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A modern analytical laboratory of a large corporation manufacturing paper, construction materials and chemicals must be sufficiently diversified in methodology to provide accurate results in the shortest possible time. Among other techniques the implementation of an automated “menu” driven wavelength dispersive spectrometer allowed for the setting-up of a variety of quantitative X-ray fluorescence methods.
Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are a highly medicated group. Few studies have examined the neuropsychiatric profile and patterns of psychotropic medication use among adults with ASD.
To describe and compare the neuropsychiatric profile and psychotropic medication use in a cohort of adults with ASD and non-autistic controls.
Baseline data from a survey-based, longitudinal study of adults with ASD in Australia. Participants were 188 adults with ASD and 115 controls aged 25–80 years.
ASD was associated with increased odds of psychotropic medication use even when controlling for the presence of any neurological or psychiatric disorder. There were no corresponding indications for 14.4% of psychotropic medications prescribed to adults with ASD.
This study found substantial psychotropic prescribing for adults with ASD. Patterns of psychotropic medication use may reflect prescribing for behavioural indications despite limited evidence to support this practice.
The objective of this experiment was to establish the effect of low-concentrate (LC) and high-concentrate (HC) supplementation in the early and late periods of lactation on milk production and cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking (AM) system. In total, 40 cows (10 primiparous and 30 multiparous) were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments. The experimental periods for the early and late lactation trials extended from 23 February to 12 April 2015 and 31 August to 18 October 2015, respectively (49 days in each trial period). The early lactation supplement levels were 2.3 and 4.4 kg/cow per day for LC and HC, respectively, whereas the late lactation supplement levels were 0.5 and 2.7 kg/cow per day for LC and HC, respectively. Variables measured included milking frequency, milking interval, milking outcome and milking characteristics, milk yield/visit and per day, wait time/visit and per day, return time/visit and the distribution of gate passes. As the herd was seasonal (spring) calving, the experimental periods could not run concurrently and as a result no statistical comparison between the periods was conducted. There was no significant effect of treatment in the early lactation period on any of the milk production, milking characteristics or cow traffic variables. However, treatment did significantly affect the distribution of gate passes, with the HC cows recording significantly more gate passes in the hours preceding the gate time change such as hours 7 (P<0.01), 15 (P<0.05), 20, 21 (P<0.001), and 22 (P<0.05), whereas the LC treatment recorded significantly more gate passes in the hours succeeding the gate time change, such as time points 2 (P<0.01) and 10 (P<0.05). There was a significant effect of treatment in late lactation, with HC having a greater milk yield (P<0.01), milking duration and activity/day (P<0.05), while also having a significantly shorter milking interval (P<0.05) and return time/visit (P<0.01). The distribution of gate passes were similar to the early lactation period, with HC also recording a significantly greater number of gate passes during the early morning period (P<0.01) when visitations were at their lowest. Any decision regarding the supplementing of dairy cows with concentrates needs to be examined from an economic perspective, to establish if the milk production and cow traffic benefits displayed in late lactation outweigh the cost of the concentrate; thereby ensuring that the decision to supplement is financially prudent.
Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.
We use the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory to analyse coronal helmet streamer structures observed close to the solar minimum / maximum on the 1996 July 8 / 1999 August 4-5th. The radial variation of peak electron temperature is extracted out to 2 solar radii. These are found to agree well with Yohkoh observations close to the solar maximum, but are found to be reduced by around half a million close to the solar minimum.
The correlation between the FWHM of Lyα, C IV and Hβ lines and the photon index of the soft X-ray continuum is investigated for a sample of PG quasars. Only the FWHM of Hβ line is correlated with the photon index and this correlation depends on the sample of the AGNs considered.
Band contrast (BC) is a qualitative measure of electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), which is derived from the intensity of the Kikuchi bands. The BC is dependent upon several factors including scanning electron microscope measurement parameters, EBSD camera setup, and the specimen itself (lattice defect and grain orientation). In this study, the effective factors for BC variations and the feasibility of using BC variations for the quantification of microstructure evolutions have been investigated. In addition, the effects of the lattice defect and the grain orientation on the BC variations are studied. Next, a shear-deformed microstructure of 316L stainless steel, which contains nanosized grains and a large portion of twin boundaries, is revealed by BC map and histogram. Recovery and recrystallization of shear-deformed 316L stainless steel are displayed by BC variations during isothermal annealing at 700 and 800°C, respectively. It is observed that the BC turns bright as the shear-deformed crystal structure is recovered or recrystallized.
Improved understanding of the pattern of white matter changes in early and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) states such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is necessary to support earlier preclinical detection of AD, and debate remains whether white matter changes in MCI are secondary to gray matter changes. We applied neuropsychologically based MCI criteria to a sample of normally aging older adults; 32 participants met criteria for MCI and 81 participants were classified as normal control (NC) subjects. Whole-head high resolution T1 and diffusion tensor imaging scans were completed. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was applied and a priori selected regions of interest were extracted. Hippocampal volume and cortical thickness averaged across regions with known vulnerability to AD were derived. Controlling for cortical thickness, the MCI group showed decreased average fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreased FA in parietal white matter and in white matter underlying the entorhinal and posterior cingulate cortices relative to the NC group. Statistically controlling for cortical thickness, medial temporal FA was related to memory and parietal FA was related to executive functioning. These results provide further support for the potential role of white matter integrity as an early biomarker for individuals at risk for AD and highlight that changes in white matter may be independent of gray matter changes. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–13)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-behavioural disorder characterised by early onset of persistent inattention–disorganisation and hyperactivity–impulsivity. Symptoms causing significant impairment in psychosocial function commence in childhood and heighten the risk for early substance experimentation and potential development of substance-use disorders (SUD). The research aimed to estimate the occurrence of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in new treatment cases of adults attending addiction treatment services.
