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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
To quantify the impact of clinical guidance and rapid respiratory and meningitis/encephalitis multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) testing on the management of infants.
Before-and-after intervention study.
Tertiary-care children’s hospital.
Infants ≤90 days old presenting with fever or hypothermia to the emergency department (ED).
The study spanned 3 periods: period 1, January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2014; period 2, January 1, 2015, through April 30, 2018; and period 3, May 1, 2018, through June 15, 2019. During period 1, no standardized clinical guideline had been established and no rapid pathogen testing was available. During period 2, a clinical guideline was implemented, but no rapid testing was available. During period 3, a guideline was in effect, plus mPCR testing using the BioFire FilmArray respiratory panel 2 (RP 2) and the meningitis encephalitis panel (MEP). Outcomes included antimicrobial and ancillary test utilization, length of stay (LOS), admission rate, 30-day mortality. Outcomes were compared across periods using Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson tests and interrupted time series analysis.
Overall 5,317 patients were included: 2,514 in period 1, 2,082 in period 2, and 721 in period 3. Over the entire study period, we detected reductions in the use of chest radiographs, lumbar punctures, LOS, and median antibiotic duration. After adjusting for temporal trends, we observed that the introduction of the guideline was associated with reductions in ancillary tests and lumbar punctures. Use of mPCR testing with the febrile infant clinical guideline was associated with additional reductions in ancillary testing for all patients and a higher proportion of infants 29–60 days old being managed without antibiotics.
Use of mPCR testing plus a guideline for young infant evaluation in the emergency department was associated with less antimicrobial and ancillary test utilization compared to the use of a guideline alone.
Les troubles bipolaires sont déterminés par un ensemble de facteurs, à la fois psychologiques, génétiques et environnementaux bien connus. Les perturbations des relations familiales et sociales constituent également des facteurs de fragilisation.
Les thymorégulateurs ont considérablement amélioré le pronostic de ces troubles, en limitant le nombre de récidives. Néanmoins, un pourcentage important de patients continuent à présenter des fluctuations thymiques du fait d’une mauvaise observance thérapeutique, de la persistance de facteurs déclenchants, précipitants ou d’entretien du trouble ou encore du fait de l’insuffisance d’efficacité des thymorégulateurs.
D’autres mesures thérapeutiques ont été proposées afin d’optimiser les traitements pharmacologiques et d’agir en amont sur les éléments déclenchants ou précipitants. Les mesures psychoéducatives, dont l’efficacité a longtemps été sous-évaluée, sont aujourd’hui les traitements psychologiques les mieux documentées et pour lesquels il existe un niveau de preuve élevé. Ils figurent en première ligne dans la plupart des guidelines anglo-saxons. Les bénéfices de cette approche complémentaires se situent à différents niveaux : reconnaissance précoce des symptômes qui annoncent une récidive, optimisation de l’observance, acceptation du trouble, amélioration de la qualité de vie, meilleure gestion de la vie sociale, professionnelle et affective, consolidation de l’alliance thérapeutique, contrôle des facteurs déclenchants et précipitants. Les études publiées rapportent une diminution du nombre de récidives et de rechutes, une réduction de la durée d’hospitalisation, un meilleur équilibre de la vie familiale, une amélioration de l’observance et une amélioration de la qualité de vie. L’expert de cette session, qui anime depuis 2000 des séances de psychoéducation, vient d’écrire un manuel conçu pour proposer aux patients un accompagnement personnalisé visant à renforcer le suivi thérapeutique et à stabiliser la maladie. Il présentera aussi l’expérience innovante de la création du Clubhouse France.
Il n’existe pas de définition univoque du malade complexe, mais il est souvent porteur de plusieurs pathologies chroniques, est en général âgé, utilise de nombreuses ressources médicales et de soins, est souvent hospitalisé, en général pour des périodes prolongées et nécessite de nombreux médicaments . Par ailleurs l’augmentation constante des maladies complexes à l’étiologie multifactorielle (obésité, diabète, maladies cardiovasculaires, maladies dysimmunitaires…) est un problème central dans l’exercice médical actuel. Une fois hospitalisés, ces patients peuvent présenter des pathologies psychiatriques (troubles de l’humeur, troubles anxieux et parfois psychoses) qui nécessitent de faire appel à l’unité de psychiatrie de liaison.
