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To determine prophylaxis appropriateness by Veterans’ Affairs (VA) dentists.
A cross-sectional study of dental visits, 2015–2019.
Antibiotics within 7 days before a visit in the absence of an oral infection were included. Appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis was defined as visits with gingival manipulation and further delineated into narrow and broad definitions based on comorbidities. The primary analysis applied a narrow definition of appropriate prophylaxis: cardiac conditions at the highest risk of an adverse outcome from endocarditis. The secondary analysis included a broader definition: cardiac or immunocompromising condition or tooth extractions and/or implants. Multivariable log-linear Poisson generalized estimating equation regression was used to assess the association between covariates and unnecessary prophylaxis prescriptions.
In total, 358,078 visits were associated with 369,102 antibiotics. The median prescription duration was 7 days (IQR, 7–10); only 6.5% were prescribed for 1 day. With the narrow definition, 15% of prophylaxis prescriptions were appropriate, which increased to 72% with the broader definition. Prophylaxis inconsistent with guidelines increased over time. For the narrow definition, Black (vs White) race, Latine (vs non-Latine) ethnicity, and visits located in the West census region were associated with unnecessary prophylaxis. Variables associated with a lower risk were older age, prosthetic joints, immunocompromising condition, and rural location.
Of every 6 antibiotic prophylaxis prescriptions, 5 were inconsistent with guidelines. Improving prophylaxis appropriateness and shortening duration may have substantial implications for stewardship. Guidelines should state whether antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated for extractions, implants, and immunocompromised patients.
Irish Travellers are an indigenous ethnic minority (IEM) with poor health outcomes. Whilst they constitute less than 1% of the Irish population, they account for 10% of national young adult male suicide statistics.
A rapid review of scientific publications related to mental health and suicide in Irish Travellers was undertaken following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Searches of PubMed, PsycINFO and Google Scholar were performed. Eligibility criteria included: (i) Irish Travellers/Gypsy Travellers; (ii) information on mental health/suicide/self-harm; (iii) psychosocial anthropological perspectives of mental health; (iv) publications in english. Data on studies including design, methods, participants and key findings were extracted using a spreadsheet template.
From 5160 scientific references over the past 20 years, 19 papers made reference to Traveller mental health, and only 5 papers made specific data-based reference to suicide in Travellers. It was only when we qualified Travellers as being ‘Irish Travellers’ in our scientific review did we detect meaningful references to their existence as an IEM, and their health and well-being. Due to sample sizes and heterogeneity in design, results were synthesised narratively.
This paper draws together strands from the disciplines of psycho/socio/anthropological perspectives to gain deeper insights into mental health and suicide in Irish Travellers. In a knowledge vacuum, it behoves the scientific community to explain the value of scientific research and rigour to both policymakers as well as Travellers, shifting the existing discourse towards new knowledge and understanding around mental health and suicide in Travellers.
Irish Travellers are an indigenous ethnic minority population in Ireland, with poor life expectancy. This study aims to identify factors associated with reported discrimination and how this affects their experiences of accessing and quality of health services, including mental health.
The All Ireland Traveller Health Study was a cross-sectional census study in 2010. All Traveller families completed a survey questionnaire (n = 6540), and at random an adult selected from the family completed either a health status (health status study = 1547) or health services utilisation survey (HSU = 1576). Experience of discrimination (EOD) from the census was analysed in relation to HSU data on services used in the previous 12 months and reported experiences of access and quality of that health service. Census variables were analysed in relation to EOD and perceived discrimination (PD).
In the final models, EOD and PD were significantly associated with socio-demographic, socio-cultural and living conditions. The multivariate odds of reporting EOD ranged from OR 1.84 to 2.13 and were significant for those reporting worse opportunities in accessing health services, mental health (p = 0.001), hospitals (p < 0.001) and public health nurses (p < 0.001). The multivariate odds of reporting EOD ranged from OR 1.95 to 2.71 and remained significant for those who reported they had poorer experiences than others when using health services, quality of experience (OR 2.18, p =< 0.001), trust in providers (OR 1.95, p =< 0.001) and appropriate information (OR 2.71, p =< 0.001).
