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To date, there has been no published textbook which takes into account changing sociolinguistic dynamics that have influenced South African society. Multilingualism and Intercultural Communication breaks new ground in this arena. The scope of this book ranges from macro-sociolinguistic questions pertaining to language policies and their implementation (or non-implementation) to micro-sociolinguistic observations of actual language-use in verbal interaction, mainly in multilingual contexts of Higher Education (HE). There is a gradual move for the study of language and culture to be taught in the context of (professional) disciplines in which they would be used, for example, Journalism and African languages, Education and African languages, etc. The book caters for this growing market. Because of its multilingual nature, it caters to English and Afrikaans language speakers, as well as the Sotho and Nguni language groups – the largest languages in South Africa [and also increasingly used in the context of South African Higher Education]. It brings together various inter-linked disciplines such as Sociolinguistics and Applied Language Studies, Media Studies and Journalism, History and Education, Social and Natural Sciences, Law, Human Language Technology, Music, Intercultural Communication and Literary Studies. The unique cross-cutting disciplinary features of the book will make it a must-have for twenty-first century South African students and scholars and those interested in applied language issues.
Earth based multichannel photometry of integral sunlight has been obtained at Izaña (Tenerife) during 1984–1986. Power spectra of the solar luminosity variations of individual days show power in the 5 minute interval above noise at a level comparable to SMM datad). When combining contigous days of data the signature of p mode solar oscillations spectrum appears* although individual peak identification is difficult.
Early Archaic human skeletal remains found in a burial context in Lapa do
Santo in east-central Brazil provide a rare glimpse into the lives of
hunter-gatherer communities in South America, including their rituals for
dealing with the dead. These included the reduction of the body by means of
mutilation, defleshing, tooth removal, exposure to fire and possibly
cannibalism, followed by the secondary burial of the remains according to
strict rules. In a later period, pits were filled with disarticulated bones
of a single individual without signs of body manipulation, demonstrating
that the region was inhabited by dynamic groups in constant transformation
over a period of centuries.
In the Valencia region of Spain, the dominant use of natural caves for collective burials during the Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods has been documented. Collective burials are central to the hypothesis about social relationships in Copper Age societies from Iberia, and key to interpreting kinship-based societies. Les Llometes (Alcoi, Alicante) is one of the biggest collective burial sites existing in eastern Iberia. This article presents the direct 14C dates on 25 skeletal remains at the site. The results indicate that the site was used as a burial place from the end of the 5th millennium cal BC until the end of the 4th millennium cal BC, and is a first milestone for future studies that will shed light on the transition towards social structure through the use of a cemetery space. Moreover, this research is one of the few investigations of Late Neolithic collective burials in Iberia that comprises an extensive accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C data set of almost all the individuals reported at a single site. This case also serves to highlight the utility of revisiting materials from historic excavations by 14C dating all the skeletal remains that define the minimum number of individuals, and therefore ensuring a more complete picture of the prehistoric human record.
First results from the 4-6 months observations of the VIRGO experiment (Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations) on the ESA/NASA Mission SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) are reported. The time series are evaluated in terms of solar irradiance variability, solar background noise characteristics and p-mode oscillations. The solar irradiance is modulated by the passage of active regions across the disk, but not all of the modulation is straightforwardly explained in terms of sunspot flux blocking and facular enhancement. The observed p-mode frequencies are more-or-less in agreement with earlier measurements, but it is interesting to note that systematic differences seem to exist between the observations in different colours. There is also evidence that magnetic activity plays a significant role in the dynamics of the oscillations beyond its modulation of the resonant frequencies. Moreover, by comparing the amplitudes of different components of p-mode multiplets, each of which are influenced differently by spatial inhomogeneity, we have found that activity enhances excitation.
The reporting period has shown that Space has become a firmly established domain in observational Astrophysics, also in the low energy astrophysics area. The launching of new spacecraft is always an important addition to the capabilities of the Astronomers, but the availability of space observatories is strongly affected by the fact that they disappear as their subsystems become damaged or, for other reasons, become inoperable. The relatively short life of astronomical space facilities has generated new dynamic in the life cycle of observational tools for the astronomer, rather different from that for ground facilities. Launch failures or the final in-orbit functionality verification can also very strongly affect the availability of observational capabilities in space astrophysics. The only spacecraft designed without this built-in life time restriction, is the Hubble Space Telescope, which can be serviced by the Space Shuttle.
IPHIR (Interplanetary Helioseismology by IRradiance measurements) is a solar irradiance experiment on the USSR planetary mission PHOBOS to Mars and its satellite Phobos. The experiment was built by an international consortium including PMOD/WRC, LPSP, SSD/ESA, KrAO and CRIP. The sensor is a three channel sunphotometer (SPM) which measures the solar spectral irradiance at 335, 500 and 865 nm with a precision of better than 1 part-per-million (ppm). It is the first experiment dedicated to the investigation of solar oscillations from space. The results presented here are from a first evaluation of data gathered during 160 days of the cruise phase of PHOBOS II, launched on July, 12th 1988. The long uninterrupted observation produces a spectrum of the solar p-mode oscillations in the 5-minute range with a very high signal-to-noise ratio, which allows an accurate determination of frequencies and line shapes of these modes.
The ESA HIPPARCOS satellite has provided astrometry of unprecedented accuracy, allowing us to reassess, improve and refine the pre-Hipparcos luminosity calibrations. We review the “classical” absolute magnitude calibrations with the Strömgren-Crawford intermediate-band photometric system. A small zero point correction of about 2-4% seems necessary, as well as to refine the dependences on metallicity and projected rotational velocity. The need of a rigorous statistical treatment of the extremely precise Hipparcos data to derive definitive dependences of the luminosity on physical parameters is emphasized.