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Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
The aim of the present study is to use the syndemic framework to investigate the risk of contracting HIV in the US population. Cross-sectional analyses are from The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We extracted and aggregated data on HIV antibody test, socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use, drug use, depression, sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases from cycle 2009–2010 to 2015–2016. We carried out weighted regression among young adults (20–39 years) and adults (40–59 years) separately. In total, 5230 men and 5794 women aged 20–59 years were included in the present analyses. In total, 0.8% men and 0.2% women were tested HIV-positive. Each increasing HIV risk behaviour was associated with elevated odds of being tested HIV-positive (1.15, 95% CI 1.15–1.15) among young adults and adults (1.61, 95% CI 1.61–1.61). Multi-faceted, community-based interventions are urgently required to reduce the incidence of HIV in the USA.
Oilseed rape seed yield has increased in the last 40 years in most countries, but this yield gain has not been accompanied by greater yield stability. The current study aimed to quantify the genotype by environment (G × E) interaction on oilseed rape yield, identify genotypes with broad adaptability and the main environmental drivers related to seed yield. A weighted two-stage mixed-model analysis was applied to official multi-environment trials of nine spring genotypes (G), in three locations (L) during 6 years (Y) on central and southern Argentine Pampas under rainfed conditions. Best linear unbiased prediction of seed yield ranged from 0.37 to 3.73 kg/ha. Fixed effect L × Y was highly significant and G variability was estimated as 130 kg/ha of standard deviation. Contrasting genotypes were identified by Shukla's stability index and two of those showed the best yield performance in the wettest year. Factor analysis explained 0.75 of total variation and discriminated genotypes with broad and specific adaptability, as well as combined environments according to the similarities in seed yield of the evaluated genotypes. Environmental loadings of Factor 2 were linearly associated with cumulative rainfall in the post-flowering period (up to 230 mm). It is concluded that (i) a significant G × L × Y interaction underlies the high variability of seed yield, (ii) two genotypes (G6 and G7) with high yield stability were identified, and (iii) G × E effects are associated with post-flowering rainfall.
At a global level, dairy cow production systems (DCPS) are important sources of nourishment and profits, but they generate environmental impacts such as overexploitation of different resources including water, lands and fossil energy. Quantification of water and carbon footprint to define mitigation strategies and a more rational use of natural resources, is a reiterated claim. The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of the environmental impact of the DCPS from the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico (24°N, 102°W, 220 mm, hot-semiarid climate) We contrasted the economic value (EV) generated by the DCPS with respect to the economic costs (EC) due to the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and the water footprint (WFP) of this DCPS. While quantifications of GHGE considered those proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the WFP involved the use of blue, gray and green water by the DCPS and related activities. Quantification of the EC of WFP considered an international average price of water. In the year 2017, the Comarca Lagunera registered a dairy cow inventory of 493 144 heads, with 227 142 lactating cows, which produced 2386 million liters of milk per year with an annual average EV of €525.3 million. The EC (€, millions) generated by the GHGE and WFP were €311.8 and €11 980.7, respectively, with a total EC of € 12 292.5 million. When the EV of milk production and the total environmental EC are compared, the contrast demonstrates not only the noteworthy environmental impact but also the significant and senseless biological and EC. In addition, having a large dairy cow concentration creates pollution concerns and the DCPS transfers both nutrients and water resources from an ecologically vulnerable arid region. Therefore, some mitigation strategies such as, better cow genotype, feed and manure management combined with the production of forages and grains in a different geographical region are suggested to promote an optimum use of water in order to uphold the social, economic and biologic sustainability of the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico.
In this work we apply high-resolution X-ray diffractometry to the study of InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structures on (001) and(lll)B GaAs substrates. The samples consisted of p-i-n diodes with a multiple quantum well embedded in the i-region and were simultaneously grown on (001) and (111)B substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. For the characterization we have used symmetric and asymmetric reflections at different azimuthal positions. The interpretation of the diffraction profiles has been possible thanks to our recently developed simulation model, which allows the calculation of any reflection regardless of the substrate orientation. X-ray results about composition and thickness are very similar in the samples simultaneously grown on both orientations as expected from our specific growth conditions. The information obtained from X-ray characterization is consistent with the results of photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements within the experimental uncertainty of the techniques. In (lll)B samples, X-ray diffractometry provides structural information which cannot be easily obtained from optical characterization techniques.
