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Apart from age of presentation, the electro-clinical syndromes are elaborated by a distinctive and recognizable set of features including the type of seizure(s) and the electrographic traits which aggregate together.1 Imaging findings can be considered. Neurodevelopmental and psychiatric comorbidities of varying degree are often associated. Causation may be included in the classification system. According to the 2017 position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology, the etiology of epilepsy may be structural, genetic, infectious, metabolic, or immune. Causation may also be unknown (formerly cryptogenic).2 Idiopathic and self-limited (formerly benign) epilepsies occur in children with a normal neurological examination and normal neuro-imaging, in whom there may be a familial predisposition. The term idiopathic (as opposed to genetic) is still preferred by some in respect of four well-recognized idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes (IGEs): childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), and generalized tonic–clonic seizures alone (formerly generalized tonic–clonic seizures on awakening). Although monogenic or more complex genetic or environmental susceptibility factors may be implicated in these epilepsies, the mechanisms are not always fully elucidated. The attribution to genetic causation may incorrectly suggest a high rate of inheritance. Benign focal epilepsies, such as benign or childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (CECTS) and the occipital lobe epilepsies of Panayiotopoulos and Gastaut are, again according to the position paper, termed self-limited as the term benign does not seem to fully address the developmental impact of these transient epilepsies.2 The epileptic encephalopathies, recognized as a distinct category, comprise a polymorphous group of epilepsy syndromes in which the epileptic activity itself contributes to cognitive and behavioral impairments above and beyond what might be expected from the underlying pathology alone.1 There is abundant epileptiform activity and inherently there is the idea that limiting or suppressing the activity will improve the neurodevelopmental outlook.
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are nearly universal in dementia, a condition occurring in more than 40 million people worldwide. BPSD present a considerable treatment challenge for prescribers and healthcare professionals. Our purpose was to prioritize existing and emerging treatments for BPSD in Alzheimer's disease (AD) overall, as well as specifically for agitation and psychosis.
International Delphi consensus process. Two rounds of feedback were conducted, followed by an in-person meeting to ratify the outcome of the electronic process.
2015 International Psychogeriatric Association meeting.
Expert panel comprised of 11 international members with clinical and research expertise in BPSD management.
Consensus outcomes showed a clear preference for an escalating approach to the management of BPSD in AD commencing with the identification of underlying causes. For BPSD overall and for agitation, caregiver training, environmental adaptations, person-centered care, and tailored activities were identified as first-line approaches prior to any pharmacologic approaches. If pharmacologic strategies were needed, citalopram and analgesia were prioritized ahead of antipsychotics. In contrast, for psychosis, pharmacologic options, and in particular, risperidone, were prioritized following the assessment of underlying causes. Two tailored non-drug approaches (DICE and music therapy) were agreed upon as the most promising non-pharmacologic treatment approaches for BPSD overall and agitation, with dextromethorphan/quinidine as a promising potential pharmacologic candidate for agitation. Regarding future treatments for psychosis, the greatest priority was placed on pimavanserin.
This international consensus panel provided clear suggestions for potential refinement of current treatment criteria and prioritization of emerging therapies.
We present a new experimental platform for studying laboratory astrophysics that combines a high-intensity, high-repetition-rate laser with the Large Plasma Device at the University of California, Los Angeles. To demonstrate the utility of this platform, we show the first results of volumetric, highly repeatable magnetic field and electrostatic potential measurements, along with derived quantities of electric field, charge density and current density, of the interaction between a super-Alfvénic laser-produced plasma and an ambient, magnetized plasma.
We have previously shown that the minor alleles of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) single-nucleotide polymorphism rs833069 and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2758331 are both associated with improved transplant-free survival after surgery for CHD in infants, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesised that one or both of these minor alleles are associated with better systemic ventricular function, resulting in improved survival.