Une réécriture de la clinique psychiatrique est nécessaire ainsi que la prise en compte des difficultés propres du service somatique, ce qui oblige à une adaptation de la prise en charge thérapeutique nécessaire non seulement en fonction des pathologies somatiques présentes, mais aussi en fonction du cadre et de la durée des prises en charge. Les thérapeutiques médicamenteuses sont utiles en respectant les principes scientifiques de la médecine actuelle, mais une approche individualisée faisant appel à d’autres domaines de l’interaction humaine tels que la psychologie, la sociologie, le droit et l’éthique sont souvent nécessaires pour arriver à une gestion coordonnée des soins du patient complexe.
Deux vignettes cliniques viendront illustrer la complexité de l’intervention du psychiatre dans son aspect thérapeutique auprès de malades complexes en psychiatrie de liaison.
As part of a process to improve bipolar disorders (BPD) treatment and outcome in France, AFBP developed recommendations in the management of patients with bipolar disorders for French practitioners. The recommendations aim to reflect both evidence-based practice and real-world experience. Here, we will focus on the management of BPD with comorbid addictive disorders.
A formalized method by expert consensus panel was used. 239 questions were developed and sent to a panel of 40 French experts in order to assess six domains:
1) screening and diagnosis,
2) acute phase treatment,
3) maintenance and non pharmacological treatment,
4) somatic comorbidities,
5) psychiatric comorbidities and suicide risk management and
6) special populations.
Special attention was made to situations where evidence based treatment are lacking.
The treatment of BPD and comorbid addictive disorders should be concurrent. The only exception is during an alcohol withdrawal where mood state may be reassessed for a second time. Experts recommend the use of atypical antipsychotics or anticonvulsants during a manic, mixed or depressive episode as well as in prophylaxia. During a depressive episode, the adjunction of an antidepressant may be considered. If adjunctive sedative treatment is necessary, a sedative classical antipsychotic seems to be a better choice that benzodiazepine. Substitution treatment for opioid must not be stopped. A psychotherapy focused on the addiction should be systematic in susbtance dependence and proposed in substance abuse.
The French expert panel recommends different therapeutic options for patients with dual diagnosis compared to usual BPD patients.
As part of a process to improve the quality of care, the French Society of Biological Psychiatry developed recommendations for clinical practice in bipolar disorder.
The method chosen for these guidelines is a formalized consensus of experts. It enables, through a series of specific clinical situations proposed to the experts, to provide recommendations for the management of bipolar disorder. The situations where defined because they are not associated to evidence-based recommendations according to the lack of controlled studies.
40 experts participate to this consensus. As in most of the guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder, more than 50 % of experts (51,3 to 72,9%) recommend the same therapeutic strategies to treat major depressive episode whichever the type (bipolar I or II).
Unlike to other guidelines, French experts propose different therapeutic according to the presence or absence of rapid cycling. For major depressive episode without rapid cycling, 63% experts recommend a combination of an antidepressant with a mood stabilizer. In rapid cyclers, 51% experts recommend the use of a mood stabilizer in monotherapy or in combinaison, but never associated with antidepressant.
This methodological approach enables to get closer to everyday clinical practice and integrate specificities of prescription through a national panel of experts. On the other hand, this type of methodology highlights the research perspectives: i.e. management of acute depression with rapid cycle in bipolar disorder.
To know prevalence of depression in Spanish nursing home(NH) by analysing the clinical profile of residents from RESYDEM study (Identification of patients with cognitive deterioration and dementia in NH).
A multicentral, transversal, observational study was carried out in April 2005. 71 geriatrician from 54 NH representing the Spanish state participated. Depression was analysed in patient´s history and determined by NPI of Cummings, NH version.
1037 residents were randomized, 1020 were used by clinical data analysis. 941 were used to determine depression prevalence. Median age 83,4yo, 66.6% were women, 70.9% with basic educational level, 57.4% widows, 25.7% single, 41.5% had some degree of functional deterioration, 22.1% had delirium. In 26.4% were documented Stroke(17,9% TIA). 61.7% had dementia.
Depression appears in 31.4% of elderly institutionalized with the only diagnosis of depression or independent of others. There were no significant differences in age groups. However, was most frequent in women. 95.7% of patients with diagnosis of dementia had at least one drug for depression. Most used anti-depressants were trazadone (23%), citalopram (20.9%), sertraline (15.8%), fluoxetine (10.1%). No tricyclical anti-depressant reached 1% of consumption.
Depression affects practically one in three institutionalized elderly in Spain
Institutionalized elderly with depression are largely treated with ISRS. It is believed that the use of trazadone is linked with the effects on sleep and anxiety.
The high prevalence of depression, its overlapping with other processes and the comorbility of residents requires a careful search and approach in NH which implies a challenge for professionals in order to treat it.
