Investigations were conducted to establish field responses of Glossina pallidipes, G. m. morsitans, muscoids and tabanids to castor, raw linseed, paraffin and chlorinated paraffin oils in deltamethrin suspension concentrate (sc) formulation, through randomised Latin square experiments. Tsetse landing responses on targets treated with 400 ml/m2 of any of the oils in 2 g/m2 deltamethrin formulation were significantly lower than on non-oil-containing deltamethrin formulations, for both G. pallidipes (F(4,32) = 4.855, P = 0.00357) and G. m. morsitans (F(4,32)=2.421, P = 0.06862).
The landing response indices, relative to the control formulation without oil, were 0.60, 0.70, 0.61 and 0.41 in G. pallidipes and 0.92, 0.82, 0.75 and 0.42 in G. m. morsitans and for paraffin, chlorinated paraffin, castor and raw linseed oils respectively. Glossina pallidipes and G. m. morsitans landing responses were inversely proportional to raw linseed oil concentrations. None of the oils significantly affected muscoid (F(4/32) = 1.6959, P = 0.1753) or tabanid (F(4,32) = 1.7546, P = 0.1624) landing response, or tsetse fly resting persistence (F(4,32) = 0.9641, P = 0.4406) on the targets.
The reduced tsetse fly response to targets treated with any of the oils can be attributed to adverse effect of the oil treatments on the tsetse fly olfactory responses to the targets. Since the oil formulations reduce target efficiency by reducing tsetse responses to the targets, application of the oil formulations on targets deployed in G. pallidipes and G. m. morsitans control programmes is not recommended.