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Learn about the state-of-the-art at the interface between information theory and data science with this first unified treatment of the subject. Written by leading experts in a clear, tutorial style, and using consistent notation and definitions throughout, it shows how information-theoretic methods are being used in data acquisition, data representation, data analysis, and statistics and machine learning. Coverage is broad, with chapters on signal acquisition, data compression, compressive sensing, data communication, representation learning, emerging topics in statistics, and much more. Each chapter includes a topic overview, definition of the key problems, emerging and open problems, and an extensive reference list, allowing readers to develop in-depth knowledge and understanding. Providing a thorough survey of the current research area and cutting-edge trends, this is essential reading for graduate students and researchers working in information theory, signal processing, machine learning, and statistics.
For their glucose supply, ruminants are highly dependent on the endogenous synthesis in the liver, but despite the numerous studies that evaluated hepatic glucose production, very few simultaneously measured hepatic glucose production and uptake of all precursors. As a result, the variability of precursor conversion into glucose in the liver is not known. The present study aimed at investigating by meta-analysis the relationships between hepatic glucose net release and uptake of precursors. We used the FLuxes of nutrients across Organs and tissues in Ruminant Animals database, which gathers international results on net nutrient fluxes at splanchnic level measured in catheterized animals. Response equations were developed for intakes up to 41 g DM intake/kg BW per day of diets varying from 0 to 100 g of concentrate/100 g DM in the absence of additives. The net hepatic uptake of propionate, α-amino-N and l-lactate was linearly and better related to their net portal appearance (NPA) than to their afferent hepatic flux. Blood flow data were corrected for lack of deacetylation of the para-aminohippuric acid, and this correction was shown to impact the response equations. To develop response equations between the availability of precursors (portal appearance and hepatic uptake) and net glucose hepatic release, missing data on precursor fluxes were predicted from dietary characteristics using previously developed response equations. Net hepatic release of glucose was curvilinearly related to hepatic supply and uptake of the sum of precursors, suggesting a lower conversion rate of precursors at high precursor supply. Factors of variation were explored for the linear portion of this relationship, which applied to NPA of precursors ranging from 0.99 to 9.60 mmol C/kg BW per h. Hepatic release of glucose was shown to be reduced by the portal absorption of glucose from diets containing bypass starch and to be increased by an increased uptake of β-hydroxybutyrate indicative of higher body tissue mobilization. These relationships were affected by the physiological status of the animals. In conclusion, we established equations that quantify the net release of glucose by the liver from the net availability of precursors. They provide a quantitative overview of factors regulating hepatic glucose synthesis in ruminants. These equations can be linked with the predictions of portal absorption of nutrients from intake and dietary characteristics, and provide indications of glucose synthesis from dietary characteristics.
Feed form is well recognized to improve broiler performance, specially by increasing feed intake (FI). However, when different diet energy levels are used, the results differ in the literature. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of feed form and dietary metabolizable energy (ME) levels on broiler performance, carcass yield and on the digestibility of DM, CP, starch and gross energy. In total, 1152 male Cobb 500 broilers were evaluated between 35 and 47 days. The birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement, consisting of two feed forms (mash or pellet) and four ME levels (12.73, 13.06, 13.40 or 13.73 MJ/kg), totaling eight treatments with eight replicates of 18 birds. Broilers fed the lowest ME level presented the lowest weight gain (WG) and worst feed per unit gain (P < 0.01). Metabolizable energy intake increased (P < 0.01) with progressive increments of ME, which, however, did not affect caloric conversion (CC, P > 0.05). Pelleted diets promoted higher FI, WG, ME intake (P < 0.01) and better feed per unit gain and CC (P < 0.05) compared with mash. In mash diets, increasing dietary ME levels promoted a linear increase in WG (P < 0.01) and reduced feed per unit gain (P ≤ 0.05), but did not affect FI (P > 0.05). In pelleted diets, on the other hand, increasing ME levels linearly reduced FI (P < 0.05) and feed per unit gain (P < 0.01). Broilers fed pelleted diets presented higher abdominal fat deposition than those fed mash (P < 0.05). Increasing ME levels reduced the coefficients of ileal apparent digestibility of DM (P < 0.01) and total starch (P < 0.05) but did not affect the digestibility of other evaluated nutrients. The digestibility of all nutrients was lower when pelleted diets were fed compared with mash. Increasing inert material inclusion in the diets at the expense of soybean oil to reduce dietary ME levels promoted higher pellet durability index values (P < 0.05) and the percentage of fines (P < 0.01). Overall, the results suggest that pelleted diets promote better broiler performance because they increase FI, since the digestibility of dietary fractions is reduced. Chickens consuming low-energy pelleted diets may increase FI to compensate for energy deficit. In contrast, broilers fed mash diets may have reached their maximum intake capacity and did not regulate FI by changing feed energy density. When feeding pelleted diets, dietary energy reduction should be considered to reduce feed costs and to improve the carcass quality of broilers.