Travellers experience high levels of discrimination which negatively affects their engagement with health services. Culturally competent services need to be developed.
Introduction: Emergency care serves as an important health resource for First Nations (FN) persons. Previous reporting shows that FN persons visit emergency departments at almost double the rate of non-FN persons. Working collaboratively with FN partners, academic researchers and health authority staff, the objective of this study is to investigate FN emergency care patient visit statistics in Alberta over a five year period. Methods: Through a population-based retrospective cohort study for the period from April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017, patient demographics and emergency care visit characteristics for status FN patients in Alberta were analyzed and compared to non-FN statistics. Frequencies and percentages (%) describe patients and visits by categorical variables (e.g., Canadian Triage Acuity Scale (CTAS)). Means and standard deviations (medians and interquartile ranges (IQR)) describe continuous variables (e.g., distances) as appropriate for the data distribution. These descriptions are repeated for the FN and non-FN populations, separately. Results: The data set contains 11,686,288 emergency facility visits by 3,024,491 unique persons. FN people make up 4.8% of unique patients and 9.4% of emergency care visits. FN persons live further from emergency facilities than their non-FN counterparts (FN median 6 km, IQR 1-24; vs. non-FN median 4 km, IQR 2-8). FN visits arrive more often by ground ambulance (15.3% vs. 10%). FN visits are more commonly triaged as less acute (59% CTAS levels 4 and 5, compared to non-FN 50.4%). More FN visits end in leaving without completing treatment (6.7% vs. 3.6%). FN visits are more often in the evening – 4:01pm to 12:00am (43.6% vs. 38.1%). Conclusion: In a collaborative validation session, FN Elders and health directors contextualized emergency care presentation in evenings and receiving less acute triage scores as related to difficulties accessing primary care. They explained presentation in evenings, arrival by ambulance, and leaving without completing treatment in terms of issues accessing transport to and from emergency facilities. Many factors interact to determine FN patients’ emergency care visit characteristics and outcomes. Further research needs to separate the impact of FN identity from factors such as reasons for visiting emergency facilities, distance traveled to care, and the size of facility where care is provided.
Introduction: The Cunningham reduction method for anterior shoulder dislocation offers an atraumatic alternative to traditional reduction techniques without the inconvenience and risk of procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA). Unfortunately, success rates as low as 27% have limited widespread use of this method. Inhaled methoxyflurane (I-MEOF) offers a rapidly administered, minimally invasive option for short-term analgesia. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of studying whether I-MEOF increased success rates for atraumatic reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation. Methods: A convenience sample of 20 patients with uncomplicated anterior shoulder dislocations were offered the Cunningham reduction method supported by methoxyflurane analgesia under the guidance of an advanced care paramedic. Operators were instructed to limit their attempt to the Cunningham method. Outcomes included success rate without the requirement for PSA, time to discharge, and operator and patient satisfaction with the procedure. Results: 20 patients received I-MEOF and an attempt at Cunningham reduction. 80% of patients were male, median age was 38.6 (range 18-71), and 55% were first dislocations of that joint. 35% (8/20 patients) had reduction successfully achieved by the Cunningham method under I-MEOF analgesia. The remainder proceeded to closed reduction under PSA. All patients had eventual successful reduction in the ED. 60% of operators reported good to excellent satisfaction with the process, with inadequate muscle relaxation being identified as the primary cause of failed initial attempts. 80% of patients reported good to excellent satisfaction. Conclusion: Success with the Cunningham technique was marginally increased with the use of I-MEOF, although 65% of patients still required PSA to facilitate reduction. The process was generally met with satisfaction by both providers and patients, suggesting that early administration of analgesia is appreciated. Moreover, one-third of patients had reduction achieved atraumatically without need for further intervention. A larger, randomized study may identify patient characteristics which make this reduction method more likely to be successful.
