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Information and communications technology products are indispensable tools of modern life across the globe. Smartphones and laptops connect to a vast global computing infrastructure. Sophisticated medical equipment is ubiquitous in hospitals. Robotics increasingly enable manufacturing of every kind of product. Sensor networks facilitate the flow of urban traffic. The emergence of autonomous vehicles, products enabling augmented and virtual reality, the broad array of “Internet of Things” devices, and countless other innovations suggest that these kinds of products will continue to play an ever-growing role in the modern global economy.
Through a collaboration among twenty legal scholars from eleven countries in North America, Europe and Asia, Patent Remedies and Complex Products presents an international consensus on the use of patent remedies for complex products such as smartphones, computer networks and the Internet of Things. It covers the application of both monetary remedies like reasonable royalties, lost profits, and enhanced damages, as well as injunctive relief. Readers will also learn about the effect of competition laws and agreements to license standards-essential patents on terms that are 'fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory' (FRAND) on patent remedies. Where national values and policy make consensus difficult, contributors discuss the nature and direction of further research required to resolve disagreements. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
An estimated 19–25% of perinatal women in low- and middle-income countries are affected by depression which, untreated, is associated with multiple health problems for mothers and children. Nonetheless, few perinatal women have access to depression care. The Thinking Healthy Programme (THP), promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO), is an evidence-based, non-specialist delivered depression intervention that addresses this care gap. However, the WHO THP manual explains intervention delivery but not the antecedents to implementation. Here, we describe a principled, planned approach leading to the implementation of THP in Lima, Peru by the non-profit organization Socios En Salud with community health workers (CHW) to inform its implementation in other settings.
The Replicating Effective Programs (REP) framework guided THP implementation, following four phases: (I) pre-conditions; (II) pre-implementation; (III) implementation; and (IV) maintenance and evolution. This paper centers on REP phases I and II, including (1) documented high perinatal depression rates in Peru; (2) designation of perinatal depression as a government priority; (3) THP Implementation Team orientation and training; (4) data collection plan development; (5) public health system coordination; (6) CHW selection and training; and (7) THP launch.
Between December 2016 and March 2017, a THP training program was developed and seven CHW were trained to deliver the intervention to 10 perinatal women, the first of whom was enrolled on 17 April 2017.
THP was rapidly implemented by a community-based organization with no prior experience in delivering non-specialist perinatal depression care. The steps followed may inform the implementation of THP in other settings.
Mental health is an important factor in responding to natural disasters. Observations of unmet mental health needs motivated the subsequent development of a community-based mental health intervention following one such disaster affecting Peru in 2017.
Two informal human settlements on the outskirts of Lima were selected for a mental health intervention that included: (1) screening for depression and domestic violence, (2) children's activities to strengthen social and emotional skills and diminish stress, (3) participatory theater activities to support conflict resolution and community resilience, and (4) community health worker (CHW) accompaniment to government health services.
A total of 129 people were screened across both conditions, of whom 12/116 (10%) presented with depression and 21/58 (36%) reported domestic violence. 27 unique individuals were identified with at least one problem. Thirteen people (48%) initially accepted CHW accompaniment to government-provided services.
This intervention provides a model for a small-scale response to disasters that can effectively and acceptably identify individuals in need of mental health services and link them to a health system that may otherwise remain inaccessible.
This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Recent evidence from resting-state fMRI studies have shown that brain network connectivity is altered in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. However, few studies have examined the complete connectivity patterns of these well-reported RSNs using a whole brain approach and how they compare between dementias. Here, we used advanced connectomic approaches to examine the connectivity of RSNs in Alzheimer disease (AD), Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and age-matched control participants. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In total, 44 participants [27 controls (66.4±7.6 years), 13 AD (68.5.63±13.9 years), 4 FTD (59.575±12.2 years)] from an ongoing study at Indiana University School of Medicine were used. Resting-state fMRI data was processed using an in-house pipeline modeled after Power et al. (2014). Images were parcellated into 278 regions of interest (ROI) based on Shen et al. (2013). Connectivity between each ROI pair was described by Pearson correlation coefficient. Brain regions were grouped into 7 canonical RSNs as described by Yeo et al. (2015). Pearson correlation values were then averaged across pairs of ROIs in each network and averaged across individuals in each group. These values were used to determine relative expression of FC in each RSN (intranetwork) and create RSN profiles for each group. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our findings support previous literature which shows that limbic networks are disrupted in FTLD participants compared with AD and age-matched controls. In addition, interactions between different RSNs was also examined and a significant difference between controls and AD subjects was found between FP and DMN RSNs. Similarly, previous literature has reported a disruption between executive (frontoparietal) network and default mode network in AD compared with controls. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our approach allows us to create profiles that could help compare intranetwork FC in different neurodegenerative diseases. Future work with expanded samples will help us to draw more substantial conclusions regarding differences, if any, in the connectivity patterns between RSNs in various neurodegenerative diseases.