Automated manufacturing of thermoplastic composites has found increased interest in aerospace applications over the past three decades because of its great potential in low-cost, high rate, repeatable production of high performance composite structures. Experimental validation is a key element in the development of structures made using this emerging technology. In this work, a
mm variable-stiffness unitised integrated-stiffener out-of-autoclave thermoplastic composite wingbox is tested for a combined shear-bending-torsion induced buckling load. The wingbox is manufactured by in-situ consolidation using a laser-assisted automated tape placement technique. It is made and tested as a demonstrator section located at 85% of the wing semi-span of a B-737/A320 sized aircraft. A bespoke in-house test rig and two aluminium dummy wingboxes are also designed and manufactured for testing the wingbox assembly which spans more than 3m. Prior to testing, the wingbox assembly and the test rig were analysed using a high fidelity finite element method to minimise the failure risk due to the applied load case. The experimental test results of the wingbox are also compared with the predictions made by a numerical study performed by nonlinear finite element analysis showing less than 5% difference in load-displacement behaviour and buckling load and full agreement in predicting the buckling mode shape.
Evidence suggests that early trauma may have a negative effect on cognitive functioning in individuals with psychosis, yet the relationship between childhood trauma and cognition among those at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis remains unexplored. Our sample consisted of 626 CHR children and 279 healthy controls who were recruited as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study 2. Childhood trauma up to the age of 16 (psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and bullying) was assessed by using the Childhood Trauma and Abuse Scale. Multiple domains of cognition were measured at baseline and at the time of psychosis conversion, using standardized assessments. In the CHR group, there was a trend for better performance in individuals who reported a history of multiple types of childhood trauma compared with those with no/one type of trauma (Cohen d = 0.16). A history of multiple trauma types was not associated with greater cognitive change in CHR converters over time. Our findings tentatively suggest there may be different mechanisms that lead to CHR states. Individuals who are at clinical high risk who have experienced multiple types of childhood trauma may have more typically developing premorbid cognitive functioning than those who reported minimal trauma do. Further research is needed to unravel the complexity of factors underlying the development of at-risk states.
Overfeeding in ducks is questioned because forced introduction of food into the animal and metabolic overload may induce damage to health and discomfort. In this context, the objective of our experiment was to measure the impact of dietary strategy on the progression of animal status evaluated through 28 health and behavioural indicators in ducks reared for fatty liver production. To do this, 320 ducks were forced-fed twice a day from 70 to 90 days of age including 10 days of overfeeding (87 to 96 days). They were divided into two groups differing in the feeding strategy during overfeeding period: a moderate feed intake (MI, an average of 376 g of maize flour per meal, n = 160 ducks) or at high feed intake (HI, 414 g/meal, n = 160 ducks). We evaluated 28 indicators related to Good feeding (n = 3), Good housing (n = 4), Good health (n = 10) and Appropriate behaviour (n = 11) principles, taken from the European Welfare Quality Consortium® at four stages: before overfeeding (BEF; 80 days), at the beginning (88 days), the middle (MID; 92 days) or the end of overfeeding (END; 96 days). Animals were slaughtered at 93 and 97 days to measure fatty liver weight at MID and END stages (n = 80 per group). The results showed that dietary strategy influenced the fatty liver weight at MID (+23% in HI v. MI group; P < 0;05) and END stage (+23%; P < 0.05). Assessment stage influenced 13 of the 28 indicators measured. Among these 13 indicators, (i) BEF differed from END stage for 7 indicators and (ii) the dietary strategy degraded all the indicators chosen to evaluate the Good feeding (2/2) principle, but had no effect on the indicators related to the Good health (0/4) principle while (iii) most of the indicators that evaluated Good housing (2/3) and Appropriate behaviour (2/4) principles were affected by an interaction between both factors. Our results suggest that (i) duck fattening status, including the fatty liver weight, and several welfare indicators progressed during the fatty liver production process; and (ii) feeding strategy influenced or even interacted with this progression.