This study is a follow-up analysis of 422 non-syndromic CHD patients who underwent neonatal cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Echocardiographic reports were reviewed. Systemic ventricular function was subjectively categorised as normal, or as mildly, moderately, or severely depressed. The change in function was calculated as the change from the preoperative study to the last available study. Stepwise linear regression, adjusting for covariates, was performed for the outcome of change in ventricular function. Model comparison was performed using Akaike’s information criterion. Only variables that improved the model prediction of change in systemic ventricular function were retained in the final model.
Genetic and echocardiographic data were available for 335/422 subjects (79%). Of them, 33 (9.9%) developed worse systemic ventricular function during a mean follow-up period of 13.5 years. After covariate adjustment, the presence of the VEGFA minor allele was associated with preserved ventricular function (p=0.011).
These data support the hypothesis that the mechanism by which the VEGFA single-nucleotide polymorphism rs833069 minor allele improves survival may be the preservation of ventricular function. Further studies are needed to validate this genotype–phenotype association and to determine whether this mechanism is related to increased vascular endothelial growth factor production.
Using a one-layer quasi-geostrophic model, we study the effect of random monoscale topography on forced beta-plane turbulence. The forcing is a uniform steady wind stress that produces both a uniform large-scale zonal flow
and smaller-scale macroturbulence characterized by standing and transient eddies. The large-scale flow
is retarded by a combination of Ekman drag and the domain-averaged topographic form stress produced by the eddies. The topographic form stress typically balances most of the applied wind stress, while the Ekman drag provides all of the energy dissipation required to balance the wind work. A collection of statistically equilibrated numerical solutions delineate the main flow regimes and the dependence of the time average of
on parameters such as the planetary potential vorticity (PV) gradient
and the statistical properties of the topography. We obtain asymptotic scaling laws for the strength of the large-scale flow
in the limiting cases of weak and strong forcing. If
is significantly smaller than the topographic PV gradient, the flow consists of stagnant pools attached to pockets of closed geostrophic contours. The stagnant dead zones are bordered by jets and the flow through the domain is concentrated into a narrow channel of open geostrophic contours. In most of the domain, the flow is weak and thus the large-scale flow
is an unoccupied mean. If
is comparable to, or larger than, the topographic PV gradient, then all geostrophic contours are open and the flow is uniformly distributed throughout the domain. In this open-contour case, there is an ‘eddy saturation’ regime in which
is insensitive to large changes in the wind stress. We show that eddy saturation requires strong transient eddies that act effectively as PV diffusion. This PV diffusion does not alter the kinetic energy of the standing eddies, but it does increase the topographic form stress by enhancing the correlation between the topographic slope and the standing-eddy pressure field. Using bounds based on the energy and enstrophy power integrals, we show that as the strength of the wind stress increases, the flow transitions from a regime in which the form stress balances most of the wind stress to a regime in which the form stress is very small and large transport ensues.
The perspective of statistical state dynamics (SSD) has recently been applied to the study of mechanisms underlying turbulence in a variety of physical systems. An SSD is a dynamical system that evolves a representation of the statistical state of the system. An example of an SSD is the second-order cumulant closure referred to as stochastic structural stability theory (S3T), which has provided insight into the dynamics of wall turbulence, and specifically the emergence and maintenance of the roll/streak structure. S3T comprises a coupled set of equations for the streamwise mean and perturbation covariance, in which nonlinear interactions among the perturbations has been removed, restricting nonlinearity in the dynamics to that of the mean equation and the interaction between the mean and perturbation covariance. In this work, this quasi-linear restriction of the dynamics is used to study the structure and dynamics of turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow at moderately high Reynolds numbers in a closely related dynamical system, referred to as the restricted nonlinear (RNL) system. Simulations using this RNL system reveal that the essential features of wall-turbulence dynamics are retained. Consistent with previous analyses based on the S3T version of SSD, the RNL system spontaneously limits the support of its turbulence to a small set of streamwise Fourier components, giving rise to a naturally minimal representation of its turbulence dynamics. Although greatly simplified, this RNL turbulence exhibits natural-looking structures and statistics, albeit with quantitative differences from those in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the full equations. Surprisingly, even when further truncation of the perturbation support to a single streamwise component is imposed, the RNL system continues to self-sustain turbulence with qualitatively realistic structure and dynamic properties. RNL turbulence at the Reynolds numbers studied is dominated by the roll/streak structure in the buffer layer and similar very large-scale structure (VLSM) in the outer layer. In this work, diagnostics of the structure, spectrum and energetics of RNL and DNS turbulence are used to demonstrate that the roll/streak dynamics supporting the turbulence in the buffer and logarithmic layer is essentially similar in RNL and DNS.
