off can be condition-dependent. In the present study, we first examined the pre-adult life-history traits of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, collected from northern, central, and southern China at different temperatures. We found that the northern China population has a significantly shorter pre-adult developmental time and higher growth rate than the southern China population as a result of adaptation to the decreased seasonal length. Then, we tested for a trade-off between the juvenile growth rate and adult lifespan in different temperature and nutrient conditions. We found a negative relationship between juvenile growth rate and adult lifespan under starvation or desiccation conditions; however, a continuous supply of sugar can diminish or obviate the apparent negative relationship, in which the adult lifespan did not show a significant difference in most of the comparisons. These results suggested a resource-mediated trade-off may exist between juvenile growth rate and adult lifespan. However, the adult size may have some positive effect on the lifespan under starvation and desiccation conditions, which may affect the expression of trade-off.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Curcumin has been attributed with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities, and has shown highly protective effects against enteropathogenic bacteria and mycotoxins. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the major intestinal pathogenic mycotoxins. The possible effect of curcumin on the alleviation of enterotoxicity induced by OTA is unknown. The effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on OTA-induced oxidative stress, intestinal barrier and mitochondrial dysfunctions were examined in young ducks. A total of 540 mixed-sex 1-day-old White Pekin ducklings with initial BW (43.4±0.1 g) were randomly assigned into controls (fed only the basal diet), a group fed an OTA-contaminated diet (2 mg/kg feed), and a group fed the same OTA-contaminated feed plus 400 mg/kg of curcumin. Each treatment consisted of six replicates, each containing 30 ducklings and treatment lasted for 21 days. There was a significant decrease in average daily gain (ADG) and increased feed : gain caused by OTA (P<0.05); curcumin co-treatment prevented the decrease in BW and ADG compared with the OTA group (P<0.05). Histopathological and ultrastructural examination showed clear signs of enterotoxicity caused by OTA, but these changes were largely prevented by curcumin supplementation. Curcumin decreased the concentrations of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and malondialdehyde, and increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase induced by OTA in the jejunal mucosa of ducks (P<0.05). Additionally, curcumin increased jejunal mucosa occludin and tight junction protein 1 mRNA and protein levels, and decreased those of ρ-associated protein kinase 1 (P<0.05). Notably, curcumin inhibited the increased expression of apoptosis-related genes, and downregulated mitochondrial transcription factors A, B1 and B2 caused by OTA without any effects on RNA polymerase mitochondrial (P<0.05). These results indicated that curcumin could protect ducks from OTA-induced impairment of intestinal barrier function and mitochondrial integrity.
Cannabis and tobacco have contrasting cognitive effects. Smoking cannabis with tobacco is prevalent in many countries and although this may well influence cognitive and mental health outcomes, the possibility has rarely been investigated in human experimental psychopharmacological research.
The individual and interactive effects of cannabis and tobacco were evaluated in 24 non-dependent cannabis and tobacco smokers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 2 (cannabis, placebo) × 2 (tobacco, placebo) crossover design. Verbal memory (prose recall), working memory (WM) performance including maintenance, manipulation and attention (N-back), psychotomimetic, subjective and cardiovascular measures were recorded on each of four sessions.
Cannabis alone impaired verbal memory. A priori contrasts indicated that tobacco offset the effects of cannabis on delayed recall. However, this was not supported by linear mixed model analysis. Cannabis load-dependently impaired WM. By contrast, tobacco improved WM across all load levels. The acute psychotomimetic effects and ratings of ‘stoned’ and ‘dizzy’ induced by cannabis were not altered by tobacco. Cannabis and tobacco had independent effects on increasing heart rate and interacting effects on increasing diastolic blood pressure.