To compare the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among a wide range of ethnoracial groups in the US.
Non-probabilistic longitudinal clinical research.
Participants enrolling into the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Unified Data Set recruited via multiple approaches including clinician referral, self-referral by patients or family members, or active recruitment through community organizations.
Cognitively normal individuals 55 and older at the initial visit, who reported race and ethnicity information, with at least two visits between September 2005 and November 2018.
Ethnoracial information was self-reported and grouped into non-Latino Whites, Asian Americans, Native Americans, African Americans (AAs), and individuals simultaneously identifying as AAs and another minority race (AA+), as well as Latinos of Caribbean, Mexican, and Central/South American origin. MCI was evaluated clinically following standard criteria. Four competing risk analysis models were used to calculate MCI risk adjusting for risk of death, including an unadjusted model, and models adjusting for non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors.
After controlling for sex and age at initial visit, subhazard ratios of MCI were statistically higher than non-Latino Whites among Native Americans (1.73), Caribbean Latinos (1.80), and Central/South American Latinos (1.55). Subhazard ratios were higher among AA+ compared to non-Latino Whites only in the model controlling for all risk factors (1.40).
Compared to non-Latino Whites, MCI risk was higher among Caribbean and South/Central American Latinos as well as Native Americans and AA+. The factors explaining the differential MCI risk among ethnoracial groups are not clear and warrant future research.
Intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) is mainly composed of several fibrils (known as total collagen (TCol)) linked between each other by different chemical cross-links (CLs), the whole being embedded in a matrix of proteoglycans (PGs). In the field of beef quality, there is limited information on the role of CLs and PGs. Accordingly, several authors suggest that, to investigate the role of IMCT, it is important to investigate them just like TCol and insoluble collagen (ICol). In muscle, there are two other components, the muscle fibres and intramuscular fat (IMF) content. There are limited data on the relationships between these three components of muscle and then on possibility to independently manipulate these characteristics in order to control the final quality of meat. The present study aimed to investigate whether consistent relationships exist between these different components of muscle. Therefore, the present study compared four muscles of two cattle types (dairy and beef) to determine associations between TCol, ICol, CLs and PGs. Data were analysed across and within muscle (M) and animal type (AT) based on residuals. There was a strong M and AT effect for all muscle characteristics and an interaction M × AT for type I muscle fibres and IMF. Correlations between TCol, ICol and their CLs were M- and AT-independent. Total proteoglycans were positively correlated with TCol and ICol in a muscle-dependent manner irrespective of AT, but no correlation was found with CLs. On the contrary, CLs were negatively correlated with the ratio TPGs : TCol in an M-dependent manner, irrespective of AT. TCol, ICol and CLs were positively and negatively correlated with type IIA and IIB+X muscle fibres only in longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle, regardless the AT. Insoluble collagen was the only parameter of IMCT to be correlated with type I muscle fibres but only in LT muscle, irrespective of AT. There was no correlation between PGs and muscle fibre types, but PGs were the only IMCT component to be related with IMF in an M-dependent manner, irrespective of AT. Finally, there was no correlation between muscle fibre types and IMF content within M and AT. This study revealed that there is a strong relationship between IMCT components irrespective of M, an M-dependent relationship between the IMCT components and muscle fibre types and few (only with PGs) or no relationship between IMF and IMCT and muscle fibres.
