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Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important and widespread avian pests. In Africa, backyard poultry production systems are an important source of protein and cash for poor rural livelihoods. ND mortality in these production systems is important and seriously disrupts benefits derived from it. This study undertook an African continental approach of ND epidemiology in backyard poultry. After a systematic literature review of studies published from 1980 to 2009, a meta-analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of serological prevalence and outbreak occurrence was performed. Average ND serological prevalence was estimated at 0·67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·58–0·75] in regions characterized by humid ecosystems, high human and poultry densities and low altitudes; 0·36 (95% CI 0·30–0·41) in dry ecosystems at intermediate altitude where human and poultry densities are low and 0·27 (95% CI 0·19–0·38) in mountain ecosystems where human and poultry densities are intermediate. In terms of seasonality, ND outbreaks occur mostly during the dry seasons in Africa, when environmental conditions are likely to be harshest for backyard poultry. In addition, a phylogeographical analysis revealed the regionalization of ND virus strains, their potential to evolve towards a higher pathogenicity from the local viral pool and suggests a risk for vaccine strains to provide new wild strains. These results present for the first time a continent-wide approach to ND epidemiology in Africa. More emphasis is needed for ND management and control in rural African poultry production systems.
A retrospective population-based study was conducted between January 1990 and December 1998 to investigate the incidence of Mycobacterium kansasii disease and the heterogeneity of the isolates in a well-defined geographical area in Catalonia, Spain. A total of 136 patients were identified. Overall incidence and incidence in AIDS patients was 1·5 (95% CI 1·2–1·8) and 1089·6 (95% CI 689–1330) cases/100000 persons per year respectively, which is comparable to that reported from most of other geographical areas. Surprisingly, although 7 subtypes of M. kansasii have been consistently reported, in the present study 91 of the 93 isolates (97·8%) tested for genotype were subtype I, regardless of HIV status of the patients. In conclusion, the high rate of infection observed in the AIDS population contributes significantly to the burden of the M. kansasii disease in our area. M. kansasii disease in our geographical area was almost exclusively caused by subtype I regardless of HIV status.
Cubic InGaN/GaN double heterostructures and multi-quantum-wells have been grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on cubic 3C-SiC. We find that the room temperature photoluminescence spectra of our samples has two emission peaks at 2.4 eV and 2.6 e V, respectively. The intensity of the 2.6 eV decreases and that of the 2.4 eV peak increases when the In mol ratio is varied between X = 0.04 and 0.16. However, for all samples the peak energy is far below the bandgap energy measured by photoluminescence excitation spectra, revealing a large Stokes-like shift of the InGaN emission. The temperature variation of the photoluminescence intensity yields an activation energy of 21 meV of the 2.6 eV emission and 67 meV of the 2.4 eV emission, respectively. The room temperature photoluminescence of fully strained multi quantum wells (x = 0.16) is a single line with a peak wavelength at about 510 nm.
Four species of the genus Rhagoletis are native to Chile: R. nova (Schiner), R. conversa, (Brèthes), R. penela Foote and R. tomatis Foote. Currently, identification of these species is based on morphological criteria, but their strong similarity makes precise recognition difficult. To clarify species separation for quarantine purposes, a reliable method based on a PCR–RFLP procedure is reported. A DNA region containing mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase genes was selected as a target sequence for the analysis. The amplification products (c. 1 kb) were digested with either SspI or DdeI, yielding specific patterns that differentiated each of the endemic species. Complete nucleotide sequences were determined, confirming empirical restriction maps. This report updates information on the geographical distribution of Rhagoletis species in Chile.