The Adult ADHD Symptoms Rating Scale (ASRS) self-administered questionnaire was administered on entry and 2 weeks later for first admissions to inpatient and outpatient addiction treatment settings The ASRS is a validated and reliable 18-item self-report scale derived from the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for ADHD, comprising nine items on inattention and nine items on hyperactivity/impulsivity.
A total of 47 new treatment cases took part in the study. The occurrence of ADHD among SUDs in this sample was 13% (n = 6). Four of the participants were being treated for Problem Poly Substance use, whereas two participants were being treated for Problem Drug use. None of the participants screening positive for ADHD were being treated for Problem Alcohol use. Of the positively screened cases, all were male, predominantly single and unemployed.
The ASRS screening instrument may be a useful tool to detect ADHD co-morbidity in SUD treatment-seeking cases. More research is needed to appropriately develop the SUD treatment pathways for adolescent and adult ADHD sufferers in Ireland.
The role of radio polarimetry in the understanding of GPS and CSS sources is explored. After an initial discussion of what can be learned from polarimetry, the expectations of a simple evolutionary sequence of GPS/CSO to CSS to FR I/FR II sources are explored. Observational results are then compared with the expectations. Conclusions include: the GPS category is likely not a single homogeneous class of objects; Faraday depth effects are very strong inside the inner 3 kpc of CSS and CSO sources; in at least 3C 138 the Faraday screen has very fine scale (subparsec) structure; and there is evidence for increased ionisation near bends in some CSS jets probably due to jet–ISM interaction. New results on 3C 138, 3C 43, and 3C 454 are given.
We have synthesized nanoporous carbon membranes that have monodisperse pores of 4–5 Å. These membranes have excellent size and shape selectivity that makes them an ideal candidate for use as separators in fuel cells. The selectivity of these membranes to gases such as N2, O2 and water gas [carbon monoxide and hydrogen] were measured using a permeation testing unit. These membranes were then tested as separators in fuel cells.
High throughput, asymmetric carbon membranes derived from pyrolysis of polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) have been fabricated on a novel support composed of porous stainless steel filled with nanoparticles. Variation of PFA molecular weight was found to have a significant impact on the single gas permeances of the resultant carbon membranes. High molecular weight precursor material yielded the best results; oxygen permeance values for membranes synthesized from high molecular weight resins were on the order of ∼1×10−8 mol m−2s−1Pa−1 with oxygen over nitrogen ideal selectivities greater than 7. Binary separations of hydrogen from nitrogen and hydrogen from carbon monoxide were carried out using a NPC membrane synthesized from high molecular weight precursor material. For both separations, hydrogen purities of better than 99% by volume were obtained in the permeate stream.
In the NiAl-Cu3 Al pseudobinary section of the Ni-Al-Cu ternary system, the structural similarity of the binary phases yields a miscibility gap between NiAl (B2 structure with ao≃0.2880 nm) and Cu3 Al (bcc structure above 567° C with ao≃0.2946 nm). Due to the extensive mutual solubility, alloys can be solution-treated as single-phase NiAl and then aged at temperatures within the miscibility gap to investigate possible decomposition reactions. Several NiAl-Cu alloys (containing up to 30 at% Cu) were solution-treated at 1000° C, water-quenched, and then aged at either 475° C or 525° C. The decomposition of the supersaturated NiAl was characterized using XRD and SEM. A modulated microstructure was observed for an initial aging of 24 hours, and is consistent with the presence of a conditional spinodal between the NiAl and the Cu3Al. Long term aging resulted in the formation of equilibrium fcc Cu-rich precipitates. In comparison with the brittle nature of the as-quenched samples, the initial aging treatment yields samples which exhibit extensive slip development during hardness testing. Analysis of the deformation/fracture zone produced with a diamond cone indenter suggests that the ductile phase produced by the aging treatment, yielding an in-situ composite, enhances the resistance of NiAl to both crack initiation and propagation.
Patterning on the 10 Å size scale has been achieved with a UHV-STM for Si(100)-2×1:H surfaces. Hydrogen passivation serves as a monolayer resist which the STM locally desorbs, exposing clean Si(100)-2×1 for selective chemistry. Two mechanisms have been identified for hydrogen removal by STM electrons: in the field emission regime direct electron stimulated desorption of hydrogen occurs whereas, in the lower energy tunneling regime, hydrogen desorption results from vibrational excitation of the Si-H bond at high tunneling currents. Furthermore, we find that atomic hydrogen is liberated in contrast to molecular hydrogen evolved during thermal desorption. Selective oxidation and nitridation of the STM-patterned areas has been achieved.