The spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias is widely distributed in Atlanto-Mediterranean regions, being captured off the Languedocian coast (southern France, northern Mediterranean), despite a decline of landings. The male and female sexually matured between 635–700 mm and 860–880 mm total length (TL), respectively. The largest male and female were 800 mm and 1110 mm TL, respectively and weighed 2220 g and 8900 g, respectively. There was a significant relationship for total mass versus TL, and liver mass versus TL between males and females. The diameter of the largest yolky oocytes ranged between 43 and 47 mm (mean 45.08 ± 0.98), while the mass ranged between 29.5 and 37.4 g (mean 31.79 ± 2.20). Near- term embryos ranged from 245 to 271 mm TL (mean: 258.85 ± 7.28) and weighed from 47.5 to 55.9 g (mean 53.35 ± 2.26). Ovarian fecundity ranged from 6 to 15 (mean = 10.38 ± 2.66). Uterine fecundity or litter size ranged from 4 to 12 (mean = 8.15 ± 2.07). Both fecundities showed a positive relationship with TL of females. A chemical balance of development based on mean dry masses of yolky oocytes and near-term embryos was 0.87 and suggested that S. acanthias is a pure lecithotrophic species. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) significantly increased with size in both males and females. HSI reached the highest values in both sub-adult and adult specimens, reflecting the role of the liver in the gonadal production as well as in buoyancy, while in the GSI the highest values were observed in pregnant females. Vitellogenesis proceeds in parallel with embryonic development. Near-term females were captured in different months of the year while a short period of resting could not be excluded between parturition and the beginning of a new pregnancy, so it appears difficult to delineate the length of gestation. However, a reproductive cycle with a wide range from 18 to 24 months remains a suitable hypothesis.