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On September 20, 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall on Puerto Rico as a category 4 storm, resulting in serious widespread impact across the island, including communication and power outages, water systems impairment, and damage to life-saving infrastructure. In collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, the Public Health Branch (PHB), operating under the Department of Health and Human Services Incident Response Coordination Team, was tasked with completing assessments of health-care facilities in Puerto Rico to determine infrastructure capabilities and post-hurricane capacity. Additionally, in response to significant data entry and presentation needs, the PHB leadership worked with the Puerto Rico Planning Board to develop and test a new app-based infrastructure capacity assessment tool. Assessments of hospitals were initiated September 28, 2017, and completed November 10, 2017 (n = 64 hospitals, 97%). Assessments of health-care centers were initiated on October 7, 2017, with 186 health-care centers (87%) assessed through November 18, 2017. All hospitals had working communications; however, 9% (n = 17) of health-care centers reported no communication capabilities. For the health-care centers, 114 (61%) reported they were operational but had sustainment needs. In conclusion, health-care facility assessments indicated structural damage issues and operational capacity decreases, while health-care centers reported loss of communication capabilities post-Hurricane Maria.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
We assessed self-reported drives for alcohol use and their impact on clinical features of alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients. Our prediction was that, in contrast to “affectively” (reward or fear) driven drinking, “habitual” drinking would be associated with worse clinical features in relation to alcohol use and higher occurrence of associated psychiatric symptoms.
Fifty-eight Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) alcohol abuse patients were assessed with a comprehensive battery of reward- and fear-based behavioral tendencies. An 18-item self-report instrument (the Habit, Reward and Fear Scale; HRFS) was employed to quantify affective (fear or reward) and non-affective (habitual) motivations for alcohol use. To characterize clinical and demographic measures associated with habit, reward, and fear, we conducted a partial least squares analysis.
Habitual alcohol use was significantly associated with the severity of alcohol dependence reflected across a range of domains and with lower number of detoxifications across multiple settings. In contrast, reward-driven alcohol use was associated with a single domain of alcohol dependence, reward-related behavioral tendencies, and lower number of detoxifications.
These results seem to be consistent with a shift from goal-directed to habit-driven alcohol use with severity and progression of addiction, complementing preclinical work and informing biological models of addiction. Both reward-related and habit-driven alcohol use were associated with lower number of detoxifications, perhaps stemming from more benign course for the reward-related and lack of treatment engagement for the habit-related alcohol abuse group. Future work should further explore the role of habit in this and other addictive disorders, and in obsessive-compulsive related disorders.
Temporal and spatial scarcity of water in semi-arid and seasonal ecosystems often leads to changes in movements and behaviour of large vertebrates, and in the neotropics this dynamic is poorly understood due to logistical and methodological limitations. Here we used camera trapping to elucidate variation in patterns of seasonal use of waterholes and pathways by 10 large-mammal and four large-bird species in the dry forest of north-western Costa Rica. From 2011 to 2015, we deployed trail cameras at 50 locations, including waterholes and three types of pathway (roads, human trails and animal paths). We used Generalized Linear Models to evaluate the effect of location and seasonality on the rates at which independent photographs were taken. We found interacting effects of location and seasonality for the capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus), the tiger heron (Trigrisoma mexicanum), the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and the tapir (Tapirus bairdii) suggesting that these species were the most influenced by waterholes during the dry season. Comparison of waterhole sites and specific types of pathways (roads, animal paths and human trails) showed that location influenced photo-capture rates of almost all species, suggesting a useful insight to avoid and account for bias in camera trap studies. Furthering our ecological understanding of seasonal water regimes and large vertebrates’ behaviours allow for better understanding of the consequences of climate change on them.