Introduction: Learners, ether medical students or residents, often provide the initial assessment of patients visiting the Emergency Department (ED). Their involvement in ED patient care has been shown to increase length of stay, time to disposition decision, utilization of imaging and admission rates. It is unclear, however, if learners have an impact on the rate of short-term unscheduled return visits. The objective of this study was to determine if the involvement of learners in ED visits increases the rate of short-term unscheduled return visits. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of ED visit data at a single tertiary care center over a one-year period. Short-term unscheduled return visits (return visits) were defined as ED visits presenting within 72 hours of discharge from an initial non-admit ED visit and resulting in an admission to an inpatient unit on the second visit. The primary outcome was the rate of return visits for each staff physician, with and without learners involved during the initial visit. The secondary outcome assessed the interaction of level of training (medical student year 3, 4, resident year 1, 2, etc.) on return visit rates. For the primary outcome, statistical analysis was with a Wilcoxon Matched Pairs test; staff alone vs with learners. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare learner level of training. Results: Return visits accounted for 1858 (1.09%) of all visits (N = 172494) to this tertiary care ED over the one-year study period. Return visits were statistically more likely when learners were involved in the initial ED visit (1.16%, CI 0.12), compared to initial visits seen by staff physicians alone (0.88%, CI 0.09) (p < 0.0001). Return rates were statistically higher for PGY2 (1.67% CI 0.35) and PGY3 (1.66% CI 0.28) residents compared to staff physicians alone (p < 0.0001). There was no difference in return visit rates between staff physicians and third year medical students (1.07% CI 0.27), fourth year medical students (1.21% CI 0.37), PGY1 (1.42% CI 0.22), PGY4 (1.23% CI 0.54) or PGY5 (1.33% CI 0.49) residents. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the involvement of learners in ED patient assessments increased the rate of short-term unscheduled return visits. Moreover, return visit rates were highest for PGY2 and PGY3 residents. Further work is needed to understand the factors that contribute to this phenomenon.
Rare copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by varying degrees of cognitive impairment, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. However, the effects of many individual CNVs in carriers without neurodevelopmental disorders are not yet fully understood, and little is known about the effects of reciprocal copy number changes of known pathogenic loci.
We aimed to analyse the effect of CNV carrier status on cognitive performance and measures of occupational and social outcomes in unaffected individuals from the UK Biobank.
We called CNVs in the full UK Biobank sample and analysed data from 420 247 individuals who passed CNV quality control, reported White British or Irish ancestry and were not diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders. We analysed 33 pathogenic CNVs, including their reciprocal deletions/duplications, for association with seven cognitive tests and four general measures of functioning: academic qualifications, occupation, household income and Townsend Deprivation Index.
Most CNVs (24 out of 33) were associated with reduced performance on at least one cognitive test or measure of functioning. The changes on the cognitive tests were modest (average reduction of 0.13 s.d.) but varied markedly between CNVs. All 12 schizophrenia-associated CNVs were associated with significant impairments on measures of functioning.
CNVs implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, are associated with cognitive deficits, even among unaffected individuals. These deficits may be subtle but CNV carriers have significant disadvantages in educational attainment and ability to earn income in adult life.
To describe the utilization of electronic medical data resources, including health records and nursing scheduling resources, to conduct a tuberculosis (TB) exposure investigation in a high-risk oncology unit.
A 42-bed inpatient unit with a mix of surgical and medical patients at a large tertiary-care cancer center in New York City.
High-risk subjects and coworkers exposed to a healthcare worker (HCW) with cavitary smear positive lung TB.
