Eighteen adolescents who had survived Reye syndrome (RS) in early childhood were assessed on cognitive, emotional, and behavioural variables in a second follow-up study tracking this group. Siblings were used as controls. The entire group with RS had survived with no obvious neurological damage at the first follow-up study. Indeed, current findings suggested that long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural functioning was comparable to siblings in approximately half of the group with RS. However, two factors were associated with a less favourable outcome. Cognitive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were significantly poorer in the subgroup of survivors whose illness had occurred in the first year of life. In addition, loss of consciousness, although the association with poor outcome was not as noticeable, was also associated with relative deficits on some scales of cognitive ability. Many of these deficits had not been obvious at the first follow-up and the importance of neurodevelopmental factors are considered. Finally, the implications of these findings for research and interventions in RS and other such encephalopathies are discussed.