The competitive effects of hemp sesbania [Sesbania exaltata (Raf.) Cory] on soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘Forrest’] were studied on Sharkey clay for 2 yr. In full-season competition, hemp sesbania populations of 1,600, 3,200, 3,900, and 5,500 plants/ha did not reduce adjusted soybean yields, but populations of 8,100 to 129,200 plants/ha reduced yields 10 to 80%. Competition by hemp sesbania at 68,000 plants/ha for 1 to 4 weeks after soybean emergence reduced soybean yields 8% or less, whereas competition by the same population for 6, 8, and 10 weeks after soybean emergence reduced adjusted yields 18, 27, and 43%, respectively. Hemp sesbania populations of 3,200 plants/ha or more reduced the grade of harvested soybeans and populations of 5,500 plants/ha increased the level of foreign material found in seed samples taken at harvest. Hemp sesbania populations above 10,700 plants/ha increased the levels of damaged kernels and moisture in harvested soybean seed. Early-season control was required for highest soybean yields and total returns. The most critical period for control was 4 to 10 weeks after emergence of soybeans.