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To understand increasing rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tennessee, we conducted testing, risk factor analysis and a nested case–control study among persons who use drugs. During June–October 2016, HCV testing with risk factor assessment was conducted in sexually transmitted disease clinics, family planning clinics and an addiction treatment facility in eastern Tennessee; data were analysed by using multivariable logistic regression. A nested case–control study was conducted to assess drug-using risks and behaviours among persons who reported intranasal or injection drug use (IDU). Of 4753 persons tested, 397 (8.4%) were HCV-antibody positive. HCV infection was significantly associated with a history of both intranasal and IDU (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 35.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 24.1–51.9), IDU alone (aOR 52.7, CI 25.3–109.9), intranasal drug use alone (aOR 2.6, CI 1.8–3.9) and incarceration (aOR 2.7, CI 2.0–3.8). By 4 October 2016, 574 persons with a reported history of drug use; 63 (11%) were interviewed further. Of 31 persons who used both intranasal and injection drugs, 26 (84%) reported previous intranasal drug use, occurring 1–18 years (median 5.5 years) before their first IDU. Our findings provide evidence that reported IDU, intranasal drug use and incarceration are independent indicators of risk for past or present HCV infection in the study population.
São Tomé holds 20 endemic bird species, including the little known and ‘Critically Endangered’ Dwarf Olive Ibis Bostrychia bocagei, São Tomé Fiscal Lanius newtoni and São Tomé Grosbeak Neospiza concolor. We conducted a systematic survey of the core forest area, performing 1,680 point counts and compiling occasional observations, which enabled the identification of new areas of occurrence for the target species. MaxEnt distribution modelling suggested that the ibis and fiscal have roughly half of the potential area of occurrence that had been assumed (127 and 117 km2, respectively), while it more than doubled that of the grosbeak (187 km2). The south-west central region of the island, most of which is included in the São Tomé Obô Natural Park, has the highest potential for the Critically Endangered birds. We confirmed the association of all target species with native forest. The ibis preferred high tree density, while the fiscal selected low tree density and intermediate altitudes. Despite very restricted ranges, population sizes seem to be larger than previously assumed. These results suggest that the fiscal and grosbeak might be better classified as ‘Endangered’, while the ibis should maintain its status under different criteria, due to a very restricted range during the breeding season. This work provides vital ecological knowledge to support conservation action focusing on these species and their habitats, highlighting the need to improve the effectiveness of the São Tomé Obô Natural Park in protecting its unique biodiversity.
We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ≈ ni ~ 1016 cm−3, Te ≈ Ti ≈ 1.4 eV, Vjet ≈ 30–100 km/s, mean charge
≈ 1, sonic Mach number Ms ≡ Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ≈20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.
Despite evidence on the short-term benefits of early intervention (EI) service for psychosis, long-term outcome studies are limited by inconsistent results. This study examined the 10-year outcomes of patients with first-episode psychosis who received 2-year territory-wide EI service compared to those who received standard care (SC) in Hong Kong using an historical control design.
Consecutive patients who received the EI service between 1 July 2001 and 30 June 2002, and with diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, were identified and matched with patients who received SC first presented to the public psychiatric service from 1 July 2000 to 30 June 2001. In total, 148 matched pairs of patients were identified. Cross-sectional information on symptomatology and functioning was obtained through semi-structured interview; longitudinal information on hospitalization, functioning, suicide attempts, mortality and relapse over 10 years was obtained from clinical database. There were 70.3% (N = 104) of SC and 74.3% (N = 110) of EI patients interviewed.
Results suggested that EI patients had reduced suicide rate (χ2(1) = 4.35, p = 0.037), fewer number [odds ratio (OR) 1.56, χ2 = 15.64, p < 0.0001] and shorter duration of hospitalization (OR 1.29, χ2 = 4.06, p = 0.04), longer employment periods (OR −0.28, χ2 = 14.64, p < 0.0001) and fewer suicide attempts (χ2 = 11.47, df = 1, p = 0.001) over 10 years. At 10 years, no difference was found in psychotic symptoms, symptomatic remission and functional recovery.
The short-term benefits of the EI service on number of hospitalizations and employment was sustained after service termination, but the differences narrowed down. This suggests the need to evaluate the optimal duration of the EI service.
The emergence of invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) in combat casualties led to development of a combat trauma-specific IFI case definition and classification. Prospective data were collected from 1133 US military personnel injured in Afghanistan (June 2009–August 2011). The IFI rates ranged from 0·2% to 11·7% among ward and intensive care unit admissions, respectively (6·8% overall). Seventy-seven IFI cases were classified as proven/probable (n = 54) and possible/unclassifiable (n = 23) and compared in a case-case analysis. There was no difference in clinical characteristics between the proven/probable and possible/unclassifiable cases. Possible IFI cases had shorter time to diagnosis (P = 0·02) and initiation of antifungal therapy (P = 0·05) and fewer operative visits (P = 0·002) compared to proven/probable cases, but clinical outcomes were similar between the groups. Although the trauma-related IFI classification scheme did not provide prognostic information, it is an effective tool for clinical and epidemiological surveillance and research.