During the 3-month exposure period, 270 patients were admitted to the unit; 137 of these (50.7%) received direct care from the index case HCW. Host immune status and intensity of exposure were used to establish criteria for postexposure testing, and 63 patients (45%) met these criteria for first-tier postexposure testing. No cases of active TB occurred. Among coworkers, 146 had significant exposure (ie, >8 hours cumulative). In the 22-month follow-up period after the exposure, no purified protein derivative or interferon gamma release assay conversions or active cases of TB occurred among exposed HCWs or patients.
Electronic medical records and employee scheduling systems are useful resources to conduct otherwise labor-intensive contact investigations. Despite the high-risk features of our index case, a highly vulnerable immunocompromised patient population, and extended proximity to coworkers, we did not find any evidence of transmission of active or latent tuberculosis infection among exposed individuals.
Introduction: The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) found a significant rise in trampoline-related injuries from 1999-2005, many of which required hospitalization. In 2007 and again in 2013, the Canadian Pediatric Society (CPS) recommended against the recreational use of trampolines at home. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of this policy statement on trampoline-related injuries in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Methods: Trampoline injury data was obtained from the CHIRPP database at the IWK Health Centre, the paediatric referral hospital for the Maritimes. The data was stratified according to the timing of the CPS policy statement (before: 2001-2006, after: 2008-2013 and after reaffirmation 2013-2015). Data variables included mechanism, site, nature and context of injury. The data were evaluated using SPSS and chi-squared tests. Results: Since the 2007 CPS policy statement, an average of 162 per 10,000 ED visits at the IWK Health Centre were the result of trampoline-related injuries compared to 95 per 10,000 pre-policy. The majority of injuries (76-80%) occurred in children 5-14 years of age. Recreational use at home in the yard was the most common location of the accident (78-88%), with most injuries occurring on the trampoline mat itself (83-85%) due to incorrect landing (32-35%), falls (21-27%), or being struck by a person or object (24-25%). Soft tissue injuries (15-17%), sprains (19-22%) or fractures (40-46%) to the elbow (11-12%), forearm (5-9%) or ankle (19-21%) continued to be the most common nature and sites of injuries. The injury data before compared to after the CPS policy statement did not differ significantly in gender, the mechanism of injury, the type of injury, or body part involved (p-value >0.05). There was a significant difference in the number of injuries between age groups post-policy, with more occurring in children less than 4 and between the age of 10-14 (p<0.009). Moreover, where the trampoline injury was located was also significantly different post-policy with more injuries occurring in sports/recreational facilities (p<0.001). Conclusion: Trampolining is a high-risk activity with injuries occurring predominantly in children and youth. Despite the recommendations brought forth by the CPS, trampoline-related injuries remain an important source of pediatric injuries at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Introduction/Innovation Concept: University Departments of Emergency Medicine are responsible for the supervision of research and other scholarly projects for fellows, residents and students, though often lack resources to provide adequate input and oversight. Many departments cover large geographical areas and several programs. We piloted new research committee structures and processes to improve oversight and output of research projects. Methods: We created an interactive group supervision tool based around formation of a collaborative research committee, with rotating chairs from each program, to provide supervision and face to face interaction, and direction for research learners. Included were all Dalhousie University adult and pediatric emergency medicine residency and fellowship programs, as well as trauma and EMS programs across Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. In addition to providing expertise in clinical trial coordination, database management, research administration, grant applications and Research Ethics Board submissions, we have completed a 2-year pilot of our interactive group supervision tool for research projects. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: The interactive tool consists of a structured PICOD form; allocation of topic and research mentors; standardized yearly milestones from project development through presentation and publication; and regular video-conferenced and in-person interactive group sessions involving several project leads, as well as program research directors, researchers, and co-ordinators. To date, all participating program learners have engaged with the tool, with positive feedback from learners, supervisors and program directors. Conclusion: We report our development of a regional collaborative interactive group supervision tool, that maximizes expert resources in the provision of research and scholarly project supervision.
Using a large Canadian population-based sample, this study aimed to verify whether televiewing in toddlerhood is prospectively associated with self-reported social impairment in middle school.