Relative to placebo, acute cannabis impaired verbal memory and WM. Tobacco enhanced performance on WM, independently of cannabis. Moreover, we found some preliminary evidence that tobacco may offset the effects of cannabis on delayed, but not immediate, verbal recall. In contrast, the psychotomimetic and subjective effects of cannabis were unaffected by tobacco co-administration. By reducing the cognitive impairment from cannabis, tobacco co-administration may perpetuate use despite adverse health consequences.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has long been recognized as a heterogeneous illness, with a common clinical presentation of progressive amnesia and less common “atypical” clinical presentations, including syndromes dominated by visual, aphasic, “frontal,” or apraxic symptoms. Our knowledge of atypical clinical phenotypes of AD comes from clinicopathologic studies, but with the growing use of in vivo molecular biomarkers of amyloid and tau pathology, we are beginning to recognize that these syndromes may not be as rare as once thought. When a clinician is evaluating a patient whose clinical phenotype is dominated by progressive aphasia, complex visual impairment, or other neuropsychiatric symptoms with relative sparing of memory, the differential diagnosis may be broader and a confident diagnosis of an atypical form of AD may require the use of molecular biomarkers. Despite the evolving sophistication in our diagnostic tools, and the acknowledgment of atypical AD syndromes in the 2011 revised diagnostic criteria for AD, the assessment of such patients still poses substantial challenges. We use a case-based approach to review the clinical and imaging phenotypes of a series of patients with typical and atypical AD, and discuss our current approach to their evaluation. One day, we hope that regardless of whether a patient exhibits typical or atypical symptoms of AD pathology, we will be able to identify the condition at a prodromal phase and institute a combination of symptomatic and disease-modifying therapies to support cognitive processes, function, and behavior, and slow or halt progression to dementia.
Maximum ellipsoidal magnitude of the droplet is an important basic parameter for calculating drag force, droplets axial-velocity and dispersed-phase pressure gradient in an annular-mist pipe flow. An analytical correlation to predict the maximum ellipsoidal magnitude of a low-viscosity droplet in a parallel gas stream based on energy conservation and volume conservation. Stagnant pressure distribution on droplet surface is revised from Flachsbart's formula. The proposed correlation has clear physical meaning and easy to use. The correlation captures the deformation mechanism with an average absolute percent error of 9.53%. The effect of stagnant pressure distribution on the proposed correlation's accuracy is discussed.
Chitotriosidase, secreted by activated macrophages, is a biomarker of activated macrophages. In this study, we explored whether chitotriosidase could be adopted as a biomarker to evaluate the curative effect on tuberculosis (TB). Five counties were randomly selected out of 122 counties/cities/districts in Hunan Province, China. Our cases were all TB patients who were newly diagnosed or had been receiving treatment at the Centers for Disease Control (CDCs) of these five counties between April and August in 2009. Healthy controls were selected from a community health facility in the Kaifu district of Changsha City after frequency-matching of gender and age with the cases. Chitotriosidase activity was evaluated by a fluorometric assay. Categorical variables were analysed with the χ2 test. Measurement data in multiple groups were tested with analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD). Correlation between chitotriosidase activity and the degree of radiological extent (DRE) was examined by Spearman's rank correlation test. The average chitotriosidase activity levels of new TB cases, TB cases with different periods of treatment (<3, 3–6, >6 months) and the control group were 54·47, 34·77, 21·54, 12·73 and 10·53 nmol/h.ml, respectively. Chitotriosidase activity in TB patients declined along with the continuity of treatment. The chitotriosidase activity of both smear-positive and the smear-negative pulmonary TB patients decreased after 6 months' treatment to normal levels (P < 0·05). Moreover, chitotriosidase activity was positively correlated with DRE (r = 0·607, P < 0·001). Our results indicate that chitotriosidase might be a marker of TB treatment effects. However, further follow-up study of TB patients is needed in the future.
Cotton plant architecture is an important agronomic trait affecting yield and quality. In the present study, two F2:3 upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) populations were developed from Baimian2/TM-1 and Baimian2/CIR12 to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for cotton plant architecture traits using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 73 QTL (37 significant and 36 suggestive) affecting plant architecture traits were detected in both populations. Four common QTL, qTFN-17 for total fruit nodes, qFBN-17 for fruit branch nodes, qFBL-17 for fruit branch length and qTFB-17a/qTFB-17b (qTFB-17) for total fruit branches, were found across the two populations. These common QTL should have high reliability and could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to facilitate cotton plant architecture. The two common QTL, qTFN-17 and qFBL-17, were especially significant in both populations, and moreover, they explained >0·100 of the phenotypic variation in at least one population. These two QTL should be considered preferentially for MAS. The synergistic alleles and the negative alleles could be utilized in cotton plant architecture breeding programmes according to specific breeding objectives.
Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca2+-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum. We cloned and characterized the CRT gene in an important marine food fish species Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). The full-length DNA of the CRT gene was 2194 bp, including a complete open reading frame encoding 420 amino acid residues, a 113 bp 5′-untranslated region and an 818 bp 3′-untranslated region. The CRT gene contained nine exons and eight introns covering a total of 2772 bp genomic DNA from the start to stop codon. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in introns and an exon in six individuals collected from five different locations. The CRT gene was assigned to linkage group 4 of the linkage map of Asian seabass. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the CRT gene was highly expressed in liver at the age of 1, 3 and 7 months under normal conditions, whereas its expression in liver reduced sharply after 0.5 to 2 h cold challenge at 16°C, and then increased slowly. A preliminary association analysis showed a significant (P < 0.001) association between the SNP6 in the CRT gene and the mortality after cold challenge at 16°C. Our results suggest that the CRT gene is associated with cold tolerance of Asian seabass and further investigation will be necessary to illustrate the underlying mechanisms.
In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China?
Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview.
Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD.
Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.
Waverider serves as a good candidate for hypersonic vehicles. The typical waverider has sharp leading edge and no control face, which is inappropriate for practical use. This paper puts forward a method modifying the waverider, and the modification impact on the performance of waverider at hypersonic flow conditions is studied. The modification is based on blunted waverider, includes cutting the tip and introducing two control wings. The modification’s effect on aerodynamic performance is obtained and analysed through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. When blunted with 2cm radius, the waverider retains its good aerodynamic performance and the heat flux at the stagnation point can be managed. Three factors of the introduced wing are argued, the fixed angle, aspect ratio and wing area. Results show that influence on the aerodynamic coefficient is slight and the vehicle retains its high lift-to-drag ratio. The main influences of the modification are the control ability and trim efficiency, which is the motivation of this work and can be adapted when designing a practical waverider.
The elastic and thermodynamic properties of
fcc-6LiF under high temperatures and pressures are investigated using the
ab initio method and quasi-harmonic Debye model. The lattice constant of 6LiF at
ground state is a little larger than that of LiF. When pressure is less than
10 GPa, crystal lattice is compressed easily at low temperature, and when
P> 10 GPa, lattice can be compressed easily at high temperature. C11
increases with pressure and reduces with temperature sensitively. C12
and C44 raise or decrease just a little with increasing pressure and
temperature. Heat capacity of different pressure increases with temperature
and closes to the Dulong-Petit limit at higher temperatures. Debye
temperature decreases with temperature, and increases with pressure.
Furthermore, under lower pressure, thermal expansion coefficient raise
rapidly with temperature, and the increasing trend will get slow at higher
In the present studies, the effects of the end conditions of a circular cylinder on its wake at a fairly high Reynolds number of $Re = 1.57\times 10^4$ were studied. The transverse control cylinder technique (TCCT) was previously reported to be able to induce parallel vortex shedding at $Re = O(10^2)$. In the present work, experimental results showed that the TCCT is still effective in inducing parallel vortex shedding at $Re = O(10^4)$. Initially, before the inclusion of the control cylinders, vortices shed by the main cylinder were curved (all shapes referred to are time-averaged shapes) owing to the influence of the cylinder end conditions. Later, two larger control cylinders of diameter D were included and were located normal and upstream of the main cylinder near its ends to change its end conditions. By manipulating the control distance (the gap between the control cylinders and the main cylinder), different vortex-shedding patterns could be induced. With both control cylinders fixed at the optimum control distance of $L_1 = L_2 = L_0 = 1.26D$, the main cylinder was induced to shed parallel vortices. For the cases of curved vortex shedding (without control cylinders) and parallel vortex shedding (with control cylinders at the optimum distance of $L_1 = L_2 = L_0 = 1.26D)$, various aerodynamic parameters of the main cylinder were measured and compared. Results showed that the inclusion of the control cylinders speeded up the flow velocity at the ends of the main cylinder and led to a more uniform pressure distribution over the central span of the main cylinder, which finally resulted in parallel vortex shedding. Aerodynamic parameters such as drag coefficient and Strouhal number associated with parallel vortex shedding were found to be larger than their curved shedding counterparts. However, extra caution should be exercised in interpreting their implications as these data were under the influence of additional wind-tunnel blockage caused by the presence of the control cylinders. Preliminary and approximate calculations had shown that blockage effects were likely to be responsible for a significant part in the change in the aerodynamic parameters such as the drag coefficient and Strouhal number when the control cylinders were installed. When the control cylinders were symmetrically placed, but not at the optimum distance $(L_1 = L_2\ne L_0)$, the vortex-shedding pattern became curved, and was concave or convex downstream at $L_1 = L_2 < L_0$ or $L_1 = L_2 > L_0$, respectively. When the control cylinders were asymmetrically placed $(L_1\ne L_2)$, oblique vortex shedding was induced, with the oblique vortex slanting in the same way as the straight line joining the centres of the control cylinders. The relation between the Strouhal numbers for parallel and oblique vortex shedding was found to still follow the cosine law. The present work confirms earlier finding by other workers that a non-uniform spanwise base pressure distribution was the cause of spanwise base flow, which led to curved or oblique vortex shedding.
