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Objectives: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) can present with disruptive behavior, which is often a consequence of injury and parent factors. Parent factors are associated with child disruptive behavior. Furthermore, disinhibition in the child also leads to disruptive behavior. However, it is unclear how these factors interact. We investigated whether parental factors influence child disruptive behavior following ABI and how these factors interact. Methods: Parents of 77 children with ABI participated in the study. Parent factors (executive dysfunction, trait-anxiety), potential intervention targets (dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress, child disinhibition), and child disruptive behavior were assessed. A hypothetical model based on the literature was tested using mediation and path analysis. Results: Mediation analysis revealed that child disinhibition and dysfunctional parenting practices mediated the association of parent factors and child disruptive behavior. Parents’ executive dysfunction mediated the association of dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress and parent trait-anxiety. Parenting practices mediated the association of executive dysfunction and child disruptive behavior. Path analysis indices indicated good model adjustment. Comparative and Tucker-Lewis Index were >0.95, and the root mean square error of approximation was 0.059, with a chi-square of 0.25. Conclusions: A low level of parental trait-anxiety may be required to reduce dysfunctional parenting practices and child disinhibition. Impairments in child disinhibition can be exacerbated when parents present with high trait-anxiety. Child disinhibition is the major contributor of disruptive behavior reported by parents and teachers. The current study provides evidence of parent anxiety and child disinhibition as possible modifiable intervention targets for reducing child disruptive behavior. (JINS, 2019, 25, 237–248)
Few previous studies in Latin America (LA) have provided data on dietary intake composition with a standardized methodology. The present study aimed to characterize energy intake (EI) and to describe the main food sources of energy in representative samples of the urban population from eight LA countries from the Latin American Study in Nutrition and Health (ELANS).
Cross-sectional study. Usual dietary intake was assessed with two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls.
Urban areas from eight countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela), September 2014 to July 2015.
Adolescents and adults aged 15–65 years. Final sample comprised 9218 individuals, of whom 6648 (72·1 %) were considered plausible reporters.
Overall, mean EI was 8196 kJ/d (1959 kcal/d), with a balanced distribution of macronutrients (54 % carbohydrate, 30 % fat, 16 % protein). Main food sources of energy were grains, pasta and bread (28 %), followed by meat and eggs (19 %), oils and fats (10 %), non-alcoholic homemade beverages (6 %) and ready-to-drink beverages (6 %). More than 25 % of EI was provided from food sources rich in sugar and fat, like sugary drinks, pastries, chips and candies. Meanwhile, only 18 % of EI was from food sources rich in fibre and micronutrients, such as whole grains, roots, fruits, vegetables, beans, fish and nuts. No critical differences were observed by gender or age.
Public health efforts oriented to diminish consumption of refined carbohydrates, meats, oils and sugar and to increase nutrient dense-foods are a priority in the region to drive to a healthier diet.
This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
Astrobiology seeks to understand the limits of life and to determine the physiology of organisms in order to better assess the habitability of other worlds. To successfully achieve these goals we require microorganisms from environments on Earth that approximate to extraterrestrial environments in terms of physical and/or chemical conditions. The most challenging of these environments with respect to sample collection, isolation and cultivation of microorganisms are anoxic environments. In this paper, an approach to this challenge was implemented within the European Union's MASE (Mars Analogues for Space Exploration) project. In this review paper, we aim to provide a set of methods for future field work and sampling campaigns. A number of anoxic environment based on characteristics that make them analogous to past and present locations on Mars were selected. They included anoxic sulphur-rich springs (Germany), the salt-rich Boulby Mine (UK), a lake in a basaltic context (Iceland), acidic sediments in the Rio Tinto (Spain), glacier samples (Austria) and permafrost samples (Russia and Canada). Samples were collected under strict anoxic conditions to be used for cultivation and genomic community analysis. Using the samples, a culturing approach was implemented to enrich anaerobic organisms using a defined medium that would allow for organisms to be grown under identical conditions in future physiological comparisons. Anaerobic microorganisms were isolated and deposited with the DSMZ (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH) culture collection to make them available to other scientists. In MASE, the selected organisms are studied with respect to survival and growth under Mars relevant stresses. They are artificially fossilized and the resulting biosignatures studied and used to investigate the efficacy of life detection instrumentation for planetary missions. Some of the organisms belong to genera with medical and environmental importance such as Yersinia spp., illustrating how astrobiology field research can be used to increase the availability of microbial isolates for applied terrestrial purposes.