Determine the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), using the NPI-NH(Neuropsychiatric Inventory Nursing Home(NH) Version),in order to provide a multidimensional profile in behavioural symptoms in residents and to calculate its prevalence in Spanish NH.
From randomized population of RESYDEM study (Identification of patients with cognitive deterioration and dementia in NH) a multi-central, cross-sectional and observational study was carried out. 71 geriatrician from 54 NH representative the Spanish state participated.NPS was determinated by NPI Cummings NH version. This version includes upsets in sleep and feeding patterns.
992 residents were examined (Median age 83.4yo, 66.6% women, 91.8% received at least one type of treatment, 61.7% with dementia). 523 (52.7%) presented at least one type of NPS. In order of greatest frequency, the following were noted: alterations in sleep patterns (41.7%), depression/disphoria (31.4%), anxiety (31.2%), agitation/aggressiveness (29.6%), apathy/indifference (25.8%), delirious ideas (23.7%), irritability (22.4%), feeding/appetite upsets (18.5%), anomalous motor behaviour (15.3%), hallucinations (13.8%), desinhibition (11.1%), euphoria (4.4%).
35.9% of residents received benzodiapines, 26.7% antidepressants. Atypical neuroleptics were used in 15.8%, in contrast with 7.4% of the use of classic ones.
NPS ´s reached a high prevalence in NH and it is usual that more than one co-exists in the patients.
Alterations in sleep patterns, depression, anxiety, agitation/aggressiveness affect approximately one in three residents.
It is useful and recommendable to evaluate the 12 behavioural areas from the NH version of the NPI scale. This instrument was chosen as a sifting measure to establish neuropyschiatric symptomology in residences.
Abnormalities of embodiment of the self and of self-object relations are recently described as a possible common component in schizophrenia. For these patients, the world can then appear as being deprived of practical meaning, which lays its foundation through sensory-motor experiences. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that schizophrenic patients could have a deficit in sensory-motor simulation. To investigate this question, we used two Stimulus Response Compatibility tasks, in schizophrenic and control subjects. When the stimuli and the responses share the same properties, it is well known that response times are shorter than when they do not (« SRC effect »). In experiment 1, we replicate a study from Tucker & Ellis (1998) in order to explore the hypothesis that schizophrenic patients could have a deficit in sensory-motor simulation during perception of graspable objects in contrast to healthy subjects (“Object-Affordance”). In experiment 2, we hypothesize that during a Simon task, the SRC effect would be efficient in both groups.
Our results show that, in a schizophrenic group, the SRC effect appears only when stimuli and responses share a spatial localization but does not when they share motor characteristics.
These results allow us to conclude that the visual asymmetry does not influence the implementation of the motor potentiation, as certain authors suggest in healthy subjects.
Moreover, in schizophrenia, the sensory-motor simulation impairments could emerge from a lack of relation between the object and the subject's environment more than from a difficulty in orienting attention.
Pathological gambling is defined as a behavioural addiction, characterized by loss of control and by the fact that the person may continue to gamble in spite of social, economic, interpersonal, or legal problems as a result of the gambling. Some studies have pointed out that automatic cognitive biases may drive psychological mechanisms leading to loss of control during gambling. These automatic processes can be studied in cognitive psychology by using lexical decision task, which requires gambling's related words corpus. However, such a corpus is absent from scientific publications.
Objectives and aims:
the principal aim of our study was to establish a standardized list of gambling-related words with a population of casino gamblers and a non-gambler control group. The second aim of our study was to compare the respective evaluation of the two populations.
247 casino gamblers, recruited at the casino, and 127 control subjects, matched for age, sex and educational level, scored 118 gambling-related words based on 3 criteria: gambling association's level, emotional valence and familiarity. Gambling behaviour was assessed by the South Oaks Gambling Screen.
We identified a subset of 45 words that were the most associated with gambling and analysed scores for the 3 criteria. Concerning emotional valence, gamblers assessed more positively gambling-related words than the control group. Scores between pathological and social gamblers were similar for the 3 criteria.
this gambling related wordlist will allow to design experimental material with defined parameters to study automatic and controlled process that mediate pathological gambling.
The present article contributes to understanding of the Zimbabwe political institution of the southern portion of the Zambesi Valley based on the conceptualization of its population, between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. We reconstruct the local perceptions of this institution by detecting information provided by local persons as recounted in Portuguese ethnographic documents. The original information underwent different types and degrees of translation and editing to reach the forms recorded in these documents. We present a critical process of recovering local voices, ideologies, and conceptualizations from written literal translations of excerpts of oral statements that can serve as a valuable methodological tool in expanding our understanding of the history of early African politics.
