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Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
Intensity mapping (IM) is a new observational technique to survey the large-scale structure of matter using spectral emission lines. IM observations are contaminated by instrumental noise and astrophysical foregrounds. The foregrounds are at least three orders of magnitude larger than the searched signals. In this work, we apply the Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination (GNILC) method to subtract radio foregrounds and to recover the cosmological HI and CO signals within the IM context. For the HI IM case, we find that GNILC can reconstruct the HI plus noise power spectra with 7.0% accuracy for z = 0.13 − 0.48 (960 − 1260 MHz) and ℓ ≲ 400, while for the CO IM case, we find that it can reconstruct the CO plus noise power spectra with 6.7% accuracy for z = 2.4 − 3.4 (26 − 34 GHz) and ℓ ≲ 3000.
We present the first quantitative attempt at reconciling the source and emplacement of granite erratics in Beacon Valley. The erratics are enigmatic because granite does not crop out in the valley and its nearest subaerial exposure is at least 10 km downstream to the east of the valley. Detailed mapping of the valley shows three types of granite erratics, which are not present in equal amounts and do not show spatial patterns. Pb isotopic and elemental compositions of the erratics eliminate the Metschel Tillite as a source and indicate they derive from the Dry Valley plutons. Our limited study tentatively ties the erratics to suites of plutons, but it does not allow a direct tie of the erratics to specific plutons because of i) the geochemical variability of the plutons and ii) the limited number of erratics that were analysed. Published data suggest the erratics provide evidence of wet-based glaciation, which covered the Dry Valleys and much of Antarctica during the mid-Miocene. Our paper also explains the problems associated with the emplacement of these erratics and the age of the massive ice in Beacon Valley.
Epidemiology formed the basis of ‘the Barker hypothesis’, the concept of ‘developmental programming’ and today’s discipline of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Animal experimentation provided proof of the underlying concepts, and continues to generate knowledge of underlying mechanisms. Interventions in humans, based on DOHaD principles, will be informed by experiments in animals. As knowledge in this discipline has accumulated, from studies of humans and other animals, the complexity of interactions between genome, environment and epigenetics, has been revealed. The vast nature of programming stimuli and breadth of effects is becoming known. As a result of our accumulating knowledge we now appreciate the impact of many variables that contribute to programmed outcomes. To guide further animal research in this field, the Australia and New Zealand DOHaD society (ANZ DOHaD) Animals Models of DOHaD Research Working Group convened at the 2nd Annual ANZ DOHaD Congress in Melbourne, Australia in April 2015. This review summarizes the contributions of animal research to the understanding of DOHaD, and makes recommendations for the design and conduct of animal experiments to maximize relevance, reproducibility and translation of knowledge into improving health and well-being.
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
A K-band (18-25 GHz) reflected-wave ruby maser (Moore and Clauss 1979) has been borrowed from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory for radio astronomy use on the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Network at the Tidbinbilla Tracking Station, near Canberra. The purpose of the installation is to provide additional sensitive spectral line, continuum, and VLBI capabilities in the southern hemisphere. Previous measurements at 22.3 GHz (λ = 13.5 mm) determined that the Tidbinbilla 64-m antenna has a peak aperture efficiency of ˜22%, a well-behaved beam shape and consistent pointing (Fourikis and Jauncey 1979). Before installing the maser on the antenna a cooled (circulator) switch was added to provide a beam-switching capability, and a spectral line receiver following the maser was incorporated. The system was assembled and tested at JPL in late 1980 and installed at Tidbinbilla early in 1981. We give here a brief description and present some of the first line observations made in February and March 1981. Extensive line and continuum observations are planned with the present system and a program is under way to determine the telescope pointing characteristics.
This chapter addresses infections associated with artificial devices of a specialized nature. The rate of infection is generally low, but collectively, there are millions of these devices implanted yearly, so the infections are not rare. Optimal treatment requires participation of surgical specialists experienced in the management of these difficult infections, especially for pseudophakic endophthalmitis, in which therapy includes intraocular injections.
Pseudophakic endophthalmitis is thought to occur as a consequence of contamination with flora of conjunctival sac or lid margin at the time of surgery. There also have been reports of infections arising from contamination of lenses and neutralizing and storage solutions.