The aim of this work is to calibrate and validate an empirical approach to predict the date of occurrence of the grapevine phenology (budburst, flowering and veraison) temporally and spatially at the within-field scale. It is based on the collaboration between a classical model of phenology based on climate data and a spatial model calibrated with ancillary data of phenology observations. This approach was tested and validated on a field of cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Results showed that the spatial component improved the fit of the climatic model, allowing the generation of maps of the grapevine phenology with errors lower than 5 days of prediction. Spatio-temporal model errors were mainly associated with the temporal component of the model.
The aim of this study is to compare the corrosion rate of aluminum alloys for ornamental pieces. Three Fe/Cu relationships were tested in order to improve hardness and brightness in aluminum pieces since these alloys are used in the making of ornamental pieces. The variation on Fe/Cu content could result in modification on corrosion rate, since a metallographic characterization must be carried out identifying the presence of intermetallic phases. The presence of these elements could result in increasing corrosion rate, or even in modification of corrosion morphology, so localized corrosion could be expected.
The assessment of corrosion rate was carried out in saline media, since chlorides are ions that promote localized corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (polarization curves and Tafel plots) were used in order to evaluate the attack in aluminum pieces; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also employed with voltage amplitude of 10 mV rms, and a frequency range from 10,000 Hz to 0.01 Hz. A typical three electrodes cell was used, exposing an area of one cm2. Before polarization, open circuit potential was monitored for an hour looking for a steady state. All conditions were tested for triplicate.
The behavior of open circuit potential vs. time, and polarization curves was analyzed; a corrosion mechanism is proposed according to the electrochemical control. Polarization rate was calculated by using Tafel plots and, an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis by using equivalent electric circuits is shown. Electrochemical impedance will yield information about corrosion morphology that is backed with microscopic inspection.
The objective of this study is to compare the corrosion rate of aluminum alloys for ornamental pieces in order to determine the effect of the relationship Fe/Cu on the corrosion mechanism in aluminum parts for ornamental pieces.
Little is known about the clustering patterns of lifestyle behaviours in adult populations. We explored clusters in multiple lifestyle behaviours including physical activity (PA), smoking, alcohol use and eating habits in a sample of adult population. A cross-sectional and multi-centre study was performed with six participating groups distributed throughout Spain. Participants (n 1327) were part of the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study and were aged between 20 and 80 years. The lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors were analysed using a clustering method based on the HJ-biplot coordinates to understand the variables underlying these groupings. The following three clusters were identified. Cluster 1: unhealthy, 677 subjects (51 %), with a slight majority of men (58·7 %), who were more sedentary and smokers with higher consumption of whole-fat dairy products, bigger waist circumference as well as higher TAG levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and CVR. Cluster 2: healthy/PA, 265 subjects (20 %), including 24·0 % of males with high PA. Cluster 3: healthy/diet, including 29 % of the participants, with a higher consumption of olive oil, fish, fruits, nuts, vegetables and lower alcohol consumption. Using the unhealthy cluster as a reference, and after adjusting for age and sex, the multiple regression analysis showed that belonging to the healthy/PA cluster was associated with a lower waist circumference, body fat percentage, SBP and CVR. In summary, the three clusters were identified according to lifestyles. The ‘unhealthy’ cluster had the least favourable clinical parameters, the ‘healthy/PA’ cluster had good HDL-cholesterol levels and low SBP and the ‘healthy/diet’ cluster had lower LDL-cholesterol levels and clinical blood pressure.
