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Rewetting is the establishment of water–surface contact that occurs during quenching of high temperature surfaces by water jet impingement. Rewetting is an unexpectedly complex phenomenon that has been reported to occur at surface temperatures significantly higher than the superheating limit of water. The presence of intermittently wet and dry episodes, and in particular the occurrence of so-called explosive boiling, is one of the theories to explain the contact of water with high temperature surfaces. However, there is a lack of experimental data in the literature to prove the presence of explosive boiling and intermittent wetting due to the small duration and scale of the rewetting phenomenon. In this study, recordings of the jet stagnation zone during rewetting are provided at a frame rate of 81 kfps. The high-speed recordings show a flashing regime consisting of intermittent (dry) bubble-rich and (wet) bubble-free periods at frequencies up to 40 kHz when the rewetted surface temperature exceeds the water superheat limit. As far as the authors know, these are the first direct observations of intermittent dry–wet periods occurring in the jet stagnation zone during quenching by water jet impingement. The dependency of the flashing frequency on initial surface temperature is quantified. A correlation between the size of the rewetting patch and the flashing frequency is found. Finally, a hypothesis to explain the role of water subcooling in maintaining the water–surface contact at surface temperatures well above the superheating limit of water is presented.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
The excitability of local surface plasmon modes in radial trimers composed of gold nanorods was mapped using hyperspectral cathodoluminescence (CL) in the scanning electron microscope. In symmetric trimers, the local plasmon resonances could be excited most effectively at the ends of individual rods. Introducing asymmetry into the structure breaks the degeneracy of the dipole modes and changes the excitability of transverse dipole modes in different directions. CL in the scanning electron microscope has great potential to interrogate individual nanophotonic structures and is a complement to electron energy loss spectroscopy and optical microscopy.
This systematic review examines the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural health integration into primary healthcare in the management of depression and unhealthy alcohol use in low- and middle-income countries. Following PRISMA guidelines, this review included research that studied patients aged ≥18 years with unhealthy alcohol use and/or depression of any clinical severity. An exploration of the models of integration was used to characterise a typology of behavioural health integration specific for low- and middle-income countries.
Fifty-eight articles met inclusion criteria. Studies evidenced increased effectiveness of integrated care over treatment as usual for both conditions. The economic evaluations found increased direct health costs but cost-effective estimates. The included studies used six distinct behavioural health integration models.
Behavioural health integration may yield improved health outcomes, although it may require additional resources. The proposed typology can assist decision-makers to advance the implementation of integrated models.
Due to the growing interest in the role of dietary patterns (DPs) on chronic diseases, we assessed the association between a posteriori identified DPs in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project – a prospective cohort study in a Mediterranean country – and breast cancer (BC) risk.
DPs were ascertained through a principal component analysis based on 31 predefined food groups. BC cases were initially identified through self-report or, if deceased, from death certificates or by notification by the next kin. Women reporting BC were asked to provide a copy of their medical report and diagnoses for confirmation purposes. We fitted Cox regression models to assess the association between adherence to the identified DPs and BC risk.
Spanish university graduates.
We included 10 713 young and middle-aged – mainly premenopausal – women.
After a median follow-up of 10·3 years, we identified 100 confirmed and 168 probable incident BC cases. We described two major DPs: ‘Western dietary pattern’ (WDP) and ‘Mediterranean dietary pattern’ (MDP). A higher adherence to a WDP was associated with an increased risk of overall BC (multivariable-adjusted HR for confirmed BC Q4 v. Q1 1·70; 95 % CI 0·93, 3·12; P for trend = 0·045). Contrarily, adherence to a MDP was inversely associated with premenopausal BC (multivariable-adjusted HR Q4 v. Q1 0·33; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·91). No significant associations were observed for postmenopausal BC.
Whereas a higher adherence to the WDP may increase the risk of BC, a higher adherence to the MDP may decrease the risk of premenopausal BC.