We report preliminary results of a radial velocity study of the old open cluster NGC 752 using an ensemble mean approach with Hydra multi-fiber spectroscopy on the 3.5-m WIYN telescope. The goal is to detect the higher amplitude extra-solar planetary systems and brown dwarf binaries that might reside in the cluster. The oscillation modes of mid-F stars at the redward edge of the instability strip can also be observed. The observation of NGC 752 is the first step in an ongoing study of a variety of clusters with different ages and metallicities.
Thin films of organic semiconductor PEDOT:PSS deposited onto silicon and fused
silica substrates. These films were then treated with sulfuric acid
(H2SO4) for various amounts of time (i.e., 10, 20, 40,
60, and 80 minutes). Preliminary results obtained with FT-IR, UV-VIS, and Van
DerPauw conductivity methods suggest that the H2SO4
removes the PSS isonomer from the PEDOT:PSS system. This PSS removal also
induces a decrease in film thickness.
There is limited research on factors that influence the rate of progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with an increased risk for AD, but its role on the rate of dementia progression after the onset of AD has not been examined.
A population-based cohort of 325 persons with incident AD was followed for up to 11 years. The sample was 65% female with a mean (SD) age of dementia onset = 84.4 (6.4) years. History of TBI was categorized as number, severity (with or without loss of consciousness), and timing in relation to dementia onset (within ten years or more than ten years). Cognition was assessed by the Consortium to Establish a Registry of AD battery, and functional ability was assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes.
In linear mixed models, a history of TBI within ten years of onset showed faster progression of functional impairment (LR x2 = 10.27, p = 0.006), while those with TBI more than ten years before dementia onset had higher scores on a measure of list learning (β = 1.61, p = 0.003) and semantic memory (β = 0.75, p = 0.0035).
History of TBI and its recency may be a useful factor to predict functional progression in the course of AD.
High Performance Computing (HPC) Wales was launched in 2010 as a five year joint venture between Wales’ six Universities, working in partnership with a variety of academic and industrial stakeholders and funded by the EU, UK and Welsh Governments. The aim of HPC Wales is to deliver a pan-Wales HPC infrastructure: primarily to assist with economic regeneration in the Principality of Wales (which has a population of approximately 3.6 million) through the up-skilling of individuals and by promoting uptake of HPC in Welsh businesses, but also open to collaborations from outside Wales. It is the first national service of its kind in Europe.
In order to encourage the uptake of HPC into small and medium sized enterprises (of up to 250 staff) in Wales, and for HPC Wales itself to become a sustainable business, the development of a strong skills base is vital. Successful delivery will be marked by the successful upskilling of individuals via accredited training programmes, and through outreach and engagement activities. Recognising that a significant amount of upskilling is required, further work is being undertaken by HPC Wales to develop workflows which can help to simplify the HPC job submission process for the end user. This will make it possible for businesses to achieve results without their needing to acquire a high level of specialist HPC skills in the short term.
At a mid-point in this ambitious venture, this paper examines the strategies being developed by HPC Wales which will help to ensure propagation throughout the educational chain so that the requisite skills and workflows are in place which will benefit the next-generation workforce. Through this, HPC Wales hopes to assist in the overall advancement of scientific discovery which will, in turn, help Welsh businesses to become more competitive in the global marketplace.
It has been noted by various reports that during recent years, there has been an alarming decline in young people’s interest for science studies and mathematics. Since it is believed that the traditional teaching methods often fail to foster positive attitudes towards learning science, the European Commission has made intensive efforts to promote science education in schools though new methods based on the inquiry based techniques: questions, search and answers. This is coupled to hands-on experience, playful learning accompanied by laboratory exercises and examples.
