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We experimentally investigate the extensional flow of a sheet – or curtain – of viscoelastic liquid falling freely from a slot at constant flow rate under gravity. Extruded liquids are aqueous solutions of flexible polyethylene oxide (PEO) and of semi-rigid partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM) with low shear viscosities. Velocimetry measurements reveal that the mean velocity field
is the distance from the slot exit) does not reduce to a free fall. More precisely, we show that the liquid falls initially with sub-gravitational accelerations up to a distance from the slot which scales as
is gravity and
is the extensional relaxation time of the liquid) due to the stretching of polymer molecules. Beyond this elastic length, inertia dominates and the local acceleration reaches the asymptotic free-fall value
. The length of the sub-gravitational part of the curtain is shown to be much larger than the equivalent viscous length
for Newtonian liquids of density
and dynamic viscosity
which is usually small compared to the curtain length. By analogy with Newtonian curtains, we show that the velocity field
rescales on a master curve. Besides, the flow is shown to be only weakly affected by the history of polymer deformations in the die upstream of the curtain. Furthermore, investigations on the curtain stability reveal that polymer addition reduces the minimum flow rate required to maintain a continuous sheet of liquid.
This study evaluated the effects of a diet containing yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.; TM) larva meal on quality parameters (pH24, color and drip losses), proximate composition and fatty acid (FA) profile of meat from free-range chickens. A total of 140 medium-growing hybrid female chickens were free-range reared and randomly allotted to two dietary treatments: a control group and a TM group, in which TM meal was included at 75 g kg−1 as fed in substitution of corn gluten meal. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates, with 14 chicks per pen. At 97 days of age, ten birds (two birds/pen) from each feeding group were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Quality parameters and proximate composition of breast and thigh meat were not affected by treatment. The effects of dietary TM larva meal on the FA profile of thigh meat were negligible. Breast meat from TM-fed chickens showed higher oleic and α-linolenic acid percentages as well as lower atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that TM inclusion in diets for free-range chickens did not prejudice meat quality traits. The obtained results confirm that TM can be considered a promising insect protein source for the poultry feed industry.
Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in dogs can be transmitted to humans and close contact between dogs and people might foster dissemination of resistance determinants. The aim of our study was to describe the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pattern of the major causative agents of canine otitis – one of the most common diseases in dogs – isolated in France. Data collected between 2012 and 2016 by the French national surveillance network for AMR, referred to as RESAPATH, were analysed. Resistance trends were investigated using non-linear analysis (generalised additive models). A total of 7021 antibiograms were analysed. The four major causative agents of canine otitis in France were coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and streptococci. Since 2013, resistance to fluoroquinolones has been on the decrease in both P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates. For P. aeruginosa, 19.4% of isolates were resistant to both enrofloxacin and gentamicin. The levels of multidrug resistance (acquired resistance to at least one antibiotic in three or more antibiotic classes) ranged between 11.9% for P. mirabilis and 16.0% for S. pseudintermedius. These results are essential to guide prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. They will also help in designing efficient control strategies and in measuring their effectiveness.
This study evaluated the effect of mail non-response on the validity of the results of nasal septal surgery.
Six months post-operatively, questionnaires with both prospective and retrospective ratings were mailed to patients. Patients who did not respond (non-responders) were contacted by telephone. This study compared two cohorts of patients using different interviewers (a nurse and a surgeon). Cohort one consisted of 182 patients (with 67 per cent mail response), and cohort two consisted of 454 patients (with 64.8 per cent mail response).
In both cohorts, the improvement in obstruction scores was significantly better among mail responders than among non-responders (telephone interviewees) using prospective ratings, but worse using retrospective ratings.
Mail responders had better improvement in nasal obstruction after septoplasty than non-responders. Therefore, low response rates may cause an overestimation of the results. The retrospective ratings obtained through telephone interviews are less reliable because they are influenced by memory and the patients’ tendency to give socially acceptable answers.