The differential diagnosis of endophthalmitis following cataract extraction includes sterile inflammation as well as bacterial and fungal infection. The most common presenting signs and symptoms include pain in the involved eye, decreased visual acuity, red eye, lid edema, hypopyon, and absent or poor red reflex. A single bacterial strain is usually isolated; the most common pathogen is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus (approximately 50% in one large series) followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Virtually any microorganism can be implicated. Delayed onset pseudophakic endophthalmitis has been reported after uncomplicated initial cataract surgery. This entity presents one or more months after surgery and is manifest by waxing and waning ocular inflammation. The leading cause of delayed-onset pseudophakic endophthalmitis is Propionibacterium acnes. Diagnostic evaluation requires aqueous and vitreous samples for Gram stain and culture. Vitrectomy may have therapeutic as well as diagnostic value.
We report the fabrication and characterisation of the first graphene ring micro electrodes, formed by dip coating fibre optics with subsequently reduced graphite oxide. The behaviour of the so-formed Graphene RIng Micro Electrodes (GRIMEs) is studied using the ferricyanide probe redox system while electrode thicknesses is assessed using established electrochemical methods. A ring electrode of ∼73 nm thickness is produced on 220 μm diameter fibre optics, corresponding to an inner to outer radius ratio of >0.999, so allowing for use of extant analytical descriptions of very thin ring micro electrodes in data analysis. GRIMEs are highly reliable (current response invariant over >3000 scans) with the microring design allowing for efficient use of electrochemically active graphene edge sites. Further, the associated nA scale currents neatly obviate issues relating to the high resistivity of undoped graphene. Thus, the use of graphene in ring micro electrodes improves the reliability of existing micro electrode designs and expands the range of use of graphene-based electrochemical devices.
Groups of student volunteers were immunized with one of five different inactivated influenza virus vaccines. The concentration of virus in the various vaccines differed by both the international unitage test and by the concentration of haemagglutinin, as measured by the single radial diffusion test; the results of the two methods of standardization showed no correlation. The serum HI response to immunization was variable; volunteers given A/England/72 showed a 16·6-fold increase in homologous serum antibody titre whilst volunteers given A/Hong Kong/68 vaccine showed a 4·2-fold increase. The variable response of volunteers to immunization could not be explained by the varied concentration of virus in the vaccines, as measured by either test, the titres of serum HI antibody present before immunization, or a combination of these two factors.
The ability to infect volunteers with WRL 105 virus 4 weeks after immunization with heterologous, inactivated virus vaccine was directly related to the degree of cross-reactivity between the haemagglutinins of this vaccine virus and WRL 105 virus. Thus, the greatest number of infections by the challenge virus were seen in volunteers given A/Hong Kong/68 vaccine, less were observed in volunteers given A/England/72 vaccine, and least were found in groups given A/Port Chalmers/73 or A/Scotland/74 vaccine. However, compared with the incidence of infection in volunteers given B/Hong Kong/73 vaccine, all the heterologous influenza A vaccine gave some immunity to challenge infection.
We have used the BzK-selection to identify a composite population of passive, and star-forming galaxies at redshifts 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). Using an unprecedented large sample of galaxies in this redshift range, we characterize the morphological diversity through the analysis of the surface-brightness profile shapes for 171 galaxies with passive SEDs, and 1068 star-forming galaxies. We find that the z ~ 2 galaxies display a wide range of morphologies, from spheroidals to disk-like. Interestingly, the galaxies with passively-evolving SEDs predominantly have steep profiles as seen for the classical bulges at low redshifts, although they are very compact with re < 3 kpc. The star-forming galaxies on the other hand exhibit mostly disk-like and merger morphologies, and have sizes comparable to their low−z counterparts. Our results emphasize the need for an unbiased selection in order to reveal the morphological diversities, and range of galaxy properties at high redshifts.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine chemical-mechanical processes on Si (100) surfaces. Places where the underlying silicon was exposed etched in basic solution, producing structures 100 nm or less in size. Etching occurs only in the presence of combined mechanical and chemical effects. By performing AFM in basic solution, the entire etching process could be observed directly. High-force scans were used to remove oxide and initiate etching in selected locations, followed by low-force scans which imaged the etching process. Although roughness initially increased during etching, the final surfaces were smooth. The etching was measured for different applied loads, numbers of scans, concentrations of the etching solution, and time. The oxide layer was extremely sensitive to applied stress, and even very light scanning caused the oxide layer to dissolve more rapidly. Once the oxide layer was removed, chemical etching proceeded with or without AFM scanning, but if AFM scanning was continued additional material was removed, probably by a tribochemical mechanism on pure Si.