This paper describes a model of electron energization and cyclotron-maser emission applicable to astrophysical magnetized collisionless shocks. It is motivated by the work of Begelman, Ergun and Rees [Astrophys. J. 625, 51 (2005)] who argued that the cyclotron-maser instability occurs in localized magnetized collisionless shocks such as those expected in blazar jets. We report on recent research carried out to investigate electron acceleration at collisionless shocks and maser radiation associated with the accelerated electrons. We describe how electrons accelerated by lower-hybrid waves at collisionless shocks generate cyclotron-maser radiation when the accelerated electrons move into regions of stronger magnetic fields. The electrons are accelerated along the magnetic field and magnetically compressed leading to the formation of an electron velocity distribution having a horseshoe shape due to conservation of the electron magnetic moment. Under certain conditions the horseshoe electron velocity distribution function is unstable to the cyclotron-maser instability [Bingham and Cairns, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3089 (2000); Melrose, Rev. Mod. Plasma Phys. 1, 5 (2017)].
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a dicotyledonous annual species belonging to the family Amaranthaceae, which is nutritionally well balanced in terms of its oil, protein and carbohydrate content. Targeting-induced local lesions in genomes (the TILLING strategy) was employed to find mutations in acetolactate synthase (AHAS) genes in a mutant quinoa population. The AHAS genes were targeted because they are common enzyme target sites for five herbicide groups. Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) was used to induce mutations in the AHAS genes; it was found that 2% EMS allowed a mutation frequency of one mutation every 203 kilobases to be established. In the mutant population created, a screening strategy using pre-selection phenotypic data and next-generation sequencing (NGS) allowed identification of a mutation that alters the amino acid composition of this species (nucleotide 1231 codon GTT→ATT, Val→Ile); however, this mutation did not result in herbicide resistance. The current work shows that TILLING combined with the high-throughput of NGS technologies and an overlapping pool design provides an efficient and economical method for detecting induced mutations in pools of individuals.
We performed a new series of measurements on samples that were part of early measurements on radiocarbon (14C) dating made in 1948–1949. Our results show generally good agreement to the data published in 1949–1951, despite vast changes in technology, with only two exceptions where there was a discrepancy in the original studies. Our new measurements give calibrated ages that overlap with the known ages. We dated several samples at four different laboratories, and so we were also able to make a small intercomparison at the same time. In addition, new measurements on samples from other Egyptian materials used by Libby and co-workers were made at UC Irvine. Samples of tree rings used in the original studies (from Broken Flute Cave and Centennial Stump) were obtained from the University of Arizona Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research archive and remeasured. New data were compared to the original studies and other records.
Alien invasive species have strategies that can maintain fitness in a variety of environments. This flexibility is associated with environmental tolerance in several traits, such as allocation of resources to shoots versus roots, clonal versus sexual reproduction, and survival of seedlings. These traits were explored in the chandelier plant (Kalanchoe delagoensis Eckl. & Zeyh.), which has invasive populations in several countries. Light and water tolerance and herbicide treatments were tested on plantlet survival. Plantlet survival in the most extreme cases (full sunlight and no watering) was close to 30%, whereas in less severe conditions (water and shaded), it was close to 100%. Stress conditions triggered the onset of plantlet production from the margin of leaves, which increased clonality. Biomass was allocated primarily to aboveground structures. Although all herbicides resulted in high plantlet mortality (>85%), only 2,4-D and glyphosate+2,4-D amine achieved the maximum recorded mortality a few days after the chemical application. The high tolerance of K. delagoensis plantlets to varying conditions shows that under stress, plantlet production is enhanced as survival of established individuals decreases. Biomass is primarily aboveground, which can potentially alter nitrogen and carbon in poor arid environments, and the proportion of the biomass assigned to belowground roots increased with an increase in sunlight received. Even though the chemical treatments 2,4-D and glyphosate+2,4-D amine have been shown to be the only effective treatments, the 2,4-D treatment may be the most viable (cost+quantity) to reduce the propagation of K. delagoensis. Plantlets have become the main reason for population persistence, partially due to the plant’s environmental tolerance and ability to reproduce asexually in short time periods. Susceptibility of plantlets to the two herbicides presents a means to adequately manage invasions of K. delagoensis in Mexico.