Collaborative quality improvement and learning networks have amended healthcare quality and value across specialities. Motivated by these successes, the Pediatric Acute Care Cardiology Collaborative (PAC3) was founded in late 2014 with an emphasis on improving outcomes of paediatric cardiology patients within cardiac acute care units; acute care encompasses all hospital-based inpatient non-intensive care. PAC3 aims to deliver higher quality and greater value care by facilitating the sharing of ideas and building alignment among its member institutions. These aims are intentionally aligned with the work of other national clinical collaborations, registries, and parent advocacy organisations. The mission and early work of PAC3 is exemplified by the formal partnership with the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4), as well as the creation of a clinical registry, which links with the PC4 registry to track practices and outcomes across the entire inpatient encounter from admission to discharge. Capturing the full inpatient experience allows detection of outcome differences related to variation in care delivered outside the cardiac ICU and development of benchmarks for cardiac acute care. We aspire to improve patient outcomes such as morbidity, hospital length of stay, and re-admission rates, while working to advance patient and family satisfaction. We will use quality improvement methodologies consistent with the Model for Improvement to achieve these aims. Membership currently includes 36 centres across North America, out of which 26 are also members of PC4. In this report, we describe the development of PAC3, including the philosophical, organisational, and infrastructural elements that will enable a paediatric acute care cardiology learning network.
The aim of the present study was to explore and compare the association between a new vasoactive score – the Total Inotrope Exposure Score – and outcome and the established Vasoactive Inotrope Score in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass
The present study was a single-centre, retrospective study.
The study was carried out at a 21-bed cardiovascular ICU in a Tertiary Children’s Hospital between September, 2010 and May, 2011
The Total Inotrope Exposure Score is a new vasoactive score that brings together cumulative vasoactive drug exposure and incorporates dose adjustments over time. The performance of these scores – average, maximum Vasoactive Inotrope Score at 24 and 48 hours, and Total Inotrope Exposure Score – to predict primary clinical outcomes – either death, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation before hospital discharge – and secondary outcomes – length of invasive mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and hospital stay – was calculated.
The study cohort included 167 children under 18 years of age, with 37 (22.2%) neonates and 65 (41.3%) infants aged between 1 month and 1 year. The Total Inotrope Exposure Score best predicted the primary outcome (six of 167 cases) with an unadjusted odds ratio for a poor outcome of 42 (4.8, 369.6). Although the area under curve was higher than other scores, this difference did not reach statistical significance. The Total Inotrope Exposure Score best predicted prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and hospital stay as compared with the other scores.
The Total Inotrope Exposure Score appears to have a good association with poor postoperative outcomes and warrants prospective validation across larger numbers of patients across institutions.
With improvements in early survival following congenital heart surgery, it has become increasingly important to understand longer-term outcomes; however, routine collection of these data is challenging and remains very limited. We describe the development and initial results of a collaborative programme incorporating standardised longitudinal follow-up into usual care at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and University of Michigan (UM).
We included children undergoing benchmark operations of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Considerations regarding personnel, patient/parent engagement, funding, regulatory issues, and annual data collection are described, and initial follow-up rates are reported.
The present analysis included 1737 eligible patients undergoing surgery at CHOP from January 2007 to December 2014 and 887 UM patients from January 2010 to December 2014. Overall, follow-up data, of any type, were obtained from 90.8% of patients at CHOP (median follow-up 4.3 years, 92.2% survival) and 98.3% at UM (median follow-up 2.8 years, 92.7% survival), with similar rates across operations and institutions. Most patients lost to follow-up at CHOP had undergone surgery before 2010. Standardised questionnaires assessing burden of disease/quality of life were completed by 80.2% (CHOP) and 78.4% (UM) via phone follow-up. In subsequent pilot testing of an automated e-mail system, 53.4% of eligible patients completed the follow-up questionnaire through this system.
Standardised follow-up data can be obtained on the majority of children undergoing benchmark operations. Ongoing efforts to support automated electronic systems and integration with registry data may reduce resource needs, facilitate expansion across centres, and support multi-centre efforts to understand and improve long-term outcomes in this population.
Questionnaires are often used to assess the results of nasal septoplasty, but response rates vary widely. The possible bias caused by non-responders was evaluated to determine the validity of questionnaire results.
Post-operative questionnaires employing visual analogue scales for nasal obstruction were mailed to 182 patients. The 62 non-responders (34.1 per cent) were contacted by telephone, 58 (93.5 per cent) of whom were contactable and responded orally to the questionnaire.
Non-responders were younger, but no different from responders with regard to gender, smoking habits or allergies. Post-operative visual analogue scale obstruction scores were slightly, but not statistically, higher in non-responders. However, because non-responders’ pre-operative scores were lower, obstruction scores improved less than in responders. The main reason for not responding was forgetfulness. Some would have preferred an electronic version of the questionnaire.