The conditions of the bentonite in an engineered barrier for HLW disposal have been simulated in a laboratory test. Six cylindrical blocks of bentonite compacted at a dry density of 1.64 g/cm3 were piled up in a hermetic Teflon cell. The total length of clay inside the cell was 60 cm. The bottom surface of the bentonite was heated at 100°C while the top surface was injected with granitic water. The duration of the test was 7.6 years. The water intake was measured during the test and, at the end, the cell was dismounted and the dry density, water content, specific surface area, mineralogy, geochemistry and swelling capacity of the clay were measured in different sections along the blocks. The material used in this test is the FEBEX bentonite.
Iron-based amorphous alloys are hard and highly corrosion resistant, which make them desirable for salt water and other applications. These alloys can be produced as powder and can be deposited as coatings on any surface that needs to be protected from the environment. It was of interest to examine the behavior of these amorphous alloys in the standard salt-fog testing ASTM B 117. Three different amorphous coating compositions were deposited on 316L SS coupons and exposed for many cycles of the salt fog test. Other common engineering alloys such as 1018 carbon steel, 316L SS and Hastelloy C-22 were also tested together with the amorphous coatings. Results show that amorphous coatings are resistant to rusting in salt fog. Partial devitrification may be responsible for isolated rust spots in one of the coatings.
First results of combining X-ray microcomputer tomography (µCT), confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) and 14C-polymethylmethacrylate (14C-PMMA) impregnation techniques in the study of granitic rock samples are reported. Combining results of µCT and CLSM with those of the 14C-PMMA technique, the mineral-specific porosity and morphology of the open pore space, as well as its connectivity, could be analyzed from a micrometer up to a decimeter scale.
Three different types of granite were studied. In two cases part of the micro-fissure and pore apertures were found to be in a micrometer scale, but in one case all grain-boundary openings were below the detection limit. Micrometer-scale apertures could be analyzed by CLSM and µCT. The benefit of µCT is that it can also provide the heterogeneous distribution of minerals in 3D. The 2D porosity distributions in the mineral phases, consisting of nanometer-scale pores, could be measured by the 14C-PMMA method together with the micro-fissures. This method does not, however, give the exact pore apertures. The limitations and applicability of the methods are discussed.
Based on experimental findings obtained earlier by the authors , a model is devised in which the divergence of the vacancy flow created in the grain boundaries of Al-Si(1%) metallizations by high-density DC is attributed to temperature gradients and structural features. Void nuclei of critical size are created in areas of high vacancy concentration. These nuclei grow, fed by the electromigrational vacancy current. It is shown that stresses have only a negligible' effect on the vacancy diffusion but influence the nucleation process dramatically. Results expressed in terms of fraction of void area are calculated and then correlated with experimental results. Certain material parameters, whose values are not known, are derived from the experimental data. The physical significance of these parameters is discussed.
The growth of intermetallic compounds and the strength of Cu/ Sn and Cu/ 60Sn40Pb butt joints were studied as a function of isothermal aging. The effects of single-crystal (100), (110), and (111) oriented copper on the growth rates of Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compounds are characterized and the influence of elevated temperature aging on the tensile strength of butt joints analyzed. Substrate orientation appears to influence the growth rate. Metallographic measurements showed that the intermetallic compounds grew at a rate proportional to the square root of time. Tensile tests of aged butt joints revealed a more complex time dependence.
This paper develops a method to deduce the dielectric function of nanostructures smaller than the chosen wavelength of light. It modifies the Maxwell - Garnett Effective Medium Theory equations to calculate the dielectric function of a metal embedded inside a dielectric. Specifically, reflection and transmission measurements of an array of bismuth nanowires in an anodized porous alumina template are used to calculate the frequency - dependent di-electric function of the nanowires. The spectra are taken using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy covering the 500 to 4000 cm−1 frequency range. These data are used to determine the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function of the composite materials. Next, the percentage of the total volume occupied by either Bi or air in the porous alumina (the “filling factor”) was found by scanning electron microscopy. The modified Maxwell-Garnett (M-G) equations specify how to use the filling factor and the dielectric function of the composite material to calculate the dielectric function of the alumina. Finally, the modified M-G equations are used a second time to calculate the dielectric function of Bi nanowires using the dielectric function of alumina, the dielectric function of the filled template, and the filling factor. The resulting dielectric function of Bi nanowires is then compared to theoretical predictions.
Vanadium pentoxide/polypyrrole aerogel (ARG) nanocomposites were prepared by hydrolysis of VO(OC3H7)3 using pyrrole/water/acetone mixtures. Monolithic green-black gels with polypyrrole/V ratios ranging from 0.15 to 1.0 resulted from simultaneous polymerization of the pyrrole and vanadium alkoxide precursors. Supercritical drying yielded high surface (150–200 m2/g) aerogels, of sufficient mechanical integrity to allow them to be cut without fracturing. TEM studies of the aerogels show that they are comprised of fibers similar to that of V2O5 ARG's, but with a much shorter chain length. Evidence from IR that the inorganic and organic components strongly interact leads us to propose that this impedes the vanadium condensation process. The result is ARG's that exhibit decreased electronic conductivity with increasing polymer content. Despite the unexpected deleterious effect of the conductive polymer on the bulk conductivity, at low polymer content, the nanocomposite materials show enhanced electrochemical properties for Li insertion compared to the pristine aerogel.