Recent approaches in the care of older people have led to a greater emphasis on good practices to prevent elder abuse. The instruments assessing good practices are very limited, and those focused on elder abuse have rarely considered subtle forms, especially in institutional settings. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the content validity of a good practices scale for professionals working in nursing homes. An extensive literature review of the tools assessing professionals’ good–bad practices towards older people was conducted. A preliminary scale based on Kayser-Jones’ (1990) [Old, Alone and Neglected: Care of the Aged in Scotland and the United States. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press] types of abuse was developed, including four subscales: Personalization, Humanization, Absence of Infantilization, and Absence of Victimization. Content validity was analyzed through a panel of eight experts. Rovinelli and Hambleton’s index of item-objective congruence was used to analyze the items’ inclusiveness in the assigned subscale to establish their representativeness. Items’ relevance and clarity were analyzed using the paired comparison method. The final version of the scale included 56 items, with appropriate levels of item objective-congruence, relevance, and clarity. This instrument will allow professionals to detect and develop awareness and intervention programs that aim to promote good practices in nursing homes.
Globally, the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) disease is higher in males. This study examined the effect of sex and age on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Demographic and exposure data were collected on household contacts of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients in Brazil. Contacts with tuberculin skin test induration ⩾10 mm at baseline or 12 weeks were considered Mtb infected. The study enrolled 917 household contacts from 160 households; 508 (55.4%) were female, median age was 21.0 years (range 0.30–87.0) and 609 (66.4%) had Mtb infection. The proportion infected increased with age from 63.3% in girls <5 years to 75.4% in women ⩾40 years and from 44.9% in boys <5 years to 73.6% in men ⩾40 years. Multivariable modelling showed the odds of infection increased between age 5 and 14 years among female contacts (OR 1.5 per 5-year age increase; 95% CI 1.1–2.2; P = 0.02) and between ages 0–4 and 15–39 years among male contacts (OR 2.7, 95% CI 0.83–8.9 and 1.1, 95% CI 0.99–1.3 per 5-year age increase; P = 0.10, 0.07, respectively). The study suggests that the age at which Mtb infection increases most is different in females compared with males. Studies are needed to explore whether these findings are due to differences in host susceptibility, exposure outside the household or other factors.
The epitheliochorial placenta of the pig does not allow the passage of immunoglobulin to the foetus and thus the young piglet is born without passive immune protection. During the first 36 h of life there is a massive transmission of macromolecules across the intestine, virtually all that are present in the gut may be effectively endocytosed and transmitted into the blood stream. The postnatal transmission of antibody from colostrum during this period provides the young animal with a spectrum of serum antibodies indistinguishable from that of its mother. It is established that even in utero the piglet is capable of mounting some response to antigenic challenge. Despite this, the ability of the young animal to respond may be influenced profoundly by the absorption of macromolecules (antibodies and antigens in colostrum and in sow's milk as well as antigens in the farrowing house) during the first hours after birth. These effects range from passive protection from infectious agents during the neonatal period to determining the precise nature of the immune response to antigens during later periods (e.g. at weaning).
At birth all cellular components of the immune system are represented but during the first few weeks of life dramatic changes occur in the number and distribution of these cells. Our histological studies have shown that shortly after birth the predominant T lymphocytes in the small intestine are T2+, T4− and T8−; whilst in other organs there are large numbers of conventional T4+ and T8+ cells. By 1 week of age there is a dramatic increase in the numbers of T4+ cells, whilst T8+ cells remain low, and only start to increase by week 7. Thus, changes in lymphocyte populations are occurring concurrent with increasing exposure to environmental antigens. The functional capacity of these cells also changes during this period and this process may be particularly affected by early weaning.
During the neonatal period an animal is presented with a vast array of antigenic material for the first time. How and when these antigens are presented may profoundly influence the capacity of the immune system to respond to them.
Aluminum alloys have increased their use due to the properties such as low density, resistance to corrosion under environmental conditions and mechanical properties. In this work, the alloying elements are immiscible promoting dendrites formation with different phases attributed to zinc and tin. The applied mechanical stresses promoted the modification of the dendrite sizes (interdendritic space) as well as pore sizes and shapes. The microhardness decreased in the ternary Al-Zn-Sn alloy with a subsequent increase caused by microstructural changes after cold work. By XPS, the metallic elements were detected with an aluminum oxide layer.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.