This study focuses on the dolphins populating the water between Gibraltar and Algeciras in the south Iberian Peninsula, an area subjected to pressure due to high human activity. The area is considered an important feeding and breeding ground for common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). Due to the degree of residence of some specimens, and the large gap in knowledge about the evolution of wounds in D. delphis specimens with lacerations, this work sought to perform the following analyses: identify lacerated individuals; characterize sequences of ‘before – during – after’ with respect to the occurrence of lacerations; and associate the type of injury with its severity. This work will inform future studies by expanding a database on injured individuals and contribute to periodical monitoring of specimens that frequent these geographic areas. Between 2013 and 2017, we were able to track the healing process of five injured individuals of common dolphins from a whale-watching platform thanks to photo identification. The animals exhibited fresh external wounds from different sources. In the majority of individuals, the wound-healing processes lasted 3–21 weeks. The frequency with which sightings are made and knowledge about the local population will help track injured animals, follow their wound evolution, and document their survival rates. The documented injuries inflicted by human interactions described in this paper may include fishing interactions and propeller strikes, probably as a consequence of the high intensity of recreational fishing and whale-watching activities in the area.
Decisions on the use of nature reflect the values and rights of individuals, communities and society at large. The values of nature are expressed through cultural norms, rules and legislation, and they can be elicited using a wide range of tools, including those of economics. None of the approaches to elicit peoples’ values are neutral. Unequal power relations influence valuation and decision-making and are at the core of most environmental conflicts. As actors in sustainability thinking, environmental scientists and practitioners are becoming more aware of their own posture, normative stance, responsibility and relative power in society. Based on a transdisciplinary workshop, our perspective paper provides a normative basis for this new community of scientists and practitioners engaged in the plural valuation of nature.
A large and growing body of literature has studied consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for local foods in the United States. However, these studies implicitly assume that consumers perceive local foods to have superior quality than nonlocal foods. Little is known about WTP for local foods when taking into account differences in consumer perception of food quality between local and nonlocal foods. In this article, we conduct an economic experiment to assess the effect of locally grown information on consumer WTP and quality perceptions of three broccoli varieties (one commercial variety grown in California and two newly developed local varieties). Our results show that consumers rate both the appearance and the taste of the two local broccoli varieties lower than the California variety when evaluating food quality blindly. However, consumers’ evaluations of the two local varieties improve substantially after being told the two varieties are locally grown. Results also indicate that consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the two local varieties after being told that they are locally grown. Our results provide evidence that locally grown information has a positive effect on both consumer WTP and quality perception of local foods.
Background: Gross total resection of pediatric posterior fossa tumors is paramount towards improving progression-free survival.
Fluorescein accumulates in tumoral tissue, where the blood-brain barrier is disrupted. It can therefore potentially aid in differentiating tumoral versus normal tissue. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fluorescent-guidance (using fluorescein) towards the resection of a pediatric cerebellar tumor, as the index case at our institution using this technique. Methods: 5 mg/kg of IV fluorescein sodium was injected upon induction of general anesthesia. During tumor resection, a yellow 560-nm filter (Kinevo microscope, Zeiss) was employed for fluorescent-guidance. The extent of resection was assessed via post-operative MRI. Results: There were no adverse side effects experienced by the patient. Tumoral material was clearly visualized under the yellow 560-nm filter, allowing for satisfactory gross total resection of the lesion (confirmed on post-operative MRI). Preliminary pathology was consistent with medulloblastoma. Conclusions: Fluorescent-guided resection of pediatric posterior fossa tumors appears to be a safe and useful adjunct for gross total resection of these lesions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in Canada wherein IV fluorescein was used under a yellow 560-nm filter for resection of a posterior fossa medulloblastoma in a child.
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) share certain traits: they are parasitic infections, prevailing in tropical environments and affecting marginalized sectors of the population. Six NTDs – ascariasis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm infection, onchocerciasis and trichuriasis – all of them endemic in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), are analysed in this work. This review aims to discuss key information on the function of excretory/secretory (E/S) proteins from these parasites in their infectivity, pathogeny and diagnosis. The modulation of the host immune system to favour the permanence and survival of the parasite is also discussed. An updated knowledge on the function of E/S molecules in endemic parasitoses in LAC may lead to new approaches for the clinical management and diagnosis of these diseases. In turn, this could allow us to optimize their treatment and make it more affordable – a relevant goal given the economic constraints that the region is facing.