To determine the level of agreement between patients and expert physicians in whether criterion multisomatoform (MSD) symptoms are explained.
We systematically collected reports from 280 primary care patients about whether they had suffered from any of 15 criterion MSD symptoms in the past month and whether they had received a medical explanation from a physician for positive criterion symptoms. The research team compared MSD symptom diagnoses derived from patient report with MSD symptom diagnoses derived from an expert physician report.
MSD symptom diagnoses derived from patient report had 98.7% sensitivity, 97.9% specificity, 89.3% positive predictive value, and 99.7% negative predictive value compared with MSD symptom diagnoses derived from an expert physician report. Analysis demonstrated that 15.0% of patients met symptom criteria for MSD, according to patient and physician report; 83.0% failed to meet symptom criteria for MSD, according to patient and physician report; 1.8% of patients met symptom criteria for MSD, according to patient report but not physician report, while 0.2% met symptom criteria for MSD according to physician report but not by patient report.
Patients demonstrated high agreement with a physician expert in somatization about whether criterion MSD symptoms are explained, suggesting revised screeners may accurately identify somatizing patients.
Duncan (1937) provided detailed information that has been widely used to date names of new taxa described in early volumes of the Proceedings. The examinations reported here suggest that at least at the point where the year of publication is important Duncan was usually correct, and although exceptions are reported they are not of great consequence (although 14 of 42 volumes are anomalous). These exceptions relate to cases where the published pages differed from a multiple of the signature size by a couple of pages or so. Over the 41 volumes examined, two or more techniques were used to provide, economically, text needed to complete an article that would have over-run the number of signatures planned for the issue. The importance of retaining wrappers and binding them in is demonstrated by what can be learned from them.
Objectives: To assess the volume and range of diagnosis in new patients referred to paediatric cardiac outpatient clinics. Methods: Data was collected prospectively, using a proforma completed at all outpatient clinics over a period of three months. Results: There were 526 new referrals, representing an increase of almost one-fifth compared to 5 years ago. Of the referrals, 78 percent came from hospital doctors, and 22 percent from general practitioners, with 221 of those referred being infants. A heart murmur was the most common reason for referral, representing almost two-thirds of cases. In 372 patients referred (71 percent), the heart was discovered to be structurally normal. The proportion of patients with normal hearts referred by general practitioners and hospital doctors were 81 percent, and 68 percent, respectively (p less than 0.004). There was considerable variation in the pattern of referral between doctors working in different hospitals. Conclusion: New referrals to centres dealing with congenital cardiac malformations are increasing alarmingly, with the majority of the children referred having normal hearts. This increase in demand for specialist services has important implications for resources and training.
Dental enamel lesions are formed by the demineralisation of dental enamel due to dietary and bacterial factors which lower the local pH. If progression of this demineralisation continues the enamel structure eventually fails giving rise to a cavity (carie). Fortunately, in the earliest stages this process is reversible and if the pH of the environment increases, ions such as calcium, phosphate and fluoride can diffuse back into the enamel to give an arrested lesion. Hence, the tooth's structural integrity is preserved. The use of artificially produced enamel caries allows the study of lesion formation under conditions of highly controlled demineralisation. This provides a fundamental insight into the process of caries formation in enamel. In this study human premolars have been treated with a lactic acid solution to create artificial “caries-like” lesions in the enamel on the buccal side of the teeth. In the test samples the lesions penetrated around 100 μm into the enamel structure, accounting for approximately one tenth of the thickness of the enamel. Cross sections through the lesion were characterized with nanoindentation, electron probe micro-analysis and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. From the data obtained maps of both mechanical and chemical properties were plotted across the entire width of the lesions. The results show that the lesions have a significantly reduced hardness and elastic modulus in comparison to sound enamel. These changes in mechanical properties were found to correlate with a loss of calcium and phosphate from the structure. There was also evidence of a stronger, less demineralised layer of enamel close to the lesion's surface. This surface zone is suggestive of remineralisation within the lesion which is of importance with regards to preventing the lesion developing into a carie.