To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The densities of sputtered thin carbon films have been determined using a novel X-ray technique. This nondestructive method involves the measurement of the transmitivity of a characteristic soft (low energy) X-ray line through the carbon film, and using the established equation I1 = I0eμpt where I1/I0 is the transmitivity, fi the photo absorption cross section, t the independently measured thickness, the density p can be easily solved for. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using this simple technique to measure densities of carbon films as thin as 300 Å, which is of tremendous practical interest as carbon films on this order of thickness are used extensively as abrasive and corrosive barriers (overcoats) for metallic recording media disks. The dependence of the density upon film thickness for a fixed processing condition is presented, as also its dependence (for a fixed thickness) upon different processing parameters (e.g., sputtering gas pressure and target power). The trends noted in this study indicate that the sputtering gas pressure plays the most important role, changing the film density from 2.4gm/cm3 at 1 mTorr to 1.5gm/cm3 at 30 mTorr for 1000 Å thick films.
New evidence from archaeological investigations in north-east Thailand shows a transition in rice farming towards wetland cultivation that would have facilitated greater yields and surpluses. This evidence, combined with new dates and palaeoclimatic data, suggests that this transition took place in the Iron Age, at a time of increasingly arid climate, and when a number of broader societal changes become apparent in the archaeological record. For the first time, it is possible to relate changes in subsistence economy to shifts in regional climate and water-management strategies, and to the emergence of state societies in Southeast Asia.
Unequal obesity distributions among adult populations have been reported in low- and middle-income countries, but mainly based on data of women of reproductive age. Moreover, incorporation of ever-changing skewed BMI distributions in analyses has been a challenge. Our study aimed to assess magnitude and rates of change in BMI distributions by age and sex.
Shapes of BMI distributions were estimated for 2005 and 2010, and their changes were assessed, using the generalized additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) and assuming BMI follows a Box–Cox power exponential (BCPE) distribution.
Nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional health surveys conducted between 2005 and 2013 in Mexico, Colombia and Peru.
Adult men and non-pregnant women aged 20–69 years.
Whereas women had more right-shifted and wider BMI distributions than men in almost all age groups across the countries in 2010, men in their 30s–40s experienced more rapid increases in BMI between 2005 and 2010, notably in Peru. The highest increase in overweight and obesity prevalence was observed among Peruvian men of 35–39 years, with a 5-year increase of 21 percentage points.
The BCPE–GAMLSS method is an alternative to analyse measurements with time-varying distributions visually, in addition to conventional indicators such as means and prevalences. Consideration of differences in BMI distributions and their changes by sex and age would provide vital information in tailoring relevant policies and programmes to reach target populations effectively. Increases in BMI portend increases of obesity-associated diseases, for which preventive and preparative actions are urgent.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our goal is to assess age-related changes in osteogenic stem cell populations of bone tissue. We hypothesize that aging mice have reduced osteogenic capacity in response to physical stimulation due to aging-associated decline in osteoprogenitor cell number and their proliferative capacity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Mechanical loading: The NYU School of Medicine Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved all procedures. The response of tibial periosteal cells to physical stimulation or mechanical loading was assessed in 16-week-old adult (n=6) and aged 78-week-old female (n=4) mice subjected to 4 consecutive days of strain-matched axial compressive loading (1400 μm, 120 cycles, 2 Hz). Whole Mount Staining: Baseline periosteal cell numbers and nuclear morphology were assessed by whole bone DAPI staining of the antero-medial region of the tibiae in adult and aged mice (n=6). Immunohistochemistry: Tibiae were fixed in 4% PFA, decalcified in 19% EDTA, OCT-embedded, and thickly sectioned (150 μm) at midshaft. Sca1+, Prrx1+, and Ki67+cell numbers were quantified by simultaneous fluorescent immunohistochemical staining from loaded and nonloaded contralateral tibiae. Nonimmune species specific serum served as negative controls. Imaging: 3D image datasets of the periosteum at the antero-medial region of the tibial midshaft were acquired by multi-photon and confocal microscopy. Quantification of Sca1+, Prrx1+, and Ki67+ cells was carried out using Particle Analysis software (ImageJ) and Imaris 7.4.2 Surface Rendering Statistics functions. Cell number was normalized to periosteal area (~0.04 mm2). A Student t-test determined significance at p<0.05. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: At baseline, aged periosteal cell nuclei (DAPI+) area (14% decrease, p<0.0001), nuclei number, and Prrx1+ cell number (22% decrease) was significantly lower compared with adult mice. In loaded adult mice, Prrx1+but not Sca1+cell number increased significantly (35%, p=0.0115). Proliferating Sca1+(top panel) and Prrx1+(top panel) cells also increased with loading, 62%, p=0.0253 and 115%, p=0.0004, respectively, in adult but not aged mice. The percentage of Prrx1+ cells undergoing proliferation (co-expressing Ki67+) in the total Prrx1+ cell population increased significantly with loading (bottom panel). Aged mice did not exhibit significant differences in loaded versus nonloaded controls for all other outcomes. Our data suggest fundamental changes in periosteal cell morphology, number and response to mechanical loading with aging. The significant increase in total Prrx1+ cell number and the number of Prrx1+ cells undergoing proliferation with loading in adult mice, suggest that the Prrx1+ cell population expands through proliferation. In fact, loading resulted in a 2-fold increase in the percentage of Prrx1+ preosteogenic cells undergoing proliferation. Accordingly, the significant age-related decrease in Prrx1+ cells may explain, in part, the attenuation of load-induced bone formation in aged mice. Loading resulted in greater numbers of proliferating Sca1+ cells (the more primitive cell) in adult mice, though this represented only a small percentage (<10%) of the total Sca1+ population. Mechanical loading expands the Prrx1+ pre-osteogenic cell population, but not the more primitive Sca1+ population. However, this load-induced osteogenic effect in the periosteum is not observed in aged mice, which may explain age-related diminishment of load-induced bone formation. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Mechanical loading presents an inexpensive treatment for increasing bone mass and bone strength, but may be insufficient to prevent or reverse age-related bone loss due to reduced numbers of osteogenic progenitors in the periosteum. Therapeutic approaches targeting the osteogenic capacity of periosteal cells will be required to address declining mechanoresponsiveness with age.
In this paper, we compile recent 14C dates related to the Neolithic transition in Mediterranean Iberia and present a Bayesian chronological approach for testing the dual model, a mixed model proposed to explain the spread of farming and husbandry processes in eastern Iberia. The dual model postulates the coexistence of agricultural pioneers and indigenous Mesolithic foraging groups in the Middle Holocene. We test this general model with more regional models of four geographical areas (Northeast, Upper, and Middle Ebro Valley, and Eastern and South/Southeastern regions) and present a filtered summed probability of all 14C dates known in the region in order to compare socioecological dynamics over a long period. Finally, we discuss the results and analyze how certain specific characteristics of sites and their chronologies can serve for timing the Neolithic expansion in Mediterranean Iberia.
We present a database of 11 interplanetary shocks associated to coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by STEREO and Wind missions between 2006 and 2011 that show evidence of Type II radio burst. For all events, we calculated the principal characteristics of the shock driver, the intensity and geometrical configuration of the in-situ shock and checked for the existence of in-situ type II radio burst. We made a comparative analysis of two CME events (on 18 August 2010 and 4 June 2011), which are apparently associated to two or more magnetic structures which interact in space (i.e. CMEs, SIRs, CIRs). These events show varied shock configurations and intensities. We found evidence of in-situ type II radio bursts in one of the events studied, suggesting that the geometry of the shock (quasi-perpendicularity) is also critical for the generation and/or detection of radio emission in-situ.
The modification of aerofoils with structural morphing in order to enhance aerodynamic efficiency is an active field of research. The required forced and induced displacements are, usually, out the current developments on shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators or multi-stable structures for commercial transport aircraft applications. This work aims to present studies for obtaining an optimum rudder structure which morphs to a pre-defined curvature that can sustain aerodynamic and internal loads in a critical certification load case for a commercial transport aircraft. It also includes the feasibility of a morphing rudder based on a zero Poisson skeleton, or close to a zero Poisson ratio panel geometrical configuration that has no transverse deformation when perpendicularly loaded and which is produced with an additive layer manufacturing process.
