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We investigate the effect of constant-vorticity background shear on the properties of wavetrains in deep water. Using the methodology of Fokas (A Unified Approach to Boundary Value Problems, 2008, SIAM), we derive a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the presence of shear and surface tension. We show that the presence of shear induces a strong coupling between the carrier wave and the mean-surface displacement. The effects of the background shear on the modulational instability of plane waves is also studied, where it is shown that shear can suppress instability, although not for all carrier wavelengths in the presence of surface tension. These results expand upon the findings of Thomas et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 24 (12), 2012, 127102). Using a modification of the generalized Lagrangian mean theory in Andrews & McIntyre (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 89, 1978, pp. 609–646) and approximate formulas for the velocity field in the fluid column, explicit, asymptotic approximations for the Lagrangian and Stokes drift velocities are obtained for plane-wave and Jacobi elliptic function solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Numerical approximations to particle trajectories for these solutions are found and the Lagrangian and Stokes drift velocities corresponding to these numerical solutions corroborate the theoretical results. We show that background currents have significant effects on the mean transport properties of waves. In particular, certain combinations of background shear and carrier wave frequency lead to the disappearance of mean-surface mass transport. These results provide a possible explanation for the measurements reported in Smith (J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 36, 2006, pp. 1381–1402). Our results also provide further evidence of the viability of the modification of the Stokes drift velocity beyond the standard monochromatic approximation, such as recently proposed in Breivik et al. (J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 44, 2014, pp. 2433–2445) in order to obtain a closer match to a range of complex ocean wave spectra.
To test the hypothesis that long-term care facility (LTCF) residents with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) or asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic strains are an important source of transmission in the LTCF and in the hospital during acute-care admissions.
A 6-month cohort study with identification of transmission events was conducted based on tracking of patient movement combined with restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
Veterans Affairs hospital and affiliated LTCF.
The study included 29 LTCF residents identified as asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic C. difficile based on every other week perirectal screening and 37 healthcare facility-associated CDI cases (ie, diagnosis >3 days after admission or within 4 weeks of discharge to the community), including 26 hospital-associated and 11 LTCF-associated cases.
Of the 37 CDI cases, 7 (18·9%) were linked to LTCF residents with LTCF-associated CDI or asymptomatic carriage, including 3 of 26 hospital-associated CDI cases (11·5%) and 4 of 11 LTCF-associated cases (36·4%). Of the 7 transmissions linked to LTCF residents, 5 (71·4%) were linked to asymptomatic carriers versus 2 (28·6%) to CDI cases, and all involved transmission of epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strains. No incident hospital-associated CDI cases were linked to other hospital-associated CDI cases.
Our findings suggest that LTCF residents with asymptomatic carriage of C. difficile or CDI contribute to transmission both in the LTCF and in the affiliated hospital during acute-care admissions. Greater emphasis on infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship in LTCFs is needed, and these efforts should focus on LTCF residents during hospital admissions.
We present early results from the analysis of HST imaging observations for several pairs of interacting galaxies. We include two cases that were specifically chosen to represent a strong early (young) encounter and a weak late (old) encounter. The goals of the project include a determination of the timing, frequency, strength, and characteristics of the young star clusters formed in these two limiting cases of tidal encounters.
The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague–Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.
Despite recommendations for higher choline intakes during pregnancy and lactation, there is limited research regarding maternal intake during these important periods. In the present study, we estimated dietary choline intake during pregnancy and lactation in a population of Albertan women and the contribution of egg and milk consumption to intake. Dietary intake data were collected from the first 600 women enrolled in a prospective cohort study carried out in Alberta, Canada. During the first and/or second trimester, the third trimester and 3 months postpartum, 24 h dietary intake recall data were collected. A database was constructed including foods consumed by the cohort and used to estimate dietary choline intake. The mean total choline intake value during pregnancy was 347 (sd 149) mg/d, with 23 % of the participants meeting the adequate intake (AI) recommendation. During lactation, the mean total choline intake value was 346 (sd 151) mg/d, with 10 % of the participants meeting the AI recommendation. Phosphatidylcholine was the form of choline consumed in the highest proportion and the main dietary sources of choline were dairy products, eggs and meat. Women who consumed at least one egg in a 24 h period had higher (P< 0·001) total choline intake and were eight times more likely (95 % CI 5·2, 12·6) to meet choline intake recommendations compared with those who did not consume eggs during pregnancy. Women who reported consuming ≥ 500 ml of milk in a 24 h period were 2·8 times more likely (95 % CI 1·7, 4·8) to meet daily choline intake recommendations compared with those consuming < 250 ml of milk/d during pregnancy. Choline intake is below the recommendation levels in this population and the promotion of both egg and milk consumption may assist in meeting the daily choline intake recommendations.
