This paper provides a method that helps the aircraft designer to develop a performance constraint chart (PCC) for vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft that produce hybrid lift (static lift in combination with aerodynamic lift). The PPC provides a first estimation for the thrust-to-weight ratio (T
0/MTOW) and wing loading (MTOW/S). The method is applicable to concepts, where static lift and main-engine thrust are coupled (e.g. the F-35B system, turbojet and lift-fan, coupled by a shaft) and to concepts, where static lift is produced by separate devices (e.g. lift-engines or other concepts for static lift). It includes thrust vectoring of the main engine.
The method includes the evaluation of certain flight stages, or segments, as short take-off and landing (STOL), vertical landing (VL), one engine inoperative (OEI) climb (for civil aircraft concept applications) and cruise, all these have to be considered. For each of these five segments, standard flight mechanics equations are extended by a static lift component, an augmentation ratio (a factor that describes the dependency of the thrust and the static lift, if coupled) and the thrust vectoring angle. Hence these equations are modified in a way that the aircraft designer can directly calculate T0/MTOW and MTOW/S for the performance requirements of each segment. Thus, an optimum design point can be selected. Inputs are aerodynamic coefficients, maximum lift coefficient of the wing, mass fraction from take-off to landing, additional static lift during take-off and landing, number of engines, augmentation ratio of the propulsion system and required take-off and landing field length.
A performance constraint chart for a JSF F-35B type aircraft is modelled to show the application of the method. As an application to civil aircraft a PCC and a parameter optimisation for the civil regional jet ‘HyLiner’ is presented.