Exploring the spatial distribution of the star formation rate (SFR) in nearby galaxies is essential to understand their evolution through cosmic time. With this aim in mind, we use a representative sample that contains a variety of morphological types, the CALIFA Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) sample. Previous to this work, we have verified that our extinction-corrected Hα measurements successfully reproduce the values derived from other SFR tracers such as Hαobs + IR or UVobs + IR (Catalán-Torrecilla et al. 2015).
Now, we go one step further applying 2-dimensional photometric decompositions (Méndez-Abreu et al. (2008), Méndez-Abreu et al. (2014)) over these datacubes. This method allows us to obtain the amount of SFR in the central part (bulge or nuclear source), the bar and the disk, separately. First, we determine the light coming from each component as the ratio between the luminosity in every component (bulge, bar or disk) and the total luminosity of the galaxy. Then, for each galaxy we multiply the IFS datacubes by these previous factors to recover the luminosity in each component. Finally, we derive the spectrum associated to each galaxy component integrating the spatial information in the weighted datacube using an elliptical aperture covering the whole galaxy.
2D photometric decomposition applied over 3D datacubes will give us a more detailed understanding of the role that disks play in more massive galaxies. Knowing if the disks in more massive SF galaxies have on average a lower or higher level of star formation activity and how these results are affected by the presence of nuclear bars are still open questions that we can now solve. We describe the behavior of these components in the SFR vs. stellar mass diagram. In particular, we highlight the role of the disks and their contribution to both the integrated SFR for the whole galaxy and the SFR in the disk at different stellar masses in the SFR vs. stellar mass diagram together with their relative position to the star forming Main Sequence.
The archaeological site of Zaballa is a Medieval rural site located in the province of álava (Basque Country, northern Iberia). The site has been excavated during a rescue archaeology project, over an area of about 4.5 ha, where human occupation has been documented ranging from the 6th to 15th century. The archaeological operations have shown the transformation of the village, in diachronic terms, by unearthing the structure of production areas (agricultural lands, storage areas, and craft activities), the shape of domestic spaces, and the Saint Tirso monastery, with its adjacent cemetery. Much of the evidence and features related to a peasant community are small and disturbed by recent agricultural activities, and are therefore difficult to be interpreted in social terms. Studying dietary patterns has helped to fill this gap by providing a protein-rich diet of the elitist population and by highlighting the existence of hierarchies separating the inhabitants of Zaballa. In this paper, we discuss the reconstruction of the chronological sequence of the site inhabitation, with a multidisciplinary approach. The archaeological evidences and the critical use of radiocarbon dating have been integrated with stable isotope analysis on human remains found in the cemetery of the church of San Tirso, resulting in a first attempt to find evidence of the social structure of the rural community of Zaballa.
Our aim is to study the Star Formation Rate (SFR) by galaxy components such as bulges, bars and disks in a representative sample of nearby galaxies. A 2-dimensional (2D) photometric decomposition approach (GASP2D) is used to obtain these components. The availability of IFS data for the CALIFA galaxies makes possible to go one step further as we can apply the previous decompositions over 3D datacubes to disentangle the spatial distribution of the SFR over different components free from the limitations associated to narrow-band imaging.
Morphological and molecular analyses of a stem nematode causing a severe disease on infected sowthistle (Sonchus bulbosus) plants, involving the formation of gall-like structures on infected leaves and stems, have led to the description of a new species named Ditylenchus oncogenus n. sp. Morphologically, the new species is characterized by a medium to large body size (all adults more than 1 mm in length); a delicate stylet (9.0–11.0 μm long) with minute, rounded knobs; a long post-vulval uterine sac (c. 65% of the vulva–anus distance); six incisures at the lateral fields and characteristic D. destructor-pattern of spicules (with pronounced ventral tumulus and anteriorly pointed, less sclerotized, cuticle parts present within the lamina). The results of molecular analysis of rRNA gene sequences, including the D2–D3 expansion regions of 28S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA, partial 18S rRNA gene, the protein-coding mitochondrial gene, cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and the heat-shock protein 90 (hsp90) gene, support the new species status. The results of a host-suitability test indicated that the new species does not parasitize potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and broad bean (Vicia faba) seedlings. Histopathological observations on naturally infected sowthistle tissues revealed that D. oncogenus n. sp. causes floral stem neoplasia and midrib leaf gall formation on the type, and to date only known, host. The galls were characterized by extensive hyperplasia, where several necrotic cells in the neoplasic area were directly damaged by feeding of the nematode, whereas a number of adjacent cells showed typical cytological changes, such as granulated cytoplasm with hypertrophied nuclei and nucleoli.