The objectives of this study were to develop a novel training model for using mass-casualty incident (MCI) scenarios that trained hospital and prehospital staff together using Microsoft Visio, images from Google Earth and icons representing first responders, equipment resources, local hospital emergency department bed capacity, and trauma victims. The authors also tested participants’ knowledge in the areas of communications, incident command systems (ICS), and triage.
Participants attended Managing Multiple-Casualty Incidents (MCIs), a one-day training which offered pre- and post-tests, two one-hour functional exercises, and four distinct, one-hour didactic instructional periods. Two MCI functional exercises were conducted. The one-hour trainings focused on communications, National Incident Management Systems/Incident Command Systems (NIMS/ICS) and professional roles and responsibilities in NIMS and triage. The trainings were offered throughout communities in western Montana. First response resource inventories and general manpower statistics for fire, police, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and emergency department hospital bed capacity were determined prior to MCI scenario construction. A test was given prior to and after the training activities.
A total of 175 firefighters, EMS, law enforcement, hospital personnel or other first-responders completed the pre- and post-test. Firefighters produced higher baseline scores than all other disciplines during pre-test analysis. At the end of the training all disciplines demonstrated significantly higher scores on the post-test when compared with their respective baseline averages. Improvements in post-test scores were noted for participants from all disciplines and in all didactic areas: communications, NIMS/ICS, and triage.
Mass-casualty incidents offer significant challenges for prehospital and emergency room workers. Fire, Police and EMS personnel must secure the scene, establish communications, define individuals’ roles and responsibilities, allocate resources, triage patients, and assign transport priorities. After emergency department notification and in advance of arrival, emergency department personnel must assess available physical resources and availability and type of manpower, all while managing patients already under their care. Mass-casualty incident trainings should strengthen the key, individual elements essential to well-coordinated response such as communications, incident management system and triage. The practice scenarios should be matched to the specific resources of the community. The authors also believe that these trainings should be provided with all disciplines represented to eliminate training “silos,” to allow for discussion of overlapping jurisdictional or organizational responsibilities, and to facilitate team building.
GlowSD, ColucciVJ, AllingtonDR, NoonanCW, HallEC. Managing Multiple-Casualty Incidents: A Rural Medical Preparedness Training Assessment. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(4):1-8.
In January 2009, the IAEA EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety II) program was launched. The goal of the program is to develop, compare and test models for the assessment of radiological impacts to the public and the environment due to radionuclides being released or already existing in the environment; to help countries build and harmonize their capabilities; and to model the movement of radionuclides in the environment. Within EMRAS II, nine working groups are active; this paper will focus on the activities of Working Group 1: Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases. Within this working group environmental transfer and dose assessment models are tested under different scenarios by participating countries and the results compared. This process allows each participating country to identify characteristics of their models that need to be refined. The goal of this working group is to identify reference methodologies for the assessment of exposures to the public due to routine discharges of radionuclides to the terrestrial and aquatic environments. Several different models are being applied to estimate the transfer of radionuclides in the environment for various scenarios. The first phase of the project involves a scenario of nuclear power reactor with a coastal location which routinely (continuously) discharges 60Co, 85Kr, 131I, and 137Cs to the atmosphere and 60Co, 137Cs, and 90Sr to the marine environment. In this scenario many of the parameters and characteristics of the representative group were given to the modellers and cannot be altered. Various models have been used by the different participants in this inter-comparison (PC-CREAM, CROM, IMPACT, CLRP POSEIDON, SYMBIOSE and others). This first scenario is to enable a comparison of the radionuclide transport and dose modelling. These scenarios will facilitate the development of reference methodologies for controlled discharges.
