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Written in a conversational tone, this classroom-tested text introduces the fundamentals of linear programming and game theory, showing readers how to apply serious mathematics to practical real-life questions by modelling linear optimization problems and strategic games. The treatment of linear programming includes two distinct graphical methods. The game theory chapters include a novel proof of the minimax theorem for 2x2 zero-sum games. In addition to zero-sum games, the text presents variable-sum games, ordinal games, and n-player games as the natural result of relaxing or modifying the assumptions of zero-sum games. All concepts and techniques are derived from motivating examples, building in complexity, which encourages students to think creatively and leads them to understand how the mathematics is applied. With no prerequisite besides high school algebra, the text will be useful to motivated high school students and undergraduates studying business, economics, mathematics, and the social sciences.
American society is rapidly secularizing–a radical departure from its historically high level of religiosity–and politics is a big part of the reason. Just as, forty years ago, the Religious Right arose as a new political movement, today secularism is gaining traction as a distinct and politically energized identity. This book examines the political causes and political consequences of this secular surge, drawing on a wealth of original data. The authors show that secular identity is in part a reaction to the Religious Right. However, while the political impact of secularism is profound, there may not yet be a Secular Left to counterbalance the Religious Right. Secularism has introduced new tensions within the Democratic Party while adding oxygen to political polarization between Democrats and Republicans. Still there may be opportunities to reach common ground if politicians seek to forge coalitions that encompass both secular and religious Americans.
The purpose of this book is straightforward: to remedy this lacuna by providing an introduction to the international relations of Asia looked at over a longue duree: from the seventh century through 1900, when contact with the West finally destroyed the old order. We seek to offer an accessible overview of the evolution of the East Asian international system through what might be called the “early Westphalian” history of the region, which we date to the nineteenth century. The broader purpose is not just didactic. Rather, we also want to force a consideration of the implications of these cases for international relations theory. Long understudied by mainstream international relations scholars, the East Asian historical experience provides an enormous wealth of new and different cases which promise to enrich a theoretical literature largely derived from the Western experience.
This chapter provides an overview of the international relations of historical East Asia. We begin with the Qin–Han unification of what is now central China (221 BC – 220 AD), extending into the era of contact with the West, stopping around 1900 when the system had clearly disintegrated, and Western imperialism and the rise of Japan had created entirely new dynamics. Our purposes are multiple. The first is to provide a stylized periodization and chronology of crucial events – what might be thought of as key markers – and how they reshaped the regional order. However, our second is to amplify on a number of the theoretical themes raised in the Introduction, placing them in appropriate historical context. New scholarship is overturning many of the most hoary stereotypes, starting with the presumption that the history of East Asian international relations is simply the history of China and its dynastic changes. Rather, we have to think of the history of a vast, vibrant, and diverse region encompassing a variety of political forms on China’s peripheries, from well-established kingdoms and social orders, to frontiers of settled farmers, as well as nomadic peoples.
Immunocompromised patients are at risk for infections due to above-ceiling activities in hospitals. Mobile dust-containment carts are available as environmental controls, but no published data support their efficacy. Using microbial air sampling and particle counts, we provide evidence of reduced risk of fungal exposure during open ceiling activities.
This innovative volume provides an introduction to twelve seminal events in the international relations of East Asia prior to 1900: twelve events that everyone interested in the history of world politics should know. The East Asian historical experience provides a wealth of new and different cases, patterns, and findings that will expand horizons from the Western, Eurocentric experience. Written by an international team of historians and political scientists, these essays draw attention to the China-centered East Asian order – with its long history of dominance – and what this order might tell us about the current epoch.
To estimate the impact of California’s antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) mandate on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) rates in acute-care hospitals.
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)–certified acute-care hospitals in the United States.
2013–2017 data from the CMS Hospital Compare, Provider of Service File and Medicare Cost Reports.
Difference-in-difference model with hospital fixed effects to compare California with all other states before and after the ASP mandate. We considered were standardized infection ratios (SIRs) for MRSA and CDI as the outcomes. We analyzed the following time-variant covariates: medical school affiliation, bed count, quality accreditation, number of changes in ownership, compliance with CMS requirements, % intensive care unit beds, average length of stay, patient safety index, and 30-day readmission rate.
In 2013, California hospitals had an average MRSA SIR of 0.79 versus 0.94 in other states, and an average CDI SIR of 1.01 versus 0.77 in other states. California hospitals had increases (P < .05) of 23%, 30%, and 20% in their MRSA SIRs in 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. California hospitals were associated with a 20% (P < .001) decrease in the CDI SIR only in 2017.
The mandate was associated with a decrease in CDI SIR and an increase in MRSA SIR.
Atrazine applied at planting is commonly used for weed control in corn. With global climate change causing an increase in river flooding in the United States over the past decade, producers need information to determine the best course of action in flooded fields treated with atrazine into which they wish to immediately plant soybean. Studies were designed to understand the effect of flooding on atrazine residual activity including atrazine concentration, soybean injury, and soybean yield. In 2012, soybean yield in flooded treatments was reduced by prior atrazine application. In 2014, soybean injury was <10% in all plots, and non-flooded, atrazine-treated soils had yields equal to the non-treated. Findings from this research indicated it is possible for producers to consider replanting soybean after atrazine application, with appropriate changes to product labelling.
Intimations of death often cause symptoms or syndromes of mental or emotional disorder, of which anxiety and depression are the most common. It is entirely appropriate, therefore, for mental health services to be involved with those who care for the dying in whatever setting. Old age psychiatrists have recognized their more direct role in caring for dying patients for many years., And some years ago a particular impetus emerged behind the notion of palliative care in dementia., This followed the early research by Ladislav Volicer and his colleagues in the dementia special care unit (DSCU) as part of the Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center at the E.N. Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital in Bedford, Massachusetts. Since then there has been a burgeoning both in the field and in the literature. Gradually, different sorts of ways to provide palliative care for people with dementia have also emerged.