A non-parametric Gaussian process regression model is developed in the three-dimensional equilibrium reconstruction code V3FIT. A Gaussian process is a normal distribution of functions that is uniquely defined by specifying a mean function and covariance kernel function. Gaussian process regression assumes that an unknown profile belongs to a particular Gaussian process and uses Bayesian analysis to select the function the give the best fit to measured data. The implementation in V3FIT uses a hybrid representation where Gaussian processes are used to infer some of the equilibrium profiles and standard parametric techniques are used to infer the remaining profiles. The implementation of the Gaussian process is tested using both synthetic data and experimental data from multiple machines.
In recent decades, concern about rabbit welfare and sustainability has increased. The housing system is a very important factor for animal welfare. However, information about how different available housing types for female rabbits affect their health status is scarce, but this is an important factor for their welfare. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the health status of female rabbits in five common housing systems: three different single-housing systems with distinct available surfaces and heights; a single-housing system with a platform; a collective system. Female rabbits in the collective and platform cages had greater cortisol concentrations in hair than those in the single-housing system with no platform. Haptoglobin concentrations and kit mortality rates during lactation were greater for the collective-cage female rabbits. The collective group had more culled females and more lesions than in the other groups. The main reasons for culling in all the groups were reproduction problems and presence of abscesses, and the collective group of females was the most affected. In conclusion, it appears that keeping females together in collective systems negatively affects their health status and welfare, while single-housing systems imply lower kit mortality rates during lactation and cortisol concentrations, and fewer lesions in female rabbits.
To determine whether patients would have equivalent or improved outcomes when receiving non-surgical management versus surgical removal for vocal process granulomas.
A chart review was performed for 53 adults with vocal process granulomas. All patients received baseline anti-reflux treatment consisting of twice-daily proton pump inhibitors and vocal hygiene education. Further treatment approaches were divided into non-surgical (i.e. inhaled corticosteroids, voice therapy, botulinum toxin injections) and surgical groups. Subjective parameters (Voice Handicap Index 10 and Reflux Symptom Index) and outcomes were tabulated and statistically compared. Cause of granuloma was also analysed to determine if this influenced outcomes.
Of 53 patients, 47 (89 per cent) experienced reduction in granuloma size, while 37 (70 per cent) experienced complete resolution. The rate of complete granuloma resolution after initial treatment strategy alone was significantly higher in non-surgical compared to surgical patients (67 and 30 per cent, respectively; p = 0.039). No difference in outcome was seen between iatrogenic and idiopathic granulomas.
Non-surgical patients were more likely to experience initial treatment success than those who underwent surgical removal. Continued emphasis should be placed on conservative treatment options prior to surgery for patients with this condition.
Determining prognostic factors for the probability of tracheostomy decannulation is key to an adequate therapeutic plan.
A retrospective cohort study of 160 paediatric patients undergoing tracheostomy was conducted. Associations between different parameters and eventual tracheostomy decannulation were assessed.
Mean follow-up duration was 27.8 months (interquartile range = 25.5–30.2 months). Median age at tracheostomy was 6.96 months (interquartile range = 3.37–29.42 months), with median tracheostomy maintenance of 14.5 months (interquartile range = 3.7–21.5 months). The overall tracheostomy decannulation rate was 22.5 per cent. Factors associated with a higher probability of tracheostomy decannulation included age at tracheostomy (hazard ratio = 1.11, 95 per cent confidence interval = 1.03–1.18) and post-intubation laryngitis as an indication for tracheostomy (hazard ratio = 2.25, 95 per cent confidence interval = 1.09–4.62). Neurological (hazard ratio = 0.30, 95 per cent confidence interval = 0.12–0.80) and pulmonary (hazard ratio = 0.41, 95 per cent confidence interval = 0.18–0.91) co-morbidities were negatively associated with tracheostomy decannulation. The probability of tracheostomy decannulation decreased significantly with increasing numbers of co-morbidities (p < 0.001).