Relationships between feeding ecology, population dynamics and conservation of estuarine shorebirds are becoming better understood mainly as a result of detailed long-term studies of birds in the northwest European estuaries most vulnerable to industrial and agricultural developments. Until five years ago the tidal flats of the Clyde Estuary held internationally and nationally important populations of ducks (Anatinae) and waders (Charadrii). To understand the reasons for changes in bird distribution it is necessary to know more about the factors which determine distribution. In this paper we examine the pattern of association between the Clyde's birds and their prey by evaluating the extent to which the distribution of birds is related to that of benthic invertebrates, heterospecific birds, season and tidal state.
Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that heterospecifics had effects on bird distributions over-riding those of prey. In summer, the significant independent variables explained 41–61% variation in bird density (number km−2) and 33% variation in bird feeding hours (bird-hours km−2); in winter they explained 17–35% and 29–32% respectively. The amount of variation explained was greater during flow than ebb tides, and the number of species for which some of the variation was explained was greater in winter than in summer. Three associations, each consisting of two bird species, are suggested: redshank with lapwing, dunlin with mallard, and shelduck with gulls. We provide explanations for some of the mechanisms underlying the above patterns and indicate areas for more detailed observational and experimental work. The integrity of the avian component of the estuarine ecosystem appears to be dependent on associations and interactions between birds as well as between birds and their prey. The associations are labile, and in many species stem from the effect of tidal movement on prey availability.
Pyrite textures are described and illustrated and stable S-isotope data are presented from the Alton (Gastrioceras listen) marine horizon of the Westphalian Lower Coal Measures, from sections near Penistone in central northern England, with the object of relating the paragenetic sequence of pyrite formation to the conditions of sediment deposition and diagenesis. The earliest diagenetic pyrite is dispersed as framboidal and related textures. It is followed in the marine shale, coal and ganister by more localised but more intense pyrite deposition and replacement in a variety of textures. Most of this is precompactional in age, but some, together with pyrite in veinlets and cleat, is postcompactional. Marcasite is rare and mainly late. δ34S ratios range between −35·31‰ and +20·39‰. There is a definite trend from lighter values (−1·15 ± 6·47‰) in the marine part of the sequence to much heavier values (+12·73 ± 7·66‰) in the sediment below the coal. This allows the relationship of the earliest pyrite deposition in the coal-peat and ganister to the chemistry of their own depositional fresh water to be seen but then relates the main pyrite deposition to the influx of the marine-water sulphate of the Alton horizon, and shows the penetration of this influence downward into the coal-peat and its seat-bed.
The use of nanoparticle precursors for electronic materials including sulfides, selenides, oxides and the elements has potentially wide ranging implications for improving device properties and substantially reducing the deposition costs. To realize this goal the complex interfacial chemistry of these small particles must be controlled. In this paper we present a number of cases demonstrating the complexity of this chemistry. These include CuInSe2 where the kinetics of phase formation dominate the sintering process; CdTe where sintering proceeds with and without the sintering enhancement of CdCl2, but produces materials different electronically than bulk materials; and the use of compound and elemental nanoparticles ( Ag, Al, Hg-Cu-Te and Sb-Te) for contacts to elemental and compound semiconductors (Si and CdTe).
Our team has been investigating the use of particle-based contacts in CdTe solar cell technologies. Toward this end, particles of Cu-doped HgTe (Hg-Cu-Te) and Sb-Te have been applied as contacts to CdTe/CdS/SnO2 heterostructures. These metal telluride materials were characterized by standard methods. Hg-Cu-Te particles in graphite electrodag contacts produced CdTe solar cells with efficiencies above 12% and series resistance (Rse) of 6 Ω or less. Metathesis preparation of Cu(I) and Cu(II) tellurides (i.e., Cu2Te and CuTe, respectively) were attempted as a means of characterizing the valence state of Cu in the Hg-Cu-Te ink. For Sb-Te contacts to CdTe, open circuit voltages (Vocs) in excess of 800 mV were observed, however, efficiencies were limited to 9%; perhaps a consequence of the marked increase in the Rse (i.e., >20 Ω) in these non-graphite containing contacts. Acetylene black was mixed into the methanolic Sb-Te colloid as a means of reducing Rse, however, no improvement in device properties was observed.
