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In a qualitative study of healthcare workers and patients discharged on oral antibiotics, we identified 5 barriers to antibiotic decision making at hospital discharge: clinician perceptions of patient expectations, diagnostic uncertainty, attending physician–led versus multidisciplinary team culture, not accounting for total antibiotic duration, and need for discharge prior to complete data.
In this systematic evaluation of fluorescent gel markers (FGM) applied to high-touch surfaces with a metered applicator (MA) made for the purpose versus a generic cotton swab (CS), removal rates were 60.5% (476 of 787) for the MA and 64.3% (506 of 787) for the CS. MA-FGM removal interpretation was more consistent, 83% versus 50% not removed, possibly due to less varied application and more adhesive gel.
Improving access to tuberculosis (TB) care and ensuring early diagnosis are two major aims of the WHO End TB strategy and the Collaborative TB Strategy for England. This study describes risk factors associated with diagnostic delay among TB cases in England. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of TB cases notified to the Enhanced TB Surveillance System in England between 2012 and 2015. Diagnostic delay was defined as more than 4 months between symptom onset and treatment start date. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with diagnostic delay. Between 2012 and 2015, 22 422 TB cases were notified in England and included in the study. A third (7612) of TB cases had a diagnostic delay of more than 4 months. Being female, aged 45 years and older, residing outside of London and having extra-pulmonary TB disease were significantly associated with a diagnostic delay in the multivariable model (aOR = 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.3, 1.8, respectively). This study identifies demographic and clinical factors associated with diagnostic delay, which will inform targeted interventions to improve access to care and early diagnosis among these groups, with the ultimate aim of helping reduce transmission and improve treatment outcomes for TB cases in England.
The longstanding association between the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus and schizophrenia (SZ) risk has recently been accounted for, partially, by structural variation at the complement component 4 (C4) gene. This structural variation generates varying levels of C4 RNA expression, and genetic information from the MHC region can now be used to predict C4 RNA expression in the brain. Increased predicted C4A RNA expression is associated with the risk of SZ, and C4 is reported to influence synaptic pruning in animal models.
Based on our previous studies associating MHC SZ risk variants with poorer memory performance, we tested whether increased predicted C4A RNA expression was associated with reduced memory function in a large (n = 1238) dataset of psychosis cases and healthy participants, and with altered task-dependent cortical activation in a subset of these samples.
We observed that increased predicted C4A RNA expression predicted poorer performance on measures of memory recall (p = 0.016, corrected). Furthermore, in healthy participants, we found that increased predicted C4A RNA expression was associated with a pattern of reduced cortical activity in middle temporal cortex during a measure of visual processing (p < 0.05, corrected).
These data suggest that the effects of C4 on cognition were observable at both a cortical and behavioural level, and may represent one mechanism by which illness risk is mediated. As such, deficits in learning and memory may represent a therapeutic target for new molecular developments aimed at altering C4’s developmental role.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To establish an in vitro quantitative method for the evaluation of polymeric film disintegration that can be applied to predict in vivo behavior. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Two clinically advanced vaginal microbicide film products containing tenofovir and dapivirine were used as model films throughout this work. Films were made using the solvent cast manufacturing method in which polymers, excipients, plasticizer, and APIs were either dissolved or dispersed in water, mixed, and cast on a heated substrate. The novel, quantitative method was developed using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyzer® (Texture Technologies) in combination with a TA-108S5 fixture and the TA-8A: 1/8″ diameter rounded end ball probe. Exponent® was used as the data analysis software. In this method, the film was placed and secured in the fixture, the probe applied a constant force to the film product, and a biologically relevant amount of fluid was applied to the film. The probe was able to penetrate the film upon disintegration resulting in an applied force of zero at that point. A curve of force Versus time was plotted, and disintegration time was defined as the time between fluid addition until the probe force reached zero. Test parameters were optimized in order to reduce error. Visual observation of film disintegration was conducted in the in vivo macaque model using films that included a water-soluble blue dye for film visualization. Colpophotography was also used to confirm film disintegration. In vitro results were compared with in vivo findings. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The Texture Analyzer disintegration method developed provided quantitative disintegration times and did not rely on user defined endpoints which is common in many visual disintegration tests. The disintegration method was able to distinguish differences between the 2 clinical film products and produced reproducible disintegration times for the tenofovir and dapivirine films. The tenofovir film had a shorter disintegration time (41.28±2.85 s) compared with that of the dapivirine film (88.3 6±9.82 s). This method was also able to distinguish changes made to these 2 clinical film products in terms of volume and formulation alterations. In vitro and in vivo disintegration times differed by orders of magnitude, with in vitro time being measured in seconds and in vivo time being measured in days, for a variety of factors, mainly the application of constant force to the film product. Regardless of these differences, the rank order of film disintegration remained constant for in vitro and in vivo disintegration and an In Vitro In Vivo Correlation (IVIVC) trend could be seen. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Standardization of preclinical in vitro assessments which minimize user bias are crucial to the field of pharmaceutical film development. As this field continues to develop and more products advance for pharmaceutical application, this method has the potential to become a standard assessment of film functionality. This study represents a first step in the process of developing an IVIVC. More films will need to be tested using both in vitro and visual methods in order to establish and accurate factor to predict in vivo behavior.
Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is a significant problem in the under-six population in the Midlands, Ireland. VTEC spreads by person-to-person transmission and children attending childcare facilities are excluded until they achieve two consecutive negative stool samples. This report analyses 10 years data on the number of days children under the age of six take to microbiologically clear VTEC. We identified from our data that the median clearance time for VTEC was 39 days, interquartile range (IQR) 27–56 days, maximum clearance time 283 days. At 70 days from onset of infection, 90% of children had cleared the infection. These findings were slightly more prolonged but consistent with international literature on VTEC clearance times for children. Asymptomatic children cleared VTEC infection significantly faster (median time 25 days IQR 13–43 days) than symptomatic children (median time 43 days IQR 31–58 days). Symptomatic children older than 1 year of age cleared VTEC infection significantly faster (median time 42 days IQR 31–57) than symptomatic children year under 1 year (median time 56 days IQR 35–74 days). This report identifies clear data which can be used to more accurately advise parents on time periods required to achieve microbiological clearance from VTEC.
Patients are frequently discharged with central venous catheters (CVCs) for home infusion therapy.
To study a prospective cohort of patients receiving home infusion therapy to identify environmental and other risk factors for complications.
Prospective cohort study between March and December 2015.
Home infusion therapy after discharge from academic medical centers.
Of 368 eligible patients discharged from 2 academic hospitals to home with peripherally inserted central catheters and tunneled CVCs, 222 consented. Patients remained in the study until 30 days after CVC removal.
Patients underwent chart abstraction and monthly telephone surveys while the CVC was in place, focusing on complications and environmental exposures. Multivariable analyses estimated adjusted odds ratios and adjusted incident rate ratios between clinical, demographic, and environmental risk factors and 30-day readmissions or CVC complications.
Of 222 patients, total parenteral nutrition was associated with increased 30-day readmissions (adjusted odds ratio, 4.80 [95% CI, 1.51–15.21) and CVC complications (adjusted odds ratio, 2.41 [95% CI, 1.09–5.33]). Exposure to soil through gardening or yard work was associated with a decreased likelihood of readmissions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.09 [95% CI, 0.01–0.74]). Other environmental exposures were not associated with CVC complications.
complications and readmissions were common and associated with the use of total parenteral nutrition. Common environmental exposures (well water, cooking with raw meat, or pets) did not increase the rate of CVC complications, whereas soil exposures were associated with decreased readmissions. Interventions to decrease home CVC complications should focus on total parenteral nutrition patients.
Combination antibiograms can be used to evaluate organism cross-resistance among multiple antibiotics. As combination therapy is generally favored for the treatment of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), combination antibiograms provide valuable information about the combination of antibiotics that achieve the highest likelihood of adequate antibiotic coverage against CPE.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1458–1460
We evaluated the impact of nursing education and stewardship interventions on Clostridium difficile testing and treatment appropriateness. Diarrhea documentation increased for those with positive tests (45% to 70%); pretreatment laxative use decreased (50% to 19%). Appropriate treatment increased for severe infection (57% to 93%), but all asymptomatically colonized patients were treated.
We describe two cases of infant botulism due to Clostridium butyricum producing botulinum type E neurotoxin (BoNT/E) and a previously unreported environmental source. The infants presented at age 11 days with poor feeding and lethargy, hypotonia, dilated pupils and absent reflexes. Faecal samples were positive for C. butyricum BoNT/E. The infants recovered after treatment including botulism immune globulin intravenous (BIG-IV). C. butyricum BoNT/E was isolated from water from tanks housing pet ‘yellow-bellied’ terrapins (Trachemys scripta scripta): in case A the terrapins were in the infant's home; in case B a relative fed the terrapin prior to holding and feeding the infant when both visited another relative. C. butyricum isolates from the infants and the respective terrapin tank waters were indistinguishable by molecular typing. Review of a case of C. butyricum BoNT/E botulism in the UK found that there was a pet terrapin where the infant was living. It is concluded that the C. butyricum-producing BoNT type E in these cases of infant botulism most likely originated from pet terrapins. These findings reinforce public health advice that reptiles, including terrapins, are not suitable pets for children aged <5 years, and highlight the importance of hand washing after handling these pets.
In units that bathe patients daily with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), organisms causing central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) were more likely to have reduced CHG susceptibility than organisms causing CLABSIs in units that do not bathe patients daily with CHG (86% vs 64%; P = .028). Surveillance is needed to detect reduced CHG susceptibility with widespread CHG use.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(9):1183-1186
Several studies demonstrating that central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are preventable prompted a national initiative to reduce the incidence of these infections.
We conducted a collaborative cohort study to evaluate the impact of the national “On the CUSP: Stop BSI” program on CLABSI rates among participating adult intensive care units (ICUs). The program goal was to achieve a unit-level mean CLABSI rate of less than 1 case per 1,000 catheter-days using standardized definitions from the National Healthcare Safety Network. Multilevel Poisson regression modeling compared infection rates before, during, and up to 18 months after the intervention was implemented.
A total of 1,071 ICUs from 44 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, reporting 27,153 ICU-months and 4,454,324 catheter-days of data, were included in the analysis. The overall mean CLABSI rate significantly decreased from 1.96 cases per 1,000 catheter-days at baseline to 1.15 at 16–18 months after implementation. CLABSI rates decreased during all observation periods compared with baseline, with adjusted incidence rate ratios steadily decreasing to 0.57 (95% confidence intervals, 0.50–0.65) at 16–18 months after implementation.
Coincident with the implementation of the national “On the CUSP: Stop BSI” program was a significant and sustained decrease in CLABSIs among a large and diverse cohort of ICUs, demonstrating an overall 43% decrease and suggesting the majority of ICUs in the United States can achieve additional reductions in CLABSI rates.
We evaluated 222 hospitalized patients whose clinical isolates were tested using standard methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). MALDI-TOF could have reduced time to appropriate therapy for 28.8% and 44.6% patients based on the treating physician's choices and stewardship team recommendations, respectively. Clinicians should be aware of scenarios in which MALDI-TOF can optimize antibiotic therapy.