In the search for new food sources that contribute to the optimization of livestock production this paper discusses the possibility of using waste (called banquettes) of a marine plant commonly found on the Mediterranean coasts: Posidonia oceanica. The idea stems from the use of a waste that in summertime generates large costs because it is considered bothersome on the beaches. Thus, tons and tons of residues are collected each year from the beach, being destined for incineration. However, alternative uses for these residues are suggested, such as forage that is particularly relevant for the Mediterranean coast, where the weather does not support abundant grass growth. With this purpose, samples of banquettes of P. oceanica from six different points of a touristic place located in the Murcia Region (S.E. of Spain) were collected in April 2012 on the same day directly from the beach above the water line, washed with distilled water and sun-dried for 48 h. Approximately 500 g of each sample of plant material was chopped and two subsamples of 200 g each were placed in airtight plastic containers and sent to the laboratory for mineral and chemical analysis. This report provides data on the nutritional composition of P. oceanica such as mineral contents (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and chemical composition (ash, CP, ether extract (EE), NDF and ADF, respectively) and ADL. Finally, the in sacco rumen disappearance of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), CP and NDF were studied. Our results showed that minerals, except for Fe, where within the range of values reported for P. oceanica in other parts of the Mediterranean region. Given the high Fe content further studies assessing the antagonic Fe–Cu interaction and its effect on animal health should be addressed. In relation to chemical composition, it is clear that this seagrass is a poor protein source and has levels of DM degradability at 24 h, similar to those obtained for cereal straw. The information summarized here shows some potential for the use of banquettes of P. oceanica as forage source in ruminant nutrition.
The number of organically managed cattle (OMC) within the European Union has increased tremendously in the last decade. However, there are still some concerns about animals under this farming system meeting their dietary requirements for milk production. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic adaptations to the onset of lactation in three different herds, one conventional and two organic ones. Twenty-two conventionally managed cattle (CMC) and 20 from each organic farm were sampled throughout the periparturient period. These samplings were grouped into four different stages: (i) far-off dry, (ii) close-up dry, (iii) fresh and (iv) peak of lactation and compared among them. In addition, the results of periparturient animals were also compared within each management type with a control group (animals between the 4th and 5th months of pregnancy). Metabolic profiles were used to assess the health status of the herds, along with the quantification of the acute phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, insulin and the calculation of different surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity. Generalised linear mixed models with repeated measurements were used to study the effect of the stage, management type or their interaction on the serum variables studied. The prevalence of subclinical ketosis was higher in OMC, although they showed better insulin sensitivity, a lower degree of inflammation and less liver injury, without a higher risk of macromineral deficiencies. Therefore, attention should be paid on organic farms to the nutritional management of cows around the time of calving in order to prevent the harmful consequences of excessive negative energy balance. Moreover, it must be taken into account that most of the common practices used to treat this condition in CMC are not allowed on a systematic basis in OMC.
Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide. The CdS thin films were annealed in argon (neutral atmosphere) or hydrogen (reducing atmosphere) for 1 h at various temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The changes in optical and electrical properties of annealed treated CdS thin films were analyzed. The results showed that, the band-gap and resistivity depend on the post-deposition annealing atmosphere and temperatures. Thus, it was found that these properties of the films, were found to be affected by various processes with opposite effects, some beneficial and others unfavorable. The energy gap and resistivity for different annealing atmospheres was seen to oscillate by thermal annealing. Recrystallization, oxidation, surface passivation, sublimation and materials evaporation were found the main factors of the heat-treatment process responsible for this oscillating behavior. Annealing over 400 °C was seen to degrade the optical and electrical properties of the film.