Nanoimprint lithography is a potentially low-cost, high-resolution patterning technique, but most of the surrounding development work has been directed toward tool designs and processing techniques. There remains a tremendous opportunity and need to develop new materials for specific nanoimprint applications. This article provides an overview of relevant materials-related development work for nanoimprint lithographic applications. Material requirements for nanoimprint patterning for the sub-45-nm integrated-circuit regime are discussed, along with proposed nanoimprint applications such as imprintable dielectrics, conducting polymers, biocompatible materials, and materials for microfluidic devices. Polymers available for thermal nanoimprint processing and photocurable precursors for ultraviolet-assisted nanoimprint lithography are discussed.