To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are frequently comorbid disorders that are independently associated with premature mortality. Conversely, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with reduced mortality risk. These factors may interact to impact mortality; however, their effects have not been assessed concurrently. This analysis assessed the mortality risk of comorbid depression/MetS and the effect of CRF on mortality in those with depression/MetS.
Prospective study of 47 702 adults in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. Mortality status was attained from the National Death Index. History of depression was determined by patient response (yes or no) to a standardized medical history questionnaire. MetS was categorized using the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. CRF was estimated from the final speed/grade of a treadmill graded exercise test.
13.9% reported a history of depression, 21.4% met criteria for MetS, and 3.0% met criteria for both MetS and history of depression. History of depression (HR = 1.24, p = 0.003) and MetS (HR = 1.28, p < 0.001) were independently associated with an increased mortality risk, with the greatest mortality risk among individuals with both a history of depression and MetS (HR = 1.59, p < 0.001). Higher CRF was associated with a significantly lower risk of mortality (p < 0.001) in all individuals, including those with MetS and/or a history of depression.
Those with higher levels CRF had reduced mortality risk in the context of depression/MetS. Interventions that improve CRF could have substantial impact on the health of persons with depression/MetS.
Sleep disturbances are persistent residual symptoms following remission of major depressive disorder (MDD) and are associated with an increased risk of MDD recurrence. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of exercise augmentation on self-reported sleep quality in participants with non-remitted MDD.
Participants were randomized to receive selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) augmentation with one of two doses of exercise: 16 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per week (KKW) or 4 KKW for 12 weeks. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the clinician-rated Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C). The four sleep-related items on the IDS-C (Sleep Onset Insomnia, Mid-Nocturnal Insomnia, Early Morning Insomnia, and Hypersomnia) were used to assess self-reported sleep quality.
Significant decreases in total insomnia (p < 0.0001) were observed, along with decreases in sleep onset, mid-nocturnal and early-morning insomnia (p's <0.002). Hypersomnia did not change significantly (p = 0.38). Changes in total, mid-nocturnal and early-morning insomnia were independent of changes in depressive symptoms. Higher baseline hypersomnia predicted a greater decrease in depression severity following exercise treatment (p = 0.0057). No significant moderating effect of any baseline sleep on change in depression severity was observed. There were no significant differences between exercise treatment groups on total insomnia or any individual sleep item.
Exercise augmentation resulted in improvements in self-reported sleep quality in patients with non-remitted MDD. Given the prevalence of insomnia as a residual symptom following MDD treatment and the associated risk of MDD recurrence, exercise augmentation may have an important role in the treatment of MDD.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.