The aim of this work was to assess the corrosion and degradation effects of a biofuel on metallic materials tested in an experimental internal combustion engine (ICE). Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel for diesel, for industrial applications ranging from boilers to ICE. The experimental vehicle motor, fitted with carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys was operated with local biodiesel. The corrosion performance was evaluated by gravimetric, chemical and electrochemical techniques, following the practices recommended in ASTM and NACE standards for corrosion testing. This work is the result of an international cooperation between the Institute of Engineering, Autonomous University of Baja California, Mexico and the Corrosion Research Center, Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, Israel. The characteristics and conditions of the ICE operated with biodiesel, and the results of the corrosion essays are presented, analyzed and discussed.
The aim of this study is to compare the corrosion rate of aluminum alloys for ornamental pieces. Three Fe/Cu relationships were tested in order to improve hardness and brightness in aluminum pieces since these alloys are used in the making of ornamental pieces. The variation on Fe/Cu content could result in modification on corrosion rate, since a metallographic characterization must be carried out identifying the presence of intermetallic phases. The presence of these elements could result in increasing corrosion rate, or even in modification of corrosion morphology, so localized corrosion could be expected.
The assessment of corrosion rate was carried out in saline media, since chlorides are ions that promote localized corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (polarization curves and Tafel plots) were used in order to evaluate the attack in aluminum pieces; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also employed with voltage amplitude of 10 mV rms, and a frequency range from 10,000 Hz to 0.01 Hz. A typical three electrodes cell was used, exposing an area of one cm2. Before polarization, open circuit potential was monitored for an hour looking for a steady state. All conditions were tested for triplicate.
The behavior of open circuit potential vs. time, and polarization curves was analyzed; a corrosion mechanism is proposed according to the electrochemical control. Polarization rate was calculated by using Tafel plots and, an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis by using equivalent electric circuits is shown. Electrochemical impedance will yield information about corrosion morphology that is backed with microscopic inspection.
The objective of this study is to compare the corrosion rate of aluminum alloys for ornamental pieces in order to determine the effect of the relationship Fe/Cu on the corrosion mechanism in aluminum parts for ornamental pieces.
Concrete is a composite material, composed of cement, sand, gravel and water, reinforced with steel bars or mesh. It is used for the construction of infrastructure assets such as airports, dams, ports, bridges and road ways. Polymer concrete is a relative new material containing a thermosetting resin (instead of water) displaying improved mechanical strength, low permeability, greater corrosion resistance and higher durability. It is employed for new construction and old concrete reparation in the chemical, food, fertilizer, mine and civil industries. Polymer concrete pipe specimens, reinforced with glass-fibers were prepared and exposed in a salt spray (fog) chamber, operating with a NaCl solution, following ASTM standard B-117-11. The deterioration effects were assessed by testing the physical and mechanical properties, before and after the exposure in the spray chamber, in accordance with standard ASTM D3039-2013. Corrosion resistance was evaluated applying ASTM standard C876-2013. The result of this work are presented, illustrated and discussed.
The array of the TiO2 nanotubular films, also called one-dimensional nanostructures is carried out by electrochemical anodization tests, for which, titanium sheets were used with a high purity (99.7% and 0.25 mm thickness) in a solution of deionized water and glycerol (50:50 vol.%) + 0.27M NH4F applying a voltage of 20V. Electrochemical tests were performed at an anodization time of 2:30 hours and 3:30 hours. For the tests mirror polished foils and unpolished foils with flat surfaces to achieve better uniform arrays during the anodic growth of nanotubes were used. After anodizing, samples were observed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the geometry and morphology of the films. Also, potentiodynamic polarization curves were performed for samples crystallized at 600 °C and 450 °C (polished and unpolished) to determine the electrochemical stability of the films, which were presented at two aqueous solutions: 1M of Na2SO4 (pH= 6.7) and 1M Na2SO4 + H2SO4 (pH= 3.2). Mechanical characterization was also performed by nanoindentation technique through the application of loading/unloaings of: (1, 2.5, 5, 10 mN). Chemical characterization was performed using XRD analysis, with the aim to determine the crystalline phases formed in the films crystallized at 450 °C and 600 °C. The electrochemical characterization showed that the TiO2 nanotubular film obtained by mirror polished and crystallized at 600 °C showed better electrochemical stability. Nanoindentation tests showed deformation curves, and the parameters such as hardness, Vickers hardness, elastic modulus and the maximum penetration depth were determined as mechanical parameters.