By investigating properties from the infrared (IR) to the optical of IR-selected QSOs (IR QSOs), optically selected QSOs (PG QSOs), and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) in the local Universe, we find that the IR excess in IR QSOs is mostly in the far-IR, and their IR spectral indices suggest that the excess emission is caused by starbursts rather than AGNs. The ratio of the star formation rate and the accretion rate is about several hundred for IR QSOs, but decreases with the central black hole mass. We also study an optically selected QSO sample at high redshift with hyper-luminous far-IR luminosities. We find that similar to IR QSOs at low redshift, these high redshift QSOs have a far-IR excess also, which should be due to the contribution of starbursts heating the dust. But the ratio of star formation rate to accretion rate for QSOs at high redshift is typically smaller than that for IR QSOs at low redshift, which hints at the relatively faster growth of black holes at early epochs.
Raman and infrared measurements of the LiB3O5 (LBO) crystals were completed. The experimental results shown here are more and stronger Raman lines and infrared absorption peaks, which implies that the external vibrations of the trigonal (BO3)3− and tetrahedral (BO4)5− ions, especially the former, in the six-membered boron–oxygen rings at the low wave number are strong and the internal vibrations of the (BO4)5− ions above 200 cm−1 are stronger than those of the (BO3)3− ions if compared with the Raman spectra of BaB2O4 crystals. These are caused due to the slope and distortions of the B3O7 rings and their BO3 and BO4 units in LBO, which change the structural rigidity of the crystals, intensify the long-range electrostatic force and short-range molecular force, and shorten the ultraviolet absorption edge.
We recently proposed a theory of mechanism-based strain gradient (MSG) plasticity to account for the size dependence of plastic deformation at micron- and submicronlength scales. The MSG plasticity theory connects micron-scale plasticity to dislocation theories via a multiscale, hierarchical framework linking Taylor's dislocation hardening model to strain gradient plasticity. Here we show that the theory of MSG plasticity, when used to study micro-indentation, indeed reproduces the linear dependence observed in experiments, thus providing an important self-consistent check of the theory. The effects of pileup, sink-in, and the radius of indenter tip have been taken into account in the indentation model. In accomplishing this objective, we have generalized the MSG plasticity theory to include the elastic deformation in the hierarchical framework.
We have used a variety of self-assembled monolayers as resists for low energy electron beam patterning. These compounds can be used as high-resolution patternable linker molecules for selected area binding of proteins and other organic compounds, as well as nanoparticles with organic chemical coatings. Because these systems can be aligned in registry to existing patterns, the organic systems may be positioned with the accuracy of electron-beam lithography. We have also explored the use of self-assembled monolayers for the creation of sub-wavelength artificial dielectric systems. The ultra-thin patterned monolayer is combined with a contrast-enhancing etch process to create high aspect ratio structures. This technique can be used to fabricate diffractive optical devices in a single-step process.
The electrostatic surface potential of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of aliphatic and aromatic thiols has been measured using electrostatic force microscopy. The variation of the surface potential of chemisorbed alkanethiols, with respect to bare Au(111), is observed to increase with increasing chain length. The trend is similar to that observed in the literature. A preliminary theoretical model, based on treating the monolayer as a sheet of dipoles, has been used to calculate the surface potential of alkanethiols. Similar measurements on several aromatic thiols, with a symmetric and non-symmetric molecular structure, reveal that non-symmetric systems have significantly higher potential (≥ 170mV) than the symmetric molecules.