Gut microbiota data obtained by DNA sequencing are not only complex because of the number of taxa that may be detected within human cohorts, but also compositional because characteristics of the microbiota are described in relative terms (e.g., “relative abundance” of particular bacterial taxa expressed as a proportion of the total abundance of taxa). Nutrition researchers often use standard principal component analysis (PCA) to derive dietary patterns from complex food data, enabling each participant's diet to be described in terms of the extent to which it fits their cohort's dietary patterns. However, compositional PCA methods are not commonly used to describe patterns of microbiota in the way that dietary patterns are used to describe diets. This approach would be useful for identifying microbiota patterns that are associated with diet and body composition. The aim of this study is to use compositional PCA to describe gut microbiota profiles in 5 year old children and explore associations between microbiota profiles, diet, body mass index (BMI) z-score, and fat mass index (FMI) z-score. This study uses a cross-sectional data for 319 children who provided a faecal sample at 5 year of age. Their primary caregiver completed a 123-item quantitative food frequency questionnaire validated for foods of relevance to the gut microbiota. Body composition was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and BMI and FMI z-scores calculated. Compositional PCA identified and described gut microbiota profiles at the genus level, and profiles were examined in relation to diet and body size. Three gut microbiota profiles were found. Profile 1 (positive loadings on Blautia and Bifidobacterium; negative loadings on Bacteroides) was not related to diet or body size. Profile 2 (positive loadings on Bacteroides; negative loadings on uncultured Christensenellaceae and Ruminococcaceae) was associated with a lower BMI z-score (r = -0.16, P = 0.003). Profile 3 (positive loadings on Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium and Roseburia) was associated with higher intakes of fibre (r = 0.15, P = 0.007); total (r = 0.15, P = 0.009), and insoluble (r = 0.13, P = 0.021) non-starch polysaccharides; protein (r = 0.12, P = 0.036); meat (r = 0.15, P = 0.010); and nuts, seeds and legumes (r = 0.11, P = 0.047). Further regression analyses found that profile 2 and profile 3 were independently associated with BMI z-score and diet respectively. We encourage fellow researchers to use compositional PCA as a method for identifying further links between the gut, diet and obesity, and for developing the next generation of research in which the impact on body composition of dietary interventions that modify the gut microbiota is determined.
We experimentally investigate the extensional flow of a sheet – or curtain – of viscoelastic liquid falling freely from a slot at constant flow rate under gravity. Extruded liquids are aqueous solutions of flexible polyethylene oxide (PEO) and of semi-rigid partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM) with low shear viscosities. Velocimetry measurements reveal that the mean velocity field
is the distance from the slot exit) does not reduce to a free fall. More precisely, we show that the liquid falls initially with sub-gravitational accelerations up to a distance from the slot which scales as
is gravity and
is the extensional relaxation time of the liquid) due to the stretching of polymer molecules. Beyond this elastic length, inertia dominates and the local acceleration reaches the asymptotic free-fall value
. The length of the sub-gravitational part of the curtain is shown to be much larger than the equivalent viscous length
for Newtonian liquids of density
and dynamic viscosity
which is usually small compared to the curtain length. By analogy with Newtonian curtains, we show that the velocity field
rescales on a master curve. Besides, the flow is shown to be only weakly affected by the history of polymer deformations in the die upstream of the curtain. Furthermore, investigations on the curtain stability reveal that polymer addition reduces the minimum flow rate required to maintain a continuous sheet of liquid.
This study evaluated the effects of a diet containing yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.; TM) larva meal on quality parameters (pH24, color and drip losses), proximate composition and fatty acid (FA) profile of meat from free-range chickens. A total of 140 medium-growing hybrid female chickens were free-range reared and randomly allotted to two dietary treatments: a control group and a TM group, in which TM meal was included at 75 g kg−1 as fed in substitution of corn gluten meal. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates, with 14 chicks per pen. At 97 days of age, ten birds (two birds/pen) from each feeding group were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Quality parameters and proximate composition of breast and thigh meat were not affected by treatment. The effects of dietary TM larva meal on the FA profile of thigh meat were negligible. Breast meat from TM-fed chickens showed higher oleic and α-linolenic acid percentages as well as lower atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that TM inclusion in diets for free-range chickens did not prejudice meat quality traits. The obtained results confirm that TM can be considered a promising insect protein source for the poultry feed industry.
Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in dogs can be transmitted to humans and close contact between dogs and people might foster dissemination of resistance determinants. The aim of our study was to describe the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pattern of the major causative agents of canine otitis – one of the most common diseases in dogs – isolated in France. Data collected between 2012 and 2016 by the French national surveillance network for AMR, referred to as RESAPATH, were analysed. Resistance trends were investigated using non-linear analysis (generalised additive models). A total of 7021 antibiograms were analysed. The four major causative agents of canine otitis in France were coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and streptococci. Since 2013, resistance to fluoroquinolones has been on the decrease in both P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates. For P. aeruginosa, 19.4% of isolates were resistant to both enrofloxacin and gentamicin. The levels of multidrug resistance (acquired resistance to at least one antibiotic in three or more antibiotic classes) ranged between 11.9% for P. mirabilis and 16.0% for S. pseudintermedius. These results are essential to guide prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. They will also help in designing efficient control strategies and in measuring their effectiveness.
This study evaluated the effect of mail non-response on the validity of the results of nasal septal surgery.
Six months post-operatively, questionnaires with both prospective and retrospective ratings were mailed to patients. Patients who did not respond (non-responders) were contacted by telephone. This study compared two cohorts of patients using different interviewers (a nurse and a surgeon). Cohort one consisted of 182 patients (with 67 per cent mail response), and cohort two consisted of 454 patients (with 64.8 per cent mail response).
In both cohorts, the improvement in obstruction scores was significantly better among mail responders than among non-responders (telephone interviewees) using prospective ratings, but worse using retrospective ratings.
Mail responders had better improvement in nasal obstruction after septoplasty than non-responders. Therefore, low response rates may cause an overestimation of the results. The retrospective ratings obtained through telephone interviews are less reliable because they are influenced by memory and the patients’ tendency to give socially acceptable answers.
Collaborative quality improvement and learning networks have amended healthcare quality and value across specialities. Motivated by these successes, the Pediatric Acute Care Cardiology Collaborative (PAC3) was founded in late 2014 with an emphasis on improving outcomes of paediatric cardiology patients within cardiac acute care units; acute care encompasses all hospital-based inpatient non-intensive care. PAC3 aims to deliver higher quality and greater value care by facilitating the sharing of ideas and building alignment among its member institutions. These aims are intentionally aligned with the work of other national clinical collaborations, registries, and parent advocacy organisations. The mission and early work of PAC3 is exemplified by the formal partnership with the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4), as well as the creation of a clinical registry, which links with the PC4 registry to track practices and outcomes across the entire inpatient encounter from admission to discharge. Capturing the full inpatient experience allows detection of outcome differences related to variation in care delivered outside the cardiac ICU and development of benchmarks for cardiac acute care. We aspire to improve patient outcomes such as morbidity, hospital length of stay, and re-admission rates, while working to advance patient and family satisfaction. We will use quality improvement methodologies consistent with the Model for Improvement to achieve these aims. Membership currently includes 36 centres across North America, out of which 26 are also members of PC4. In this report, we describe the development of PAC3, including the philosophical, organisational, and infrastructural elements that will enable a paediatric acute care cardiology learning network.
The aim of the present study was to explore and compare the association between a new vasoactive score – the Total Inotrope Exposure Score – and outcome and the established Vasoactive Inotrope Score in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass
The present study was a single-centre, retrospective study.
The study was carried out at a 21-bed cardiovascular ICU in a Tertiary Children’s Hospital between September, 2010 and May, 2011
The Total Inotrope Exposure Score is a new vasoactive score that brings together cumulative vasoactive drug exposure and incorporates dose adjustments over time. The performance of these scores – average, maximum Vasoactive Inotrope Score at 24 and 48 hours, and Total Inotrope Exposure Score – to predict primary clinical outcomes – either death, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation before hospital discharge – and secondary outcomes – length of invasive mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and hospital stay – was calculated.
The study cohort included 167 children under 18 years of age, with 37 (22.2%) neonates and 65 (41.3%) infants aged between 1 month and 1 year. The Total Inotrope Exposure Score best predicted the primary outcome (six of 167 cases) with an unadjusted odds ratio for a poor outcome of 42 (4.8, 369.6). Although the area under curve was higher than other scores, this difference did not reach statistical significance. The Total Inotrope Exposure Score best predicted prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and hospital stay as compared with the other scores.
The Total Inotrope Exposure Score appears to have a good association with poor postoperative outcomes and warrants prospective validation across larger numbers of patients across institutions.