Although post-operative obstruction scores did not differ between the groups, nasal obstruction scores improved more among responders than non-responders. Thus, low response rates may cause bias.
A K-band (18-25 GHz) reflected-wave ruby maser (Moore and Clauss 1979) has been borrowed from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory for radio astronomy use on the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Network at the Tidbinbilla Tracking Station, near Canberra. The purpose of the installation is to provide additional sensitive spectral line, continuum, and VLBI capabilities in the southern hemisphere. Previous measurements at 22.3 GHz (λ = 13.5 mm) determined that the Tidbinbilla 64-m antenna has a peak aperture efficiency of ˜22%, a well-behaved beam shape and consistent pointing (Fourikis and Jauncey 1979). Before installing the maser on the antenna a cooled (circulator) switch was added to provide a beam-switching capability, and a spectral line receiver following the maser was incorporated. The system was assembled and tested at JPL in late 1980 and installed at Tidbinbilla early in 1981. We give here a brief description and present some of the first line observations made in February and March 1981. Extensive line and continuum observations are planned with the present system and a program is under way to determine the telescope pointing characteristics.
We present a scheme of electron beam radiography to dynamically diagnose the high energy density (HED) matter in three orthogonal directions simultaneously based on electron Linear Accelerator. The dynamic target information such as, its profile and density could be obtained through imaging the scattered electron beam passing through the target. Using an electron bunch train with flexible time structure, a very high temporal evolution could be achieved. In this proposed scheme, it is possible to obtain 1010 frames/second in one experimental event, and the temporal resolution can go up to 1 ps, spatial resolution to 1 µm. Successful demonstration of this concept will have a major impact for both future inertial confinement fusion science and HED physics research.
Echinacea pallida (EPAL), a herbaceous flowering plant with immunomodulatory properties, has been chosen to determine the pre- and post-supplementary effects on the growth performances, bacterial community, blood parameters and immunity of growing rabbits. The same Grimaud does (14-week-old) from the studied in the first part of this study were randomly divided into two groups (n=50/group). The first group was fed a basal diet without supplementation (Control group, C) while the another group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 3 g EPAL/kg diet (Echinacea group, E). From the second parturition, 80 weaned kits (40 from the C does and 40 from the E does) were randomly assigned to four groups of 20 animals each and were fed a growing commercial diet supplemented with or without a 3 g EPAL/kg diet: the CC group (rabbits from the C does fed the control diet), CE group (rabbits from the C does fed the supplemented diet), EC (rabbits from the E does fed the control diet) and EE group (rabbits from the E does fed the supplemented diet). The dietary EPAL treatment did not affect the growth performance. Ten fattening rabbits from each group were selected to evaluate the bacterial community and blood parameters, while the remaining rabbits (n=10/group) were used to study phagocytosis and the humoral immune response. The variability was evaluated from hard faeces at 35, 49 and 89 days, and the caecal content at 89 days. The variability of the bacterial community of the EE group was higher than that of the other groups. The phagocytic activity was higher in the CE and EE groups than in the CC and EC ones (30.9 and 29.7 v. 21.2 and 21.8%; P<0.05), whereas no statistically significant difference was observed for the blood parameters or humoral immune response against vaccination (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus) at 95 days old which the serum was collected at 88, 102, 109, 116 and 123 days old. In conclusion, no impact of EPAL dietary supplementation has been observed on the growth performances, bacterial community, blood parameters or humoral immune responses in growing rabbits, except for an increase in phagocytic activities.
