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The question of whether psychopathology constructs are discrete kinds or continuous dimensions represents an important issue in clinical psychology and psychiatry. The present paper reviews psychometric modelling approaches that can be used to investigate this question through the application of statistical models. The relation between constructs and indicator variables in models with categorical and continuous latent variables is discussed, as are techniques specifically designed to address the distinction between latent categories as opposed to continua (taxometrics). In addition, we examine latent variable models that allow latent structures to have both continuous and categorical characteristics, such as factor mixture models and grade-of-membership models. Finally, we discuss recent alternative approaches based on network analysis and dynamical systems theory, which entail that the structure of constructs may be continuous for some individuals but categorical for others. Our evaluation of the psychometric literature shows that the kinds–continua distinction is considerably more subtle than is often presupposed in research; in particular, the hypotheses of kinds and continua are not mutually exclusive or exhaustive. We discuss opportunities to go beyond current research on the issue by using dynamical systems models, intra-individual time series and experimental manipulations.
Coral reef ecosystems have great importance for the countries of the Wider Caribbean Region in terms of both use and non-use values and services. Several of the contributors to this symposium attest to their importance for fisheries and biodiversity (see Ehrhardt et al. in Chapter 11; Appeldoorn in Chapter 10; Appeldoorn et al. in Chapter 12; Horrocks et al. in Chapter 9). Coral reef ecosystems support livelihoods (see McConney and Salas in Chapter 7) and provide critical ecosystem services (Schuhmann et al. in Chapter 8) including for tourism, although this aspect of their value is not developed in detail in Chapter 8. Caribbean coral reef ecosystems have been degraded by many human impacts of both marine and land-based origin (see Sweeney and Corbin in Chapter 4; Gil and Wells in Chapter 5; Yáñez-Arancibia et al. in Chapter 17). They are among the most complex and biologically diverse marine ecosystems, and will require a holistic ecosystem- based approach for their conservation and sustainable use.
This synthesis chapter presents the outputs of a group process aimed at developing a vision and way ahead for ecosystem-based management (EBM) for coral reef ecosystems in the Wider Caribbean, using the methods described earlier (Fanning et al. in Chapter 1). The chapter first describes a vision for coral reef EBM and reports on the priorities assigned to the identified vision elements. It then discusses how the vision might be achieved by taking into account assisting factors (those that facilitate achievement) and resisting factors (those that inhibit achievement). The chapter concludes with guidance on the strategic direction needed to implement the vision, identifying specific actions to be undertaken for each of the vision elements.
The occupational breakdown of members of the Coral Reef Ecosystems Working Group reflected the diversity of affiliations present at the EBM Symposium and included governmental, intergovernmental, academic, non-governmental and private sector (fishers and fishing industry and consulting) representatives. With guidance provided by the facilitator, this diverse group of participants was asked to first address the question of “What do you see in place in 10 years’ time when EBM/EAF has become a reality in the Caribbean?”
Embracing disciplinary approaches ranging from the archaeological to the historical, the sociological to the literary, this collection offers new insights into key texts and interpretive problems in the history of England and the continent between the eighth and thirteenth centuries. Topics range from Bede's use and revision of the anonymous Life of St Cuthbert and the redeployment of patristic texts in later continental and Anglo-Saxon ascetic and hagiographical texts, to Robert Curthose's interaction with the Norman episcopate and the revival of Roman legal studies, to the dynamics of aristocratic friendship in the Anglo-Norman realm, and much more. The volume also includes two methodologically rich studies of vital aspects of the historical landscape of medieval England: rivers and forests.
William North teaches in the Department of History, Carleton College.
Contributors: Richard Allen, Uta-Renate Blumenthal, Ruth Harwood Cline, Thomas Cramer, Mark Gardiner, C. Stephen Jaeger, David A.E. Pelteret, Sally Shockro, Rebecca Slitt, Timothy Smit