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This study proposed the application of a novel immersed boundary method (IBM) for the treatment of irregular geometries using Cartesian computational grids for high speed compressible gas flows modelled using the unsteady Euler equations. Furthermore, the method is accelerated through the use of multiple Graphics Processing Units – specifically using Nvidia’s CUDA together with MPI - due to the computationally intensive nature associated with the numerical solution to multi-dimensional continuity equations. Due to the high degree of locality required for efficient multiple GPU computation, the Split Harten-Lax-van-Leer (SHLL) scheme is employed for vector splitting of fluxes across cell interfaces. NVIDIA visual profiler shows that our proposed method having a computational speed of 98.6 GFLOPS and 61% efficiency based on the Roofline analysis that provides the theoretical computing speed of reaching 160 GLOPS with an average 2.225 operations/byte. To demonstrate the validity of the method, results from several benchmark problems covering both subsonic and supersonic flow regimes are presented. Performance testing using 96 GPU devices demonstrates a speed up of 89 times that of a single GPU (i.e. 92% efficiency) for a benchmark problem employing 48 million cells. Discussions regarding communication overhead and parallel efficiency for varying problem sizes are also presented.
The water film due to rain falling on a radome surface causes severe losses in radio wave transmission. Hydrophobic coatings have been applied as a remedy to reduce the film thickness and to minimize the losses. However, quantitative accounts of the wave scattering are mostly based on empirical estimates of the film thickness. We describe a fluid-mechanical theory for the film under steady rain falling on a textured surface formed by a square array of pillars. Assuming the water surface on top of the pillars to be in the Cassie–Baxter state, the analysis is carried out by making use of the sharp contrast of length scales between the film thickness and the radome radius. The textured surface is viewed as a periodic array of cells around pillars. The macro-scale flow is simple and linear but the micro-scale flow in a typical lattice period is fully nonlinear. These two problems are coupled and are solved iteratively to obtain the slip length and the spatial variation of the film thickness. Numerical results are presented to show the effect of solid fraction on local flow field, the slip length and the non-uniform reduction of the film thickness. To examine the influence of the macro-scale geometry on film formation, the theory is also modified for a hydrophobic roof top formed by two inclined planes.
The effective lifetimes of electronic packages are affected by various thermos-mechanical deformations. Creep is considered the most salient mechanism in the failure of solder joints. Many researchers have conducted reasonable studies to portray the behavior of creep deformation using numerical models and further extended their research scope to forecast the lifetimes of packages with the results obtained from creep models. Many studies have identified particular creep and lifetime models to be nominal based on experimental data.
In this study, the characteristics of familiar creep models were examined in detail, and their significance was made known. Lifetime prediction models that seem prominent among researchers were discussed in detail. Finite element analysis of a wafer level chip-scale package (WLCSP) used to figure out the engagement of different creep models and their capability of materializing creep deformation was investigated via simulation. The results from the simulation were applied to different lifetime prediction models, and their predictions were examined carefully. After considering the various factors that affected the reliability study of the solders, the Garofalo-Arrhenius creep model and modified strain energy density model seemed to be convincingly productive for studying the reliability of various electronic packages.
Since the speed of sound in water is much greater than that of the surface gravity waves, acoustic signals can be used for early warning of tsunamis. We simplify existing works by treating the sound wave alone without the much slower gravity wave, and derive a two-dimensional theory for signals emanating from a fault of finite length. Under the assumptions of a slender fault and constant sea depth, the asymptotic technique of multiple scales is applied to obtain analytical results. The modal envelopes of the two-dimensional sound waves are found to be governed by the Schrödinger equation and are solved explicitly. An approximate method is described for the inverse estimation of fault properties from the pressure record at a distant hydrophone.
Social support has been shown to be an important factor in improving depression symptom outcomes, yet less is known regarding its impact on antidepressant medication adherence. This study sought to evaluate the role of perceived social support on adherence to new antidepressant medication prescriptions in later-life depression.
Data from two prospective observational studies of participants ≥60 years old, diagnosed with depression, and recently prescribed a new antidepressant (N = 452). Perceived social support was measured using a subscale of the Duke Social Support Index and medication adherence was assessed using a validated self-report measure.
At four-month follow up, 68% of patients reported that they were adherent to antidepressant medication. Examining the overall sample, logistic regression analysis demonstrated no significant relationship between perceived social support and medication adherence. However, when stratifying the sample by social support, race, and gender, adherence significantly differed by race and gender in those with inadequate social support: Among those with low social support, African-American females were significantly less likely to adhere to depression treatment than white females (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.14–20.28, p = 0.032) and white males (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.03–11.92, p = 0.045).
There is a significant difference in antidepressant medication adherence by race and gender in those with inadequate social support. Tailored treatment interventions for low social support should be sensitive to racial and gender differences.
Acceleration-factor (AF) equations have been developed to rapidly predict product lifetime, and the most widely used equation is Norris-Landzberg (N-L) equation. In recent years, some researchers have found that the current AF equation does not accurately predict the experimental results for thermal cyclic loading at high ramp rates; indeed, it may yield the opposite results, due to the changing effect of the solder strain rate at different ramp rates. Modifying the current AF equation to better assess product reliability has thus become an important task for researchers.
In this study, a novel AF equation was developed from a wafer level chip-scale package (WLCSP) under different thermal cyclic loadings. The frequency term used in the N-L equation was replaced with a new term in the proposed AF equation to distinguish between the effects of ramp rate and dwell time under thermal cyclic loading conditions. Proposed AF equation showed a high level of correlation with the simulation and test results for various thermal cyclic loadings. In addition, the proposed AF equation was validated by confirming the consistency of its results with experimental data on a range of packages and thermal-cycling profiles reported in the literature.
The relationship between white-matter tracts and executive functions (EF) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well studied and previous studies mainly focused on frontostriatal (FS) tracts. The authors explored the microstructural property of several fibre tracts hypothesized to be involved in EF, to correlate their microstructural property with EF, and to explore whether such associations differ between ADHD and typically developing (TD) youths.
We assessed 45 youths with ADHD and 45 individually matched TD youths with a computerized test battery for multiple dimensions of EF. From magnetic resonance imaging, FS tract, superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), arcuate fasciculus (AF) and cingulum bundle (CB) were reconstructed by diffusion spectrum imaging tractography. The generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) values of white-matter tracts were computed to present microstructural property of each tract.
We found lower GFA in the left FS tract, left SLF, left AF and right CB, and poorer performance in set-shifting, sustained attention, cognitive inhibition and visuospatial planning in ADHD than TD. The ADHD and TD groups demonstrated different association patterns between EF and fibre tract microstructural property. Most of the EF were associated with microstructural integrity of the FS tract and CB in TD youths, while with that of the FS tract, SLF and AF in youths with ADHD.
Our findings support that the SLF, AF and CB also involve in a wide range of EF and that the main fibre tracts involved in EF are different in youths with ADHD.