Participants are from a prospective–longitudinal birth cohort of 991 girls and 1006 boys from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. Child self-reported ratings of relational difficulties at age 13 years were linearly regressed on parent-reported televiewing at age 2 years while adjusting for potential confounders.
Every additional 1 h of early childhood television exposure corresponded to an 11% s.d. unit increase in self-reported peer victimization [unstandardized β = 0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02–0.04], a 10% s.d. unit increase in self-reported social isolation (unstandardized β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.03–0.05), a 9% s.d. unit increase in self-reported proactive aggression (unstandardized β = 0.02, 95% CI 0.01–0.03) and a 6% s.d. unit increase in self-reported antisocial behavior (unstandardized β = 0.01, 95% CI 0.01–0.01) at age 13 years. These results are above and beyond pre-existing individual and family factors.
Televiewing in toddlerhood was prospectively associated with experiencing victimization and social withdrawal from fellow students and engaging in antisocial behavior and proactive aggression toward fellow students at age 13 years. Adolescents who experience relational difficulties are at risk of long-term health problems (like depression and cardiometabolic disease) and socio-economic problems (like underachievement and unemployment). These relationships, observed more than a decade later, and independent of key potential confounders, suggest a need for better parental awareness of how young children invest their limited waking hours.
Genetic testing in psychiatry promises to improve patient care through
advances in personalised medicine. However, there are few clinically
To determine whether patients with a well-established genetic subtype of
schizophrenia show a different response profile to the antipsychotic
clozapine than those with idiopathic schizophrenia.
We retrospectively studied the long-term safety and efficacy of clozapine
in 40 adults with schizophrenia, half with a 22q11.2 deletion (22q11.2DS
group) and half matched for age and clinical severity but molecularly
confirmed to have no pathogenic copy number variant (idiopathic
Both groups showed similar clinical improvement and significant
reductions in hospitalisations, achieved at a lower median dose for those
in the 22q11.2DS group. Most common side-effects were similarly prevalent
between the two groups, however, half of the 22q11.2DS group experienced
at least one rare serious adverse event compared with none of the
idiopathic group. Many were successfully retried on clozapine.
Individuals with 22q11.2DS-schizophrenia respond as well to clozapine
treatment as those with other forms of schizophrenia, but may represent a
disproportionate number of those with serious adverse events, primarily
seizures. Lower doses and prophylactic (for example anticonvulsant)
management strategies can help ameliorate side-effect risks. This first
systematic evaluation of antipsychotic response in a genetic subtype of
schizophrenia provides a proof-of-principle for personalised medicine and
supports the utility of clinical genetic testing in schizophrenia.
Increasing rates of young people not in education, employment or training (NEETs) are a cause of concern both in Ireland and internationally, but little longitudinal research has examined the link between psychiatric disorder in young people and NEET status.
The Challenging Times (CT) Study is a longitudinal, population-based study of psychopathology among 212 young Irish people. Clinical interviews were performed at two time points: 12–15 years and 19–24 years.
NEET status in young adulthood was associated with a sevenfold increased risk of current suicidal ideation. This result was independent of prior adolescent mental disorder. NEET young people had a fourfold increased odds of being diagnosed with a mental disorder in childhood or early adolescence compared with their economically active peers. NEET young people were at an almost threefold increased risk of any mental health disorder a twofold increased risk of anxiety disorder and threefold increased odds of suicide attempts over their lifetime compared with economically active peers.
NEET young people are at increased risk for mental disorder and suicidal ideation. The association is bidirectional, as prior mental disorder in adolescence appeared to account for much of the association between NEET status and current mental health problems. However, economic inactivity conveys an increased risk for suicidal ideation over and above that due to prior disorder. Our findings provide a compelling economic and societal argument for early intervention and treatment of mental disorder and the importance of vocational interventions for reducing suicide risk in young adults.
There is a lack of epidemiological research on the mental health of young adults in Ireland.