Objectives: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) can present with disruptive behavior, which is often a consequence of injury and parent factors. Parent factors are associated with child disruptive behavior. Furthermore, disinhibition in the child also leads to disruptive behavior. However, it is unclear how these factors interact. We investigated whether parental factors influence child disruptive behavior following ABI and how these factors interact. Methods: Parents of 77 children with ABI participated in the study. Parent factors (executive dysfunction, trait-anxiety), potential intervention targets (dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress, child disinhibition), and child disruptive behavior were assessed. A hypothetical model based on the literature was tested using mediation and path analysis. Results: Mediation analysis revealed that child disinhibition and dysfunctional parenting practices mediated the association of parent factors and child disruptive behavior. Parents’ executive dysfunction mediated the association of dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress and parent trait-anxiety. Parenting practices mediated the association of executive dysfunction and child disruptive behavior. Path analysis indices indicated good model adjustment. Comparative and Tucker-Lewis Index were >0.95, and the root mean square error of approximation was 0.059, with a chi-square of 0.25. Conclusions: A low level of parental trait-anxiety may be required to reduce dysfunctional parenting practices and child disinhibition. Impairments in child disinhibition can be exacerbated when parents present with high trait-anxiety. Child disinhibition is the major contributor of disruptive behavior reported by parents and teachers. The current study provides evidence of parent anxiety and child disinhibition as possible modifiable intervention targets for reducing child disruptive behavior. (JINS, 2019, 25, 237–248)
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To introduce CCTS to the clinical and translational research community. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Established in the summer of 2017, the Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) fosters cooperative clinical and translational sciences between the University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy (UMSOP) and the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC). CCTS facilitates the translation of basic research discoveries into clinically validated therapies to improve the health of populations in Mississippi and beyond. Priority areas of investigation in CCTS include Cardiometabolic disorders, Cancer, Neuroscience, Infectious diseases, Precision Medicine, and Community-Based Research. To accomplish CCTS mission three overarching goals have been defined: I) Develop progressive and sustainable capacity for clinical and translational research in Mississippi; II) Promote interprofessional engagement in clinical and translational science; and III) Foster research collaboration among stakeholders in and outside of Mississippi. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: To carry its CCTS’s mission three research units have been established: 1) The Pre-clinical Research Unit: Develops processes to move basic science discoveries towards translation into research in humans. This unit provides guidance in the development of Investigational New Drug (IND) applications; and identifies and pursues opportunities to develop progressive capacities for in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo, and in silico approaches for evaluating new pharmaceutical and therapeutic agents. 2) The Clinical Research Unit: Transitions projects that have received IND approval into the first phase of clinical trials. It also transitions clinical trials from Phase I to Phase II and to Phase III; develops standard operating procedures (SOPs), personnel training plans, and policies to guide clinical research; works with industry sponsors and governmental funding agencies; and assures compliance with regulatory requirements. 3) Community/population Research Unit: Develops, coordinates, and facilitates research activities and translation between clinical and community/population research stages. To do so, this unit works closely with community partners and Population Health programs on the Oxford and Jackson campuses. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Since its inception, the CCTS has surpassed 1.5 million dollars in competitive funding. This early success positions the CCTS well to promote research collaboration between UMSOP and UMMC and to progress in becoming a national leader in clinical and translational investigation.
Trichinellosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the nematodes of the genus Trichinella, through the consumption of raw or semi-raw infected meat from swine, horses and wild animals. This disease has been sporadically reported in Greece since 1946. The aim of the present study was to describe a trichinellosis case in a patient hospitalized in northern Greece, in 2017. A 47-year-old male was admitted to hospital with intense generalized myalgia, periorbital swelling, fever, exhaustion and anorexia. Biochemical and haematological profile showed eosinophilia and elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Anti-Trichinella spp. IgG and IgM antibodies were detected by serology and Trichinella spp. larvae were found in two muscle biopsies by compressorium and histological examination. A larva collected from the muscle biopsy was identified as Trichinella britovi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Albendazole (400 mg twice per day × 10 days) was administered and the clinical condition of the patient promptly improved. This is the first identification of T. britovi in a patient in Greece.
The concept of dose equivalence is very useful when it comes to using drugs. In the case of antipsychotics, the first comparison was established by Davis in 1974, called the classical comparison method. Subsequently, other methods have appeared, such as the minimum effective dose method, the dose response method, the consensus among experts such as consensus method by Gardner, and the Daily Dose method of the World Health Organization. In 2016, Leucht et al performed the meta-analysis comparing the equivalence by the alternative methods of second-generation antipsychotics orally, based on Olanzapine. However, therapeutic equivalences between injectable antipsychotics have not yet been made.