In this study, 160 Hycole weaned rabbits (35 days old) were randomly divided into four groups of 40. The rabbits were studied throughout a 54-day experimentation period in order to determine the impact of dietary supplementation from herbs composed of 0.2%, 0.4% dry ground Lythrum salicaria leaves (LS) and 0.3% Cunirel® (CR; a commercial herb mixture containing LS as the main ingredient) on performance, digestibility, health and meat quality. The basal diet was given to the control group. No significant differences were found in performance, 10 rabbits from each group were selected for evaluation regarding apparent digestibility. The rabbits fed the control diet and the diet with the low level of LS had a higher level of CP digestibility than did the animals that were supplemented with the high LS levels and CR (85.7% and 84.9% v. 84.0% and 84.0%, respectively; P<0.05). The ether extract digestibility was lower in the treatment group with 0.4%LS addition and CR as compared with the control group (52.2% and 54.5% v. 62.6%, respectively; P<0.05). The slaughter process was performed on 89-day-old rabbits to study the carcass characteristics, meat quality, blood parameters, caecal contents and gut histology. The total leukocyte counts in the control animals were lower than they were in the rabbits fed 0.2%, 0.4%LS and CR (4.06 v. 8.25, 8.63 and 8.21×109/l, respectively; P<0.05). For caecal fermentation, the caecal contents of the rabbits fed 0.4% of LS, showed higher concentrations of total volatile fatty acid (VFA; 24.1 v. 18.9 mg/kg dry matter (DM); P<0.05) and acetic acid (18.3 v. 14.4 mg/kg DM; P<0.05), but lower ammonia levels (594 v. 892 mg/kg DM; P<0.05) as compared with the control group. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses were performed to evaluate the microbial community in hard faeces, collected at days 35, 42, 49, 56, 70 and 89, whereas the caecal contents were taken after slaughtering. The results demonstrated that between the treatment groups, the similarity of the microbial communities was higher as compared with the control group. Moreover, only age was shown to influence microbiota diversity. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that supplementation of LS in rabbit diets leads to an increase in the total white blood cells, total VFA and acetic acid concentration, and a decrease in the ammonia levels, as well as the digestibility when CR and high level of LS were supplemented, without causing any adverse effects on other parameters.
The use of detonation nanodiamond (DND) for drug delivery and cell-imaging is grounded on its chemical functionalization, and the key task to be addressed is the capability to simplify the process steps, to reduce the process times and to maximize the drug/ligand uptake. The idea underlying the present research is to modulate the loading capability of DND by controlled modification of the surface organic groups. To this aim the DND samples are treated either by wet chemistry, using medium-strong reducing agents, or by tunable H-plasmas produced in a custom-designed MW-RF reactor. The affinity of the treated DND surfaces for drugs has been probed by conjugating the ciproten (5,7- dimethoxycoumarin), a natural antioxidant molecule, and by testing in vitro the feasibility to use coumarin vehicled by nanodiamond (C@DND) as chemioterapeutic drug. The methodologies developed to modify the DND surfaces are offering practical solutions to the still open problems related to DND-based systems for drug delivery applications.
The objective of this study was to assess the performance of several algorithms for outbreak detection based on weekly proportions of whole carcass condemnations. Data from one French slaughterhouse over the 2005–2009 period were used (177 098 slaughtered cattle, 0.97% of whole carcass condemnations). The method involved three steps: (i) preparation of an outbreak-free historical baseline over 5 years, (ii) simulation of over 100 years of baseline time series with injection of artificial outbreak signals with several shapes, durations and magnitudes, and (iii) assessment of the performance (sensitivity, specificity, outbreak detection precocity) of several algorithms to detect these artificial outbreak signals. The algorithms tested included the Shewart p chart, confidence interval of the negative binomial model, the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA); and cumulative sum (CUSUM). The highest sensitivity was obtained using a negative binomial algorithm and the highest specificity with CUSUM or EWMA. EWMA sensitivity was too low to select this algorithm for efficient outbreak detection. CUSUM's performance was complementary to the negative binomial algorithm. The use of both algorithms on real data for a prospective investigation of the whole carcass condemnation rate as a syndromic surveillance indicator could be relevant. Shewart could also be a good option considering its high sensitivity and simplicity of implementation.
Despite many advances in recent years for patients with critical paediatric and congenital cardiac disease, significant variation in outcomes remains across hospitals. Collaborative quality improvement has enhanced the quality and value of health care across specialties, partly by determining the reasons for variation and targeting strategies to reduce it. Developing an infrastructure for collaborative quality improvement in paediatric cardiac critical care holds promise for developing benchmarks of quality, to reduce preventable mortality and morbidity, optimise the long-term health of patients with critical congenital cardiovascular disease, and reduce unnecessary resource utilisation in the cardiac intensive care unit environment. The Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4) has been modelled after successful collaborative quality improvement initiatives, and is positioned to provide the data platform necessary to realise these objectives. We describe the development of PC4 including the philosophical, organisational, and infrastructural components that will facilitate collaborative quality improvement in paediatric cardiac critical care.