Metal-organic and hybrid metal-organic/metal nanoparticle inkswere evaluated for use in the inkjet printing of copper and silver conducting lines. Pure, smooth, dense, highly conductive coatings were produced by spray printing with (hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(I)-vinyltrimethylsilane Cu(hfa)·VTMS) and (hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver(I)(1,5-cyclooctadiene) (Ag(hfa)COD) metal-organic precursors on heated substrates. Good adhesion to the substrates tested, glass, Kapton tape and Si, has been achieved without use of adhesion promoters. The silver metal-organic ink has also beenused to print metal lines and patterns with a commercial inkjet printer. Hybrid inks comprised of metal nanoparticles mixed with the metal-organic complexes above have also been used to deposit Cu and Ag films by spray printing.This approach gives dense, adherent films that are much thicker than those obtained using the metal-organic inks alone. The conductivities of the silvercoatings obtained by both approaches are near that of bulk silver (2 μΩ·cm). The copper coatings had conductivities at least an order ofmagnitude less than bulk.
Field-Assisted Simultaneous Synthesis and Transfer (FASST®) process offers a controllable and cost-effective method to produce Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) films for high efficiency photovoltaic devices. In the first stage of the two-stage FASST® process two separate precursor films are formed, one deposited on the substrate and the other on a reusable printing plate. In the second stage, the precursors are brought into intimate contact and rapidly reacted under pressure in the presence of an applied electrostatic field, effectively creating a sealed micro-reactor that ensures high material utilization efficiency, direct control of reaction pressure, and low thermal budget. The unique ability to control both precursor films independently allows for composition and deposition technique optimization, eliminating pre-reaction prior to the synthesis of CIGS. This flexibility has proven immensely valuable as is demonstrated in the results of depositing the two-reactant films by various combinations of low-cost solution-based and conventional vacuum-based physical vapor deposition techniques, producing in several minutes' high quality “hybrid” CIGS with large grains on the order of several microns. Cell efficiencies as high as 12.2% have been achieved using the FASST® method.
Three fundamentally different methods were used to fabricate nanometric surface features on polymers or fused silica. Phase separation of binary polymer mixes resulted in randomly distributed features whose depth and shape could be tightly controlled over large areas. Colloidal resist patterned large areas randomly and uniformly with very fine spikes. In contrast e-beam and reactive ion etching were used to create a set of regular spaced pillars on an orthogonal pattern. Some of the surfaces were replicated by in situ polymerization, solvent casting, embossing or melt molding onto polystyrene (PS) or ε–poly caprolactone (ε–PCL). Nanometric features down to 60nm were imprinted onto the polymers with high fidelity. Cells were seeded onto the nanometric surfaces and adhesion, morphology and cytoskeleton investigated. Cells respond to regular features of 170/80nm (width/depth) with reduced adhesion and changes in overall morphology and cytoskeleton. Small nanofeatures (13nm, 35nm depth) made by phase separation on the other hand increased adhesion and promoted cytoskeletal differentiation. The responses of the cells are indicative that nanometric surface features are useful modifications on scaffolds for tissue engineering or on medical implants.
A new actuator for silicon micro-valves has been developed and tested. A thin film shape memory alloy provides for large deflections with high speed, low power, and small size. The actuator is batch fabricated with planar processes.
Thin film shape memory alloy has been integrated with silicon in a new actuation mechanism for micro-electro-mechanical systems. This paper compares nickel-titanium film with other actuators, describes recent results of chemical milling processes developed to fabricate shape memory alloy micro-actuators in silicon, and describes simple actuation mechanisms which have been fabricated and tested.
We have employed inks containing nanometer-sized particles of Ag and Al (nano-Ag and nano-Al, respectively) as precursor inks for the formation of contacts to n- and p-type Si, respectively. The particles as formed by the electroexplosion process were dispersed in toluene, applied to Si and annealed above the respective eutectic temperatures. In the case of nano-Ag, this directly yields an ohmic contact. However, the nano-Al was found to be coated with an oxide layer that impairs the formation of an ohmic contact. A chelating chemical etch involving treatment with hexafluoroacetylacetone was developed to remove this oxide coat. This treated nano-Al produced a good ohmic contact. Smooth, pure Ag films have also been deposited by spray printing organometallic inks prepared from Ag(hfa)(SEt2) and Ag(hfa)(COD). These films are deposited in one step onto heated glass and Si substrates at one atmosphere pressure. The films show resistivities of ∼2 µΩ·cm. These inks appear to be amenable to ink-jet printing of Ag lines and as a low temperature glue for the Ag nanoparticles for thicker metallizations.