To determine prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a cohort of young Irish adults.
The Challenging Times study was a landmark study of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adolescents in North Dublin, Ireland: 212 school children aged 12-15 years were recruited through schools and interviewed using the K-SADS semi-structured diagnostic instrument. This cohort was traced again at age 19-24 years (mean age 20.8 years) and interviewed using SCID I & II. Main outcome measures were current and lifetime Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders.
Follow-up rate was 80%. Using a weighted population prevalence analysis 19.8% of the cohort had a current mental disorder, 56.0% had a lifetime mental disorder of whom 28.4% had mood disorders, 27.1% had anxiety disorders, 22.7% had substance use disorders; 25.4% had lifetime multi-morbidity. Cluster A personality disorders were found in 2.3%. Lifetime prevalence of binge-drinking was 75.0%, cannabis use 65% and 17% of young adults had fulfilled criteria for an alcohol use disorder at sometime in their life. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal thoughts/behaviour was 21.1%.
Lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorder and substance use were high in this sample of young Irish adults. Mental Health service provision for this age group is a priority. Larger studies of nationally representative samples are needed to inform service development.
Recent community-based research has suggested that psychotic experiences act as markers of severity of psychopathology. There has, however, been a lack of clinic-based research. We wished to investigate, in a clinical sample of adolescents referred to a state-funded mental health service, the prevalence of (attenuated or frank) psychotic experiences and the relationship with (i) affective, anxiety and behavioural disorders, (ii) multimorbid psychopathology, (iii) global functioning, and (iv) suicidal behaviour.
The investigation was a clinical case–clinical control study using semi-structured research diagnostic psychiatric assessments in 108 patients newly referred to state adolescent mental health services.
Psychotic experiences were prevalent in a wide range of (non-psychotic) disorders but were strong markers of risk in particular for multimorbid psychopathology (Z = 3.44, p = 0.001). Young people with psychopathology who reported psychotic experiences demonstrated significantly poorer socio-occupational functioning than young people with psychopathology who did not report psychotic experiences, which was not explained by multimorbidity. Psychotic experiences were strong markers of risk for suicidal behaviour. Stratified analyses showed that there was a greatly increased odds of suicide attempts in patients with a major depressive disorder [odds ratio (OR) 8.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59–49.83], anxiety disorder (OR 15.4, 95% CI 1.85–127.94) or behavioural disorder (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.11–8.79) who also had psychotic experiences compared with patients who did not report psychotic experiences.
Psychotic experiences (attenuated or frank) are an important but under-recognized marker of risk for severe psychopathology, including multimorbidity, poor functioning and suicidal behaviour in young people who present to mental health services.
There is little record of birth weight of Irish Travellers, a minority group in Ireland. Travellers are known to have higher rate of adult chronic disease and to be exposed to life-long disadvantage. The aim of this study was to establish whether the birth weight and infant mortality rate patterns in Ireland's Travellers were consistent with the developmental plasticity hypothesis. A 1-year follow-up birth cohort study was conducted with linkage data from maternity hospital records of Traveller infants born on the island of Ireland over a 12-month period to self-identifying Traveller and general Irish population mothers from the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort Study. The main outcome measure was the rate of birth weight <3000 g in a cohort of Traveller children. There were 987 confirmed Traveller births, 500 of whose mothers consented to linkage to their records. A social gradient was observed in the distribution of birth weight in the general population and Traveller infants constituted the highest proportion of all social classes in the birth weight range of 3 kg or less (16.3%). There was a high rate of persistent smoking among Traveller mothers (53%). After adjustment for smoking and alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the birth weight differential persisted (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4–8.1). Infant mortality rate at 12.0/1000 births (95% CI 5.5–19.7) was almost four times that of the general population. This analysis confirms Travellers had a greater than expected incidence of low birth weight and high infant mortality with high rates of premature adult chronic diseases from all causes already demonstrated previously.