Several gold deposits hosted mainly by Variscan granites and Precambrian to Palaeozoic metasediments occur in the northwestern part of Portugal. Most of these deposits were mined by the Romans (in the period I BC to II AD) as open pits and surface galleries. The Castromil-Serra da Quinta gold deposit is an important example of such a mined site; it occurs in the Dúrico-Beirã Au province located in the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ) in the western branch of European Variscan belt, mainly on the eastern flank of the Valongo anticline. Open pits and underground galleries at Castromil-Serra da Quinta exploited the gossan formed from the weathering of primary mineralization. The gossan is composed essentially of goethite, scorodite and clay minerals. A recent drilling campaign at Castromil-Serra da Quinta has provided samples of the primary mineralization below the oxidation level. Different modes of gold occurrence are defined based on metallographic studies of both the gossan and drill cores. Gold I occurs encapsulated in primary sulfide minerals, mainly arsenopyrite and pyrite; Gold II is also associated with the main primary sulfides, but occurs along grain boundaries and in microfractures of the sulfides or in associated quartz veins; and Gold III occurs as free gold particles in iron oxides within the gossan. In the gossan samples, it is difficult to distinguish whether the gold particles hosted in oxides correspond to Gold I, Gold II, or both, so these particles are described as Gold I–II and they are commonly surrounded by very much smaller particles of Gold III. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) data for the different gold particles reveal that Gold I is poorer in Ag (~15.5–39.76%) than Gold II (37.46–51.45%), whereas Gold III corresponds to native gold (<16.11% Ag). Gold III is thought to reflect gold enrichment in the upper level of the deposit, resulting from weathering processes that affected the primary Au (Bi) mineralization.
Four early-generation backcross populations (BC1F2) derived from one common recipient parental background, Weed Tolerant Rice 1 (‘WTR1’), and four different donor parents (‘Y134’, ‘Zhong 143’, ‘Khazar’, and ‘Cheng Hui-448’) were tested to identify suitable donor and recipient parents for weed competitiveness and to standardize evaluation of the weed-competitive ability in rice. ‘GSR IR2-6’ (G-6) derived from a backcross of WTR1/Y134//WTR1 was selected as the best population and was advanced for phenotypic experiments in the 2014 dry season. The introgression lines (ILs) derived from the G-6 population were evaluated for seed germination and seedling vigor in greenhouse conditions and for weed-competitive ability under field conditions (upland weed-free, upland weedy, and lowland weedy). Parents and checks were included for comparison. Selection pressure for weed competitiveness was relatively stronger in upland conditions than in lowland conditions. After three rounds of selection and based on their relative grain yield performances across conditions, a total of 21 most-promising introgression fixed lines showing superior traits and weed-competitive ability were identified. G-6-L2-WL-3, G-6-RF6-WL-3, G-6-L15-WU-1,G-6-Y16-WL-2, and G-6-L6-WU-3 were the top ILs in lowland weedy conditions, whereas G-6-Y7-WL-3, G-6-Y6-WU-3, G-6-Y3-WL-3, and G-6-Y8-WU-1 were the highest yielding in upland weedy conditions. The use of weed-competitive rice cultivars in African and Asian countries will be a highly effective strategy to reduce production costs and provide alternative solutions to the unavailability of herbicides. Competitive rice varieties will also significantly improve grain yields in aerobic rice systems and can become an important strategy for successful upland rice production.
Zika virus infection was declared a public health emergency of international concern in February 2016 in response to the outbreak in Brazil and its suspected link with congenital anomalies. In this study, we use notification data and disease natural history parameters to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) of Zika in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also obtain estimates of R0 of dengue from time series of dengue cases in the outbreaks registered in 2002 and 2012 in the city, when DENV-3 and DENV-4 serotypes, respectively, had just emerged. Our estimates of the basic reproduction number for Zika in Rio de Janeiro based on surveillance notifications (R0 = 2·33, 95% CI: 1·97–2·97) were higher than those obtained for dengue in the city (year 2002: R0 = 1·70 [1·50–2·02]; year 2012: R0 = 1·25 [1·18–1·36]). Given the role of Aedes aegypti as vector of both the Zika and dengue viruses, we also derive R0 of Zika as a function of both dengue reproduction number and entomological and epidemiological parameters for dengue and Zika. Using the dengue outbreaks from previous years allowed us to estimate the potential R0 of Zika. Our estimates were closely in agreement with our first Zika's R0 estimation from notification data. Hence, these results validate deriving the potential risk of Zika transmission in areas with recurring dengue outbreaks. Whether transmission routes other than vector-based can sustain a Zika epidemic still deserves attention, but our results suggest that the Zika outbreak in Rio de Janeiro emerged due to population susceptibility and ubiquitous presence of Ae. aegypti.