Age, post-intubation laryngitis, and number and type of co-morbidities influence tracheostomy decannulation rate in the paediatric population.
Multiple lines of evidence suggest the presence of altered neuroimmune processes in patients with schizophrenia (Sz) and severe mood disorders. Recent studies using a novel free water diffusion tensor imaging (FW DTI) approach, proposed as a putative biomarker of neuroinflammation, atrophy, or edema, have shown significantly increased FW in patients with Sz. However no studies to date have investigated the longitudinal stability of FW alterations during the early course of psychosis, nor have studies focused separately on FE psychosis patients with Sz or bipolar disorder (BD) with psychotic features.
The current study included 188 participants who underwent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline. Sixty-four participants underwent follow-up rescanning after 12 months. DTI-based alterations in patients were calculated using voxelwise tract-based spatial statistics and region of interest analyses.
Patients with FE psychosis, both Sz and BD, exhibited increased FW at illness onset which remained unchanged over the 12-month follow-up period. Preliminary analyses suggested that antipsychotic medication exposure was associated with higher FW in gray matter that reached significance in the BD group. Higher FW in white matter correlated with negative symptom severity.
Our results support the presence of elevated FW at the onset of psychosis in both Sz and BD, which remains stable during the early course of the illness, with no evidence of either progression or remission.
Progesterone (P4) plays a key role in pregnancy establishment and maintenance; during early pregnancy, P4 stimulates the production and release of uterine secretions necessary for conceptus growth prior to implantation; therefore, exogenous P4 supplementation may improve embryo development. This study evaluated the effects of supplementation during early pregnancy with long-acting injectable progesterone or altrenogest on embryonic characteristics of sows and gilts. Thus, a total of 32 sows and 16 gilts were used. On day 6 of pregnancy sows and gilts were allocated to one of the following groups: non-supplemented; supplemented with 20 mg of altrenogest, orally, from days 6 to 12 of pregnancy; supplemented with 2.15 mg/kg of long-acting injectable progesterone on day 6 of pregnancy. Animals were killed on day 28 of pregnancy, and ovulation rate, embryo survival, embryo weight, crown-to-rump length, uterine glandular epithelium and endometrial vascularization were assessed. Treatments had no effect on pregnancy rate, embryo survival or endometrial vascular density (P > 0.05). Non-supplemented gilts presented larger and heavier embryos compared to gilts from supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Sows in the altrenogest group presented larger and heavier embryos compared to non-supplemented sows and sows supplemented with long-acting injectable progesterone. In conclusion, supplementation of sows and gilts with progestagen from day 6 of pregnancy can be used as a means to improve embryo survival without deleterious effects.
Associations between different forms of malnutrition and environmental conditions, including water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), may contribute towards persistently poor child health, growth and cognitive development. Experiencing poor nutrition in utero or during early childhood is furthermore associated with chronic diseases later in life. The primary responsibility for provision of water and sanitation, as a basic service and human right, lies with the State; however, a number of stakeholders are involved. The situation is most critical in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where, in 2015, 311 million people lacked a safe water source, and >70% of SSA populations were living without adequate sanitation. The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the state of literature concerned with WASH and its association with nutritional status, and governance in children from birth to 5 years of age in SSA. Articles were sourced from PubMed Central, Science Direct and ProQuest Social Science databases published between 1990 and 2017. The PRISMA Statement was utilised and this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017071700). The search terms returned 15,351 articles for screening, with 46 articles included. This is indicative of a limited body of knowledge; however, the number of publications on this topic has been increasing, suggesting burgeoning field of interest. Targeted research on the governance of WASH through the identification of the various role players and stakeholders at various levels, while understanding the policy environment in relation to particular health-related outcomes is imperative to address the burden of child undernutrition.
Research from high-income countries has implicated travel distance to mental health services as an important factor influencing treatment-seeking for mental disorders. This study aimed to test the extent to which travel distance to the nearest depression treatment provider is associated with treatment-seeking for depression in rural India.