The in vitro leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of pyrazole-containing macrocyclic polyamines 1–4 was assayed on Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis species. Compounds 1–4 were more active and less toxic than glucantime and both infection rates and ultrastructural alterations confirmed that 1 and 2 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications in the excretion products of parasites treated with 1–3 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasm alterations. Compound 2 was highlighted as a potent inhibitor of Fe-SOD in both species, whereas its effect on human CuZn-SOD was poor. Molecular modelling suggested that 2 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the enzyme`s antioxidant features.
Modelling automobile insurance claims is a crucial component in the ratemaking procedure. This paper focuses on the probability that a policyholder reports a claim, where the classical logit link does not provide a right model. This is so because databases related with automobile claims are often unbalanced, containing more non-claims than the presence of claims. In this work an asymmetric logit model, which takes into account the large number of non-claims in the portfolio, is considered. Both, logit and asymmetric logit models from a Bayesian point of view, are used to a sample that was collected from a major automobile insurance company in Spain in 2009, resulting in a dataset of 2,000 passenger vehicle. We establish the validity of the asymmetric model in front of the conventional logit link. The use of a garage, the age of the vehicle and the duration of the client's relation with the company are all shown to be significant explanatory variables by the logit model. The asymmetric model includes, in addition, the length of time the policyholder has held a driving licence and the type of use made of the vehicle. The asymmetric model provides a better fit to the data examined.
Patella ferruginea is the most threatened macroinvertebrate in the western Mediterranean, where it is at serious risk of extinction. There is little information on the status of the various populations and most data were published more than 25 years ago. This study provides updated information on the global status of this species, and implications for management and conservation, and tests the hypothesis that population structure can be influenced by collection by people and by the type of substrate. Fifty-five localities were surveyed in Corsica, Sardinia, Tuscany and Sicily, on the islands of Egadi and Pantelleria, and on the Zembra archipelago and Tunisian coasts. The species is extinct on mainland Italy and Sicily but isolated individuals can be found on Egadi and Pantelleria. Populations on Corsica and Sardinia have declined dramatically during the last 25 years. The population in the Zembra archipelago is well preserved, although more widely on Tunisian coasts the species is highly threatened. The information provided here, combined with information from the literature, indicates a strong decline and/or extinction of many populations throughout the western Mediterranean and the presence of healthy populations only in some locations along the north African coast. The species exhibits an increase in density and mean size in areas free of human pressure but the type of substrate (natural or artificial) has no strong influence.
To describe breakfast habits at food group level in European adolescents and to investigate the associations between these habits and sociodemographic factors.
Secondary schools from nine European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Breakfast habits were assessed twice using a computer-based 24 h dietary recall. Adolescents who consumed breakfast on at least one recall day were classified as ‘breakfast consumers’ and adolescents who did not have anything for breakfast on either of the two recall days were considered ‘breakfast skippers’. A ‘breakfast quality index’ to describe breakfast quality was created based on the consumption or non-consumption of cereals/cereal products, dairy products and fruits/vegetables. The sociodemographic factors studied were sex, age, region of Europe, maternal and paternal education, family structure and family affluence.
Adolescents (n 2672, 53 % girls) aged 12–17 years.
The majority of the adolescents reported a breakfast that scored poorly on the breakfast quality index. Older adolescents, adolescents from the southern part of Europe and adolescents from families with low socio-economic status were more likely to consume a low-quality breakfast.
The study highlights the need to promote the consumption of a high-quality breakfast among adolescents, particularly in older adolescents, adolescents from southern Europe and adolescents from families with low socio-economic status, in order to improve public health.