Zircon from two types of orthogneisses (inheritance-rich and inheritance-poor) from Sierra Nevada (Betic Cordillera, Spain) was investigated by integrating U–Pb geochronology, cathodoluminescence and back-scattered SEM imaging, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses and Raman spectroscopy to examine the conditions of magmatic zircon growth and the variable extent and mechanisms of the Alpine modifications. Zircon from inheritance-rich gneiss consists of two main domains: inherited (Neoproterozoic-to-Early Paleozoic and Devonian) cores and magmatic overgrowths, which provided 206Pb/238U concordant ages of 286 ± 3 Ma. In inheritance-poor gneiss, zircons consist of magmatic cores and very altered rims defining a discordia with an upper intercept with the Concordia at 287 + 21 –22 Ma and a lower intercept at 20.8 + 48.6 –20.8 Ma. Magmatic domains of zircon from inheritance-rich gneiss have lower rare-earth element (REE) contents than magmatic domains from inheritance-poor gneiss, reflecting the less evolved nature of the melt. Altered domains in zircon from inheritance-poor gneisss how greater U concentrations, lower REE concentrations and lower Th/U ratios relative to the cores, interpreted as representing Pb loss from the U-rich magmatic domains during the Alpine event. Morphological changes within single grains and between populations reflects the evolution during magmatic cooling. We show that, whereas classic methods allow two different interpretations for the geodynamic setting of the two types of gneisses, a complete study of composition, morphology and structure of zircon can help to decide that a model based on a common source for the granitic melt better fits the zircon characteristics than a model based on melts generated in two different geotectonic settings.
Behavioral disturbances are common but serious symptoms in patients with dementia. Currently, there are no FDA approved drugs for this purpose. There have been case reports and small case series of the use of buspirone. In this retrospective study, we review 179 patients prescribed buspirone for treatment of behavioral disturbance in dementia to better characterize the efficacy and potential side effects. All patients prescribed buspirone for behavioral disturbance due to dementia from a geropsychiatric outreach program were reviewed. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS. One hundred-seventy-nine patients met criteria for the study with a mean age of 83.8 + 7. Alzheimer's dementia was the most common dementia (n = 61; 34.1%) followed by mixed dementia (n = 50, 27.9%) then vascular type (n = 31; 17.3%). Behavioral disturbances were mainly verbal aggression (n = 125; 69.8%), and physical aggression (n = 116; 64.8%). Using the Clinical Global Impression scale, 68.6% of patients responded to buspirone, with 41.8% being moderately to markedly improved. The mean dose of buspirone was 25.7 mg ± 12.50. Buspirone appears to be effective in treating behavioral disturbances in dementia. Future prospective and double blinded studies are needed.
Prevention of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) foodborne outbreaks is hampered by its complex epidemiology. We assessed the distribution of virulence genes (VGs), main serogroups/serotypes for public health [haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS)-related], antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns in a collection of STEC isolates obtained from cattle hide (n = 149) and faecal (n = 406) samples collected during a national survey conducted in Spain in 2011 and 2013. Isolates were cultured using McConkey and CT-SMAC agar after enrichment, and confirmed as STEC by PCR. STEC prevalence in hides (15·4%) was higher than in faeces (10·7%) and O157:H7 was more frequent in the former (2·7% vs. 0·99%). Non-O157 HUS-related serogroups were present albeit at low frequencies. The non-O157 isolates were more heterogeneous than O157:H7 in their VG patterns, with 25/64 presenting VGs from both STEC and enterotoxigenic pathotypes (hybrid isolates). Of the STEC isolates, 62·5% were resistant at least to one antimicrobial, and no differences in AMR between O157:H7 and non-O157 were detected. All isolates had different profiles by PFGE and did not form a cluster. Overall, our results demonstrated that STEC in the cattle reservoir is still a matter of concern for human health due to the presence of HUS-related serogroups, the occurrence of certain VGs, AMR and the additional risks that hybrid isolates may pose, and thus warrants further investigation.