The flexible solution chemistry of the sol-gel process has been used to encapsulate a wide variety of organic, organometallic, and biomolecules in inorganic solids. This paper reviews different types of photochemical reactions which we have used to produce specific products or to generate oxygen within sol-gel matrices. By controlling synthesis conditions, the molecules can be made to exhibit desired reactivities when trapped in the sol-gel matrix.
Three different examples of photochemical reactions are presented in this paper. An organometallic gold precursor compound, dimethyl (hexafluoroacetylacetonato)gold, dissolved in a silicate sol is used to produce gold nanoparticles of desired sizes. The second example is based on sol-gel encapsulated photochromic (and thermochromic) spiropyran, that converts to a colored form using thermal energy or UV radiation. The synthesis strategies for selectively isolating the colored or the colorless form in sol-gel materials are presented. Materials of these types may be useful in writeonce- read-many (WORM) optical data storage applications. The third example involves sol-gel matrices doped with a biosystem, the green plant photosystem H (PS II). The resulting aged gels and xerogels are photoactive and are capable of photooxidizing water. Oxygen illumination was measured under white light and there is an indication that PS II particles are stabilized by the encapsulation process.
Quantitative measurement of the adhesion strength of thin film metallizations has been achieved by a novel technique employing electrostatic forces to generate delaminating stresses. This technique has been used in testing the adhesion of Al-Cu, Cu, and Al multilayer films deposited on Si. Micro-blister-type failure is revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The delamination process and the geometry of the blister are discussed. The measured adhesion data fit a Weibull distribution function.
Vanadium oxide/polypyrrole hybrid gels were synthesized by two different strategies. These approaches were focused on either the sequential or consecutive polymerization of the inorganic and organic networks. Both techniques led to monolithic hybrid aerogels. Aerogels synthesized by the consecutive network formation method (“cosynthesis”) with compositions of approximately [PPy]0.8V205intercalated nearly twice as much Li per V2O5(2·8·3·0 Li/V205) as non-hybridized V20, aerogel (1·5 Li/V205). When suitable oxidation and polymerization treatments were applied to the materials, their specific capacity remained reasonably high (180−190 mAh/g compared to 220 mAh/g exhibited by V205, aerogel).
Two molecular probes, pyranine (8-hydroxy 1,3,6-trisulfonated pyrene) and cytochrome c, are used to probe two different aspects of sol-gel SiO2 films. Pyranine is used as an in-situ fluorescence probe to monitor the chemical evolution during sol-gel thin film deposition of silica by the dip coating process. The sensitivity of pyranine luminescence to protonation/deprotonation effects is used to quantify changes in the water/alcohol ratio in real time as the substrate is withdrawn from the sol reservoir. Correlation of the luminescence results with the interference pattern of the depositing film allows the solvent composition to be mapped as a function of film thickness. Cytochrome c is used as a probe of the rotational mobility of a large molecule in the pores of sol-gel SiO2 films. A.C. dipolar relaxation measurements show that the biomolecule remains mobile but experiences a ten-fold increase in local microviscosity.
The use of chemical solution routes to form inorganic thin films is a relatively new method which represents an alternative to vapor phase routes. The present study involves the use of a chemical solution route, the decomposition of metal carboxylates, to prepare bismuth thin films of controlled porosity. Such morphologies offer the opportunity to disrupt phonon transport without greatly affecting electrical conductivity and bismuth represents a well known system in which to investigate these effects. Porous bismuth thin films have been prepared using bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate (Bi[OOCCH(C2H5)C4H9]3) as the precursor in a solvent of 2-methyl- 1-propanol. The solution is deposited on glass, Kapton, silicon, alumina or magnesia substrates by spin coating and heated to between 250 – 300°C in hydrogen. Heat treatment temperature and time are important for controlling film microstructure as both pore volume (25 to 50%) and preferred orientation depend upon heat treatment conditions. Bismuth films (62 nm thick) with 32% porosity exhibit conductivities in the range of 150 S/cm with Seebeck coefficients comparable to that of bulk materials.
Convergent electron beam diffraction (CBED) has been successfully applied to measure strain/stress in the channel area in PMOS semiconductor device with embedded SiGe (eSiGe) for 65nm technology. Reliable results of strain/stress measurements in the channel area have been achieved by good fitting of experimental CBED patterns with theoretical calculations. Stress measurements from CBED are in good agreement with simulations. A compressive stress as high as 823.9 MPa was measured in the <110> direction in the channel area of a PMOS device with eSiGe with 15% Ge and a thickness of 80nm. Stress measurements from CBED also confirm that the depth of the eSiGe and defects such as dislocation loops within the eSiGe relax strain/stress within the film and reduce strain/stress in the channel area.