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The diet of most adults is low in fish and, therefore, provides limited quantities of the long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3FAs), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA, DHA). Since these compounds serve important roles in the brain, we sought to determine if healthy adults with low-LCn-3FA consumption would exhibit improvements in neuropsychological performance and parallel changes in brain morphology following repletion through fish oil supplementation.
In a randomized, controlled trial, 271 mid-life adults (30–54 years of age, 118 men, 153 women) consuming ⩽300 mg/day of LCn-3FAs received 18 weeks of supplementation with fish oil capsules (1400 mg/day of EPA and DHA) or matching placebo. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery examining four cognitive domains: psychomotor speed, executive function, learning/episodic memory, and fluid intelligence. A subset of 122 underwent neuroimaging before and after supplementation to measure whole-brain and subcortical tissue volumes.
Capsule adherence was over 95%, participant blinding was verified, and red blood cell EPA and DHA levels increased as expected. Supplementation did not affect performance in any of the four cognitive domains. Exploratory analyses revealed that, compared to placebo, fish oil supplementation improved executive function in participants with low-baseline DHA levels. No changes were observed in any indicator of brain morphology.
In healthy mid-life adults reporting low-dietary intake, supplementation with LCn-3FAs in moderate dose for moderate duration did not affect neuropsychological performance or brain morphology. Whether salutary effects occur in individuals with particularly low-DHA exposure requires further study.
The instrumentation developed for poly crystalline diffractometry using the storage ring at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is described. A pair of automated vertical scan diffractometers was used for a Si (111) channel monochromator and the powder specimens. The parallel beam powder diffraction was defined by horizontal parallel slits which had several times higher intensity than a receiving slit at the same resolution. The patterns were obtained with 2:1 scanning with’ a selected monochromatic beam, and an energy dispersive diffraction method in which the monochromator is step-scanned, and the specimen and scintillation counter are fixed. Both methods use the same instrumentation.
Multiple introductions of an exotic species can facilitate invasion success by allowing for a wider range of expressed trait values in the adventive range. Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian peppertree) is an invasive shrub that was introduced into Florida in two separate introductions and has subsequently hybridized, resulting in three distinct lineages (eastern, western, and hybrid). To determine whether allocation of aboveground biomass differed by introduction history, we destructively sampled 257 stems from each of six populations with differing introduction histories. The proportion of aboveground biomass allocated to fruit, wood, and leaves differed among the three populations. To determine whether the relationship between stem size and several dependent variables that measure plant performance (total dry weight, wood dry weight, number of fruits, fruit dry weight, leaf dry weight, and number of leaves) differed quantitatively by introduction history, we performed analyses of covariance. Slopes of these relationships (dependent variable vs. stem size) varied by lineage. Hybrid populations had the steepest slopes for one set of dependent variables (total dry weight, wood dry weight, and leaf dry weight), while western populations had the steepest slopes for a different set of dependent variables (number of fruits, fruit dry weight, and number of leaves). The parameterized regression equations for each dependent variable and lineage were used to nondestructively estimate different kinds of production by individuals that are part of long-term longitudinal studies to understand the demographic consequences of these different biomass allocation strategies for the performance of S. terebinthifolius individuals across the invaded range in Florida.
At the lowest radio frequencies (≤30 MHz), the Earth's ionosphere transmits poorly or not at all. This relatively unexplored region of the electromagnetic spectrum is thus an area where high resolution, high sensitivity observations can open a new window for astronomical investigations. Also, extending observations down to very low frequencies brings astronomy to a fundamental physical limit where the Milky Way becomes optically thick over relatively short path lengths due to diffuse free-free absorption.
Chronic physical training has been shown to produce multiple changes in the heart, resulting in the athlete’s heart phenotype. Some of the changes can make it difficult to discern athlete’s heart from true cardiac disease, most notably hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Other diseases such as dilated cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy may be difficult to rule in or out. In this article, the physiological cardiac changes of chronic athletic training are reviewed. A methodological approach using electrocardiography and echocardiography to differentiate between athlete’s heart and cardiac disease is proposed.
The Hat Creek mm-wavelength array, operated by the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA), is undergoing an expansion to nine telescopes. The first six of these telescopes will be operational in January, 1993. The telescopes are relatively small, 6 m in diameter, and are moved on rubber-tired dollies so it will be possible to transport them on roads in the vicinity of the main array. Initially, we plan to place two of the telescopes at outrigger sites located 0.5 and 1.0 km from the main array. Use of these outrigger telescopes will yield angular resolutions of 0.45 arc-sec at 2.7 mm wavelength and 0.21 arc-sec at 1.2 mm wavelength. When all nine telescopes are operational, reasonable image quality will be obtained with a single 12-hour observation. The maximum sidelobe amplitude depends upon source declination, but is about 16%. Figures 1, 2, and 3 show the uv coverage and beamshapes which will be achieved at various declinations.