Butterflies and moths are subject to different evolutionary pressures that affect several aspects of their behaviour and physiology, particularly sexual communication. Butterflies are day-flying insects (excluding hedylids) whose partner-finding strategy is mainly based on visual cues and female butterflies having apparently lost the typical sex pheromone glands. Moths, in contrast, are mostly night-flyers and use female-released long-range pheromones for partner-finding. However, some moth families are exclusively day-flyers, and therefore subject to evolutionary pressures similar to those endured by butterflies. Among them, the Castniidae, also called ‘butterfly-moths’ or ‘sun-moths’, behave like butterflies and, thus, castniid females appear to have also lost their pheromone glands, an unparallel attribute in the world of moths. In this paper, we review the sexual communication strategy in day-flying Lepidoptera, mainly butterflies (superfamily Papilionoidea), Zygaenidae and Castniidae moths, and compare their mating behaviour with that of moth families of nocturnal habits, paying particular attention to the recently discovered butterfly-like partner-finding strategy of castniids and the fascinating facts and debates that led to its discovery.
The objectives were to assess the following: (1) the relationship between sward height and chemical composition of four pasture types in association with grazing behaviour and body condition score (BCS) of dairy cows, and (2) the possibility of developing predictive equations of the nutrient intake and grazing behaviour within a continued grazing system. Pasture type had a significant (p < 0.01) effect on nutrient supply from January to June for all pastures investigated. Ryegrass–white clover pasture (RW) had the highest metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy, followed by kikuyu pasture (KP), which was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than native pastures 1 and 2 (NP1 and NP2). The highest values for effective grazing time, bite rate and BCS were found when dairy cows grazed RW followed by KP, NP2 and NP1. The results suggested that pasture type and sward height influenced grazing behaviour and BCS of dairy cows during the dry season. In the same vein, RW showed higher effective grazing time, bite rate, nutrient intake and BCS than the other three pastures suggesting that RW pastures that appear to be more expensive than native pastures could result in superior cow performance.
Human toxocarosis is a chronic tissue parasitosis most often caused by Toxocara canis. The seroprevalence can reach up to 50%, especially among children and adolescents. The anthelmintics used in the treatment have moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of quinones and their derivatives against T. canis larvae and the cytotoxicity of the larvicidal compounds. The compounds were evaluated at 1 mg mL−1 concentration in microculture plates containing third stage larvae in an Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 h. Five naphthoxiranes were selected for the cytotoxicity analysis. The cell viability evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays using murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice revealed that the naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) were less cytotoxic at a concentration of 0·05 mg mL−1. The efficacy of naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) was examined in murine toxocarosis also. The anthelmintic activity was examined by evaluating the number of larvae in the brain, carcass, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and eyes. Compound (3) demonstrated anthelmintic activity similar to that of albendazole by decreasing the number of larvae in the organs of mice and thus could form the basis of the development of a new anthelmintic drug.
In this work, the effect of three principal and independent parameters of Atmospheric Plasma Spray on the properties of coatings deposited using mixtures of commercial powders of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and chromium oxide (Cr2O3) was studied. The results of this work are used for special applications on turbomachinery components such as wear protection in sliding seals and in steam valves for turbines, chemical protection for centrifugal compressor members, and special seal applications.
The design of experiments (DoE) technique has proved to be very useful to study the influence factors and optimization. Pierlot et al.  demonstrated that the application of the Hadamard and two factorial design techniques are useful for the optimization of thermal spray processes. An example of the application of the DoE is the one mentioned by Murugan et al. . In their work, a factorial design was used to study the interactions between gas flow, oxygen flow, powder rate and spray distance on the percentage of porosity and hardness of TiO2 - Cr2O3 composite coatings generated by High Velocity Oxy-Fuel.
The ½ fractional two-level factorial DoE technique was used to analyze and optimize the Atmospheric Plasma Spray process parameters. In the current research, experiments were conducted varying the deposition velocity, gas flow and stand-off distance. The effect of these process variables were evaluated by thickness, hardness and microstructure analysis. In this study, an empirical relationship between process variables and response parameters was developed. The entire relationship was made using the results of the DoE.