We used data from a population-based survey of adults with probable depression (n = 568), and calculated travel distance from households to the nearest public depression treatment provider with network analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). We tested the association between travel distance to the nearest public depression treatment provider and 12 month self-reported use of services for depression.
We found no association between travel distance and the probability of seeking treatment for depression (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.98–1.02, p = 0.78). Those living in the immediate vicinity of public depression treatment providers were just as unlikely to seek treatment as those living 20 km or more away by road. There was evidence of interaction effects by caste, employment status and perceived need for health care, but these effect sizes were generally small.
Geographic accessibility – as measured by travel distance – is not the primary barrier to seeking treatment for depression in rural India. Reducing travel distance to public mental health services will not of itself reduce the depression treatment gap for depression, at least in this setting, and decisions about the best platform to deliver mental health services should not be made on this basis.
Metacercariae of various species within the genus Holostephanus Szidat, 1936 (Trematoda: Digenea: Cyathocotylidae) occur in muscles of both farmed and wild fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758). The life cycle includes a snail as first intermediate host, fish as second intermediate host and birds or mammals as final hosts. We studied the zoonotic potential and the viability of Holostephanus metacercariae from common carp following exposure to various physical and chemical treatments. Muscle tissue samples of common carp specimens from a fish farm in the north-eastern part of Hungary were examined and metacercariae recovered. The zoonotic potential was evaluated experimentally by using small mammals as models (albino mice, n = 2; and Syrian hamsters, n = 4) infected per os with Holostephanus cysts. Parallelly, Metagonimus metacercariae were used as positive controls. We could not confirm the zoonotic potential of Holostephanus metacercariae as they did not survive in the mammalian intestine whereas Metagonimus metacercariae developed to the adult stage. We assessed the viability of metacercariae isolated from common carp specimens during exposure to different physical treatments (temperatures of −18°C, +20°C, +40°C and +60°C) and chemical agents (5% and 10% acetic acid and 10% sodium chloride (NaCl)). Metacercariae lost viability by freezing at −18°C (2 h), heating at 60°C (20 min), incubation in 5% and 10% acetic acid (5 min) and 10% NaCl (2 h). These methods served as models to investigate the effectiveness of food preparation techniques (such as cold and hot smoking, freezing, salting and pickling) on the survival of metacercariae.
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can reduce the production efficiency and impair the welfare of cattle, potentially in all production systems. The aim of this study was to characterise measurable postmortem observations from divergently managed intensive beef finishing farms with high rates of concentrate feeding. At the time of slaughter, we obtained samples from 19 to 20 animals on each of 6 beef finishing units (119 animals in total) with diverse feeding practices, which had been subjectively classified as being high risk (three farms) or low risk (three farms) for SARA on the basis of the proportions of barley, silage and straw in the ration. We measured the concentrations of histamine, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lactate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in ruminal fluid, LPS and SCFA in caecal fluid. We also took samples of the ventral blind sac of the rumen for histopathology, immunohistopathology and gene expression. Subjective assessments were made of the presence of lesions on the ruminal wall, the colour of the lining of the ruminal wall and the shape of the ruminal papillae. Almost all variables differed significantly and substantially among farms. Very few pathological changes were detected in any of the rumens examined. The animals on the high-risk diets had lower concentrations of SCFA and higher concentrations of lactate and LPS in the ruminal fluid. Higher LPS concentrations were found in the caecum than the rumen but were not related to the risk status of the farm. The diameters of the stratum granulosum, stratum corneum and of the vasculature of the papillae, and the expression of the gene TLR4 in the ruminal epithelium were all increased on the high-risk farms. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-1β and the counts of cluster of differentiation 3 positive and major histocompatibility complex class two positive cells were lower on the high-risk farms. High among-farm variation and the unbalanced design inherent in this type of study in the field prevented confident assignment of variation in the dependent variables to individual dietary components; however, the CP percentage of the total mixed ration DM was the factor that was most consistently associated with the variables of interest. Despite the strong effect of farm on the measured variables, there was wide inter-animal variation.