In 1984 Perley and Erickson proposed a 73.8 MHz [4 meter wavelength] observing system at the VLA site (NRAO Scientific Memo #146). They proposed a stand-alone antenna system that would feed its signals into an existing spare channel of the VLA waveguide and utilize a separate correlator. Over the 35 km VLA baselines this system would produce images with 20 arcsec resolution, unprecedented at this frequency. The major technical problems are ionospheric refraction and interference. Some doubt existed as to whether or not it would be possible to cope with the large, rapidly-changing ionospheric phase fluctuations to be expected over 35 km baselines. Thus it was proposed, as a first step in the development, that 73.8 MHz feeds be installed in the present VLA dishes and that trial observations be made to prove that techniques such as self-calibration can be successful. Eight dishes now have 73.8 MHz instrumentation and a number of radio source images have been made with this initial system.
Decametric wavelength imaging has been largely neglected in the quest for higher angular resolution because ionospheric structure limited interferometric imaging to short (< 5 km) baselines. The long wavelength (LW, 2—20 m or 15—150 MHz) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum thus remains poorly explored. The NRL-NRAO 74 MHz Very Large Array has demonstrated that self-calibration techniques can remove ionospheric distortions over arbitrarily long baselines. This has inspired the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR)—-a fully electronic, broad-band (15—150 MHz)antenna array which will provide an improvement of 2—3 orders of magnitude in resolution and sensitivity over the state of the art.
(Solar Phys.). The positional analysis of solar bursts at meter and decameter wavelengths during the period July 31–August 7, 1972 is presented. The observations were taken with two arrays – a log periodic array of 16 elements situated on an E–W base line of 3.3 km and portions of the new Clark Lake array in the form of a Tee (an E–W arm of 32 log spiral antennas and a N–S arm of 16 similar antennas). The new array operates over the frequency range 10–120 MHz and has angular resolutions of approximately 3.′5 at 100 MHz and 8.′5 at 40 MHz in the E–W direction.
A total of 18 radio sources selected on the basis of steep low-frequency radio spectra have been searched for the presence of millisecond pulsars using the Molonglo Observatory synthesis telescope. The search covered pulsar periods down to 2 ms with a limiting sensitivity of approximately 10 mJy. No pulsars were detected.
The ALFA mission is designed to map the entire sky at frequencies between approximately 0.3 and 30 MHz with angular resolution limited by interstellar and interplanetary scattering. Most of this region of the spectrum is inaccessible from the ground because of absorption and refraction by the Earth’s ionosphere. A wide range of astrophysical questions concerning solar system, galactic, and extragalactic objects could be answered with high resolution images at low frequencies, where absorption effects and coherent emission processes become important and the synchrotron lifetimes of electrons are comparable to the age of the universe.
73.8 MHz instrumentation for the VLA is being developed and is currently installed on 8 VLA dishes. Test observations of strong radio sources have been made. We describe techniques that we have developed to analyze these test observations and we present examples of our first maps.
We have assembled a new sample of some of the most FIR-luminous galaxies in the Universe and have imaged them in 1.1 mm dust emission and measured their redshifts 1 < z < 4 via CO emission lines using the 32-m Large Millimeter Telescope / Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (LMT/GTM). Our sample of 31 submm galaxies (SMGs), culled from the Planck and Herschel all-sky surveys, includes 14 of the 21 most luminous galaxies known, with LFIR > 1014L⊙ and SFR > 104M⊙/yr. These extreme inferred luminosities – and multiple / extended 1.1 mm images – imply that most or all are strongly gravitationally lensed, with typical magnification μ ~ 10 × . The gravitational lensing provides two significant benefits: (1) it boosts the S/N, and (2) it allows investigation of star formation and gas processes on sub-kpc scales.