We performed the first VLBI observations of the SiO v = 1 and v = 2 J = 1-0 masers in a Proto Planetary Nebula OH 231.8+4.2 (also known as the Rotten Egg nebula), at milliarcsecond resolution. Only the v=2 maser transition was detected. We detect several maser spots lying along a line which is almost perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the Nebula. We find that all the emission is concentrated in an area of ∼ 10 mas, indicating that the SiO masers are originated very close to the surface of the star. One of the two emission areas presents an elongated structure with a clear velocity gradient. The detected emission is consistent with a torus, or disk, in rotation with a velocity of ∼ 6 km/s and with an infall velocity of ∼ 10 km/s.
We are building a catalogue of interactively reprocessed observations of evolved stars observed with Herschel. The catalogue will offer not only the PACS and SPIRE spectroscopic data for each observation, but also complementary information from other infrared space observatories. As a first step, we are concentrating our efforts on two main activities: 1) the interactive data-reduction of more than 500 individual spectra obtained with PACS in the 55-210 μm range, available in the Herschel Science Archive; 2) the creation of a catalogue, accesible via a web-based interface and through the Virtual Observatory. Our ultimate goal is to carry out a comprehensive and systematic study of the far infrared properties of low-and intermediate-mass evolved stars using these data and enable science based on Herschel archival data. The objects cover the whole range of possible evolutionary stages in this short-lived phase of stellar evolution, from the AGB to the PN stage, displaying a wide variety of chemical and physical properties.
The synthesis of alloys with nominal composition for Y1-xSmxCo5 by means of arc furnace and melt-spinning, is of critical scientific importance due that if replaced partially or completely the Samarium by the Yttrium is possible understand what contribution the earth element rare to the exchange interactions that guide to increased remnant magnetization in a nanocomposite. The alloys of Y1-xSmxCo5/Co obtained by melt-spun were characterized by x-ray diffraction with a compact hexagonal crystal structure the CaCu5 type. The alloys for nanocomposites of Y1-xSmxCo5/Co ribbons show ferromagnetic behavior with good magnetic properties, order to demonstrate this the magnetic properties were measured using a pulsed field magnetometer applying a high magnetic field in order to obtain a saturated magnetization curve and a high coercivity of 0.69 MA/m and an enhanced remanence of σr/σsat ratio equal to 0.57 were determined.
Star formation in the Galactic disc is primarily controlled by gravity, turbulence, and magnetic fields. It is not clear that this also applies to star formation near the Galactic Centre. Here we determine the turbulence and star formation in the CMZ cloud G0.253+0.016. Using maps of 3 mm dust emission and HNCO intensity-weighted velocity obtained with ALMA, we measure the volume-density variance σρ /ρ 0=1.3±0.5 and turbulent Mach number
= 11±3. Combining these with turbulence simulations to constrain the plasma β = 0.34±0.35, we reconstruct the turbulence driving parameter b=0.22±0.12 in G0.253+0.016. This low value of b indicates solenoidal (divergence-free) driving of the turbulence in G0.253+0.016. By contrast, typical clouds in the Milky Way disc and spiral arms have a significant compressive (curl-free) driving component (b > 0.4). We speculate that shear causes the solenoidal driving in G0.253+0.016 and show that this may reduce the star formation rate by a factor of 7 compared to nearby clouds.
We report results from observations taken at different wavelengths (optical, radio and NIR) of the bipolar Protoplanetary Nebula OH 231.8+4.2. Radio interferometry with high spatial resolution has been particularly revealing. We study the complex structure and dynamics of this object as well as its rich chemistry.