The objective of the study is to establish a pattern of therapeutic equivalences between long-acting antipsychotics, based on the method of the Defined Daily Dose (DDD).
The DDD is the dose of the maintenance medium of a drug for its main indication in adults of 70kg. In the case of antipsychotics, psychosis is the most important indication. DDDs are different for each route of administration, especially if the bioavailability of the drug varies between one route and another. To establish the DDD of a drug, 3 measures are taken: firstly, the dose ranges of the drug approved by at least 1 major regulatory authority. Secondly, doses used in clinical trials. Thirdly, post marketing data on dose used in clinical practice when the drug is commercialized. Depot formulations are usually assigned the same DDDs as the ordinary oral dosage form. Based on the DDD according to the WHO classification at http://www.whocc.no/.
For comparison, Olanzapine 210mg was used as the main drug and equivalences were established from it. Therapeutic deposit of Aripiprazole (ARI), Flufenazine decanoate (FLU), Haloperidol Decanoate (HAL) Olanzapine pamoate (OLA), Paliperidone palmitate (PAL), Risperidone depot (RIS), and Zuclopenthixol decanoate (ZUC).
The results will be shown in a 8x8 table.
DDD is available for almost all antipsychotics and is an accepted method as well as a clinical level as a researcher. They are based on a wide variety of data from different sources. Several studies have found a strong correlation between this method and other methods of equivalence. This method also has limitations. First, the DDDs were not established for the purpose of therapeutic equivalences. Secondly, the daily dose can be applied mainly to the efficacy of the drug, when the dose could cause some adverse effects.
The establishment of therapeutic equivalences may help when a clinician needs to change one long-term antipsychotic. This could reduce psychotic relapses. It may enhance therapeutic adherence avoiding undesirable side effects. On the other hand, long-acting antipsychotics have corroborated the adherence and decrease of relapses, which is why it is increasingly used as a good alternative to oral drugs.
The keystone role of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba Dana, in Southern Ocean ecosystems, means it is essential to understand the factors controlling their abundance and secondary production. One such factor that remains poorly known is the role of parasites. A recent study of krill diet using DNA analysis of gut contents provided a snapshot of the parasites present within 170 E. superba guts in a small area along the West Antarctic Peninsula. These parasites included Metschnikowia spp. fungi, Haptoglossa sp. peronosporomycetes, Lankesteria and Paralecudina spp. apicomplexa, Stegophorus sp. nematodes, and Pseudocollinia spp. ciliates. Of these parasites, Metschnikowia spp. fungi and Pseudocollinia spp. ciliates had previously been observed in E. superba, as had other genera of apicomplexans, though not Lankesteria and Paralecudina. In contrast, nematodes had previously only been observed in eggs of E. superba, and there are no literature reports of peronosporomycetes in euphausiids. Pseudocollinia spp., parasitoids which obligately kill their host, were the most frequently observed infection, with a prevalence of 12%. The wide range of observed parasites and the relatively high frequency of infections suggest parasites may play a more important role than previously acknowledged in E. superba ecology and population dynamics.
To examine the feasibility of using social media to assess the consumer nutrition environment by comparing sentiment expressed in Yelp reviews with information obtained from a direct observation audit instrument for grocery stores.
Trained raters used the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S) in 100 grocery stores from July 2015 to March 2016. Yelp reviews were available for sixty-nine of these stores and were retrieved in February 2017 using the Yelp Application Program Interface. A sentiment analysis was conducted to quantify the perceptions of the consumer nutrition environment in the review text. Pearson correlation coefficients (ρ) were used to compare NEMS-S scores with Yelp review text on food availability, quality, price and shopping experience.
Detroit, Michigan, USA.
Yelp reviews contained more comments about food availability and the overall shopping experience than food price and food quality. Negative sentiment about food prices in Yelp review text and the number of dollar signs on Yelp were positively correlated with observed food prices in stores (ρ=0·413 and 0·462, respectively). Stores with greater food availability were rated as more expensive on Yelp. Other aspects of the food store environment (e.g. overall quality and shopping experience) were captured only in Yelp.
While Yelp cannot replace in-person audits for collecting detailed information on the availability, quality and cost of specific food items, Yelp holds promise as a cost-effective means to gather information on the overall cost, quality and experience of food stores, which may be relevant for nutrition outcomes.