The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p=.041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p=.025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p<.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden, that is, increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42, individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD. (JINS, 2015, 21, 841–850)
A growing body of literature has explored the influence of physical activity on brain structure and function. While the mechanisms of this relationship remain largely speculative, recent research suggests that one of the effects of physical exercise is an increase in synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP). This has not yet been explored directly in humans due to the difficulty of measuring LTP non-invasively. However, we have previously established that LTP-like changes in visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) can be measured in humans. Here, we investigated whether physical fitness status affects the degree of visual sensory LTP. Using a self-report measure of physical activity, participants were split into two groups: a high-activity group, and a low-activity group. LTP was measured and compared between the two groups using the previously established electroencephalography-LTP paradigm, which assesses the degree to which the N1b component of the VEP elicited by a sine grating is potentiated (enhanced) following a rapid “tetanic” presentation of that grating. Both groups demonstrated increased negativity in the amplitude of the N1b component of the VEP immediately after presentation of the visual “tetanus,” indicating potentiation. However, after a 30-min rest period, the N1b for the high-activity group remained potentiated while the N1b for the low-activity group returned to baseline. This study presents the first evidence for the impact of self-reported levels of physical activity on LTP in humans, and sheds light on potential neurological mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical fitness and cognition. (JINS, 2015, 21, 831–840)
The effects of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive functions in humans have been the subject of much investigation; however, these studies are limited by several factors, including a lack of randomized controlled designs, focus on only a single cognitive function, and testing during or shortly after exercise. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study asked how a single bout of aerobic exercise affects a range of frontal- and medial temporal lobe-dependent cognitive functions and how long these effects last. We randomly assigned 85 subjects to either a vigorous intensity acute aerobic exercise group or a video watching control group. All subjects completed a battery of cognitive tasks both before and 30, 60, 90, or 120 min after the intervention. This battery included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the Modified Benton Visual Retention Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Digit Span Test, the Trail Making Test, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Based on these measures, composite scores were formed to independently assess prefrontal cortex- and hippocampal-dependent cognition. A three-way mixed Analysis of Variance was used to determine whether differences existed between groups in the change in cognitive function from pre- to post-intervention testing. Acute exercise improved prefrontal cortex- but not hippocampal-dependent functioning, with no differences found between delay groups. Vigorous acute aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on prefrontal cortex-dependent cognition and these effects can last for up to 2 hr after exercise. (JINS, 2015, 21, 791–801)
Our objective in the present study was to conduct the first empirical study of the effects of regular physical activity habits and their relationship with brain volume and cortical thickness in patients in the early phase of schizophrenia. Relationships between larger brain volumes and higher physical activity levels have been reported in samples of healthy and aging populations, but have never been explored in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Method: We collected MRI structural scans in 14 first-episode schizophrenia patients with either self-reported low or high physical activity levels. We found a reduction in total gray matter volume, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hippocampal gray matter volumes in the low physical activity group compared to the high activity group. Cortical thickness in the dorsolateral and orbitofrontal PFC were also significantly reduced in the low physical activity group compared to the high activity group. In the combined sample, greater overall physical activity levels showed a non-significant tendency with better performance on tests of verbal memory and social cognition. Together these pilot study findings suggest that greater amounts of physical activity may have a positive influence on brain health and cognition in first-episode schizophrenia patients and support the implementation of physical exercise interventions in this patient population to improve brain plasticity and cognitive functioning. (JINS, 2015, 21, 868–879)
Airborne observations of the Trapezium region of the Orion Nebula in the 60–300 μ range have been made from 13.7 km altitude using a Michelson interferometer with the Rice University 12-in. Flying Infrared Telescope. Fourier analysis of five interferometer scans provided spectra with resolution ranging from 7 cm–1 to 20 cm–1. These spectra were compared with lunar spectra taken with the same instrument at the same altitude to correct for instrumental and atmospheric effects. A weighted combination of these scans provides a low resolution spectrum. The radiation per unit frequency interval at 190 μ was found to be at least 40% of that measured between 75 and 90 μ. Neglecting possible features in the spectrum, its general shape is consistent with a blackbody near 70 K. The resolution is inadequate to resolve spectral lines.
Approximately 1000 observations of neutral hydrogen have been obtained with the 54-channel H-line receiver and the Würzburg antenna of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. H-line profiles have been observed at 10-degree intervals along the ±20-, ±30-, and ± 40-degree parallels of galactic latitude; at 20-degree intervals along the ± 50- and ±60-degree parallels; at 40-degree intervals along the ±70- and ±80-degree parallels and at the poles. Approximately two dozen observations have been taken at points near the galactic plane in order to correlate these observations with the Leiden survey . The beamwidth of the Würzburg antenna was about 2 degrees. The observations were taken in two series, one series during the summer of 1957, and the other series during 1958 January. The video frequency bandwidth of the receiver is 12 kc/s. The profiles consist of averages of from two to six scans with integration times from 4.8 to 7.5 minutes.