Iron oxide (Fe2O3, 20-40 nm), aluminum oxide (Al2O3, 50 nm) and silicon oxide (SiO2, 20-60 nm) nanoparticles were mixed in different concentrations (1 to 5 wt %) in a magnesium oxide matrix to develop new refractory matrixes as candidates in the lining of secondary ladle metallurgy. To avoid agglomeration of nanoparticles in the magnesium oxide (MgO) matrix, it was carried out a dispersion method of nanoparticles with different dispersants. After that, the powder mixture was sintered at a temperature of 1300 and 1500 °C for 4 hours. The refractory samples obtained were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-with EDX) and also measured their density and porosity. The results showed that the samples sintered at 1500 °C with 5 wt % of Fe2O3 reached the highest density and presented the MgFe2O4 spinel-type phase. With the addition of Al2O3-nanoparticles in the MgO matrix, there were the formation of MgAl2O4 spinel phase and in the case of SiO2-nanoparticles addition it was observed the formation of Mg2SiO4 forsterite phase. It is well known that with the increase in spinel phase in the matrix, there is a significant help to retain quantities of ions of iron and nickel due to the dissolution of the slag into the refractory material extending their lining life.
Recently reported results from latest Mars Orbiters and Rovers missions are transforming our opinion about the red planet. That dry and inhospitable planet reported in the past is becoming a wetter planet with high probabilities of water existence in the past. Nowadays, some results seem to indicate the presence of water beneath the Mars surface. But also mineralogy studies by NASA Opportunity Rover report iron oxides and hydroxides precipitates on Endurance Crater. Sedimentary deposits have been identified at Meridiani Planum. These deposits must have generated in a dune aqueous acidic and oxidizing environment. Similarities appear when we study Rio Tinto, and acidic river under the control of iron.
The discovery of extremophiles on Earth widened the window of possibilities for life to develop in the Universe, and as a consequence on Mars and other planetary bodies with astrobiological interest. The compilation of data produced by the ongoing missions offers an interested view for life possibilities to exist: signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity as well as ground morphological characteristics that seem to be promoted by liquid water. The discovery of important accumulations of sulfates and the existence of iron minerals such as jarosite in rocks of sedimentary origin has allowed specific terrestrial models to come into focus. Río Tinto (Southwestern Spain, Iberian Pyritic Belt) is an extreme acidic environment, product of the chemolithotrophic activity of micro-organisms that thrive in the massive pyrite-rich deposits of the Iberian Pyritic Belt. Some particular protective environments should house the organic molecules and bacterial life forms in harsh environments such as Mars surface supporting microniches inside precipitated minerals or inside rocks. Terrestrial analogues could help us to afford the comprehension of habitability (on other planetary bodies).
We are reporting here the multidisciplinary study of some endolithic niches inside salt deposits used by phototrophs for taking advantage of sheltering particular light wavelengths. These acidic salts deposits located in Río Tinto shelter life forms that are difficult to visualize by eye. This interdisciplinary field analogue campaign was conducted in the framework of the CAREX FP7 EC programme.
Patella ferruginea is a highly endangered species and the knowledge of its reproductive strategy is essential for suitable management and conservation. In this context, its strategy remained unclear and several authors argued that the species could be gonochorist. The evidence of length specific sex ratios in the sense of protandrous strategy has been confirmed by direct observation of sex change in the species.
The mollusc Patella ferruginea, endemic to the Mediterranean, is presently in serious risk of extinction. Although the species was formerly distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin, today its Mediterranean range has contracted to a few restricted areas. This paper reports on the finding of a range extension of the historical distribution of this species in the Iberian Peninsula. The implication of the Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) effect is discussed.
CdS and PbS are well known semiconductor materials. Starting in 1969 and into 1970's CdS-PbS cells were reported with open circuit voltage (Voc) up to 450 mV and short circuit current density (Jsc) < 1 mA/cm2. However, further reports are scarce. These two materials are also the most investigated by chemical deposition technique. In this work we revisit this type of photovoltaic junctions and present the photovoltaic behavior of distinct type of cell structures prepared by chemical deposition: glass/CdS/PbS/Ag, SnO2:F/CdS/PbS/Ag, and SnO2:F/CdS/(Bi2S3 or/and CdSe)/PbS/Ag. Depending on the cell type, Voc of > 500 mV or Jsc of > 3 mA/cm2 could be obtained under illumination of 1-3 kW/m2. This work opens up possibilities for developing simple solar cell structures by sequential chemical deposition of semiconductors.