“Discover the COSMOS” is such a project which brings into synergy resources from high energy, astronomy and space physics to promote e-Science in Europe. Event analysis tools from the ATLAS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider of CERN -such as the “hunt for the Higgs” application- as well as time slices in various robotic telescopes around the world and the related software to process the images, are all available as educational scenaria for both the students and the educators. Moreover, the best practices are presented in a more theoretical for the teachers in the “Pathway” project. Examples of the available resources as well as first results from the evaluation of the programs are presented.
Environmental influences on the rate of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression have received little attention. Our objective was to test hypotheses concerning associations between caregiver personality traits and the rate of AD progression.
Care receivers (CR) were 161 persons with AD from a population-based dementia progression study; 55 of their caregivers were spouses and 106 were adult children. Cognitive status of the CR was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination every six months, over an average of 5.6 (range: 1–14) years. Linear mixed models tested rate of cognitive decline as a function of caregiver personality traits from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory.
Significantly faster cognitive decline was observed with higher caregiver Neuroticism overall; however, in stratified models, effects were significant for adult child but not spouse caregivers. Neuroticism facets of depression, anxiety, and vulnerability to stress were significantly associated with faster decline. Higher caregiver Extraversion was associated with slower decline in the CR when caregivers were adult children but not spouses.
For adult child caregivers, caregiver personality traits are associated with rate of cognitive decline in CRs with AD regardless of co-residency. Results suggest that dementia caregiver interventions promoting positive care management strategies and ways to react to caregiving challenges may eventually become an important complement to pharmacologic and other approaches aimed at slower rate of decline in dementia.
In the fall of 2012 the Stanford University materials science course Solar Cells, Fuel Cells and Batteries: Materials for the Energy Solution was offered as a flipped class and a massively open online course (MOOC). To the best of our knowledge, this was the first materials science MOOC. Here we describe how the course was implemented, and present results on performance, demographics and other observations that were made. Finally, we provide some perspectives for the future of the implementation of these engineering MOOCs.
We describe an experiment designed as an upper level physics laboratory that introduces students to Raman Scattering of electronic materials and research methodology. This experiment is an effective approach in demonstrating the relationship between the Raman intensity of the scattered light from crystals and symmetry dependent Raman selection rules. In our measurements we alter the angle between the crystal axis and the polarization of the incident laser beam by Si (100) sample rotation. The three dimensional plot of the intensity profile versus the theoretical model is used to distinguish differences between various crystal planes of the same electronic sample. This experiment will combine optical analysis with materials aspects of electronic materials.
Nanotechnology and nanoscience have a strong potential to impact society and the commercial sector. It is critical to introduce this area to high school classrooms as a teaching tool. Here, we report the development of ferrofluid-based experimental modules in a team effort including a high school student and a high school teacher. The basic experimental modules were developed as follows: A) Electric motor-based patterning of magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes on a silicon wafer. Electromagnetically activated or ‘spiked’-ferrofluid was utilized here. B) Basic concepts of wettability, hydrophobicity, and oleophilicity were demonstrated by combining hydrophobic CNTs, water, and ferrofluids. C) Finally, the utility of ferrofluid-based environmental remediation was demonstrated for oil removal from oil-water mixture and organic dye separation from water-dye mixture. It is envisioned that the integration of the developed experimental modules into high school curriculum will motivate high school students to pursue degrees in science, engineering, and nanotechnology. Thus, this will assist in the development of future workforce in the area of nanotechnology and materials science.
Hitachi High Technologies is On the Frontlines of Science Education Outreach Programs. Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation (Hitachi High-Tech), a global leader in the electron microscope industry, is working to inspire a new generation of achievement in science education. In loaning out its tabletop microscopes Hitachi High-Tech is tackling the problem of waning interest in science education, which is becoming a global issue throughout all industrialized nations. Hitachi High-Tech aims to become the global leader in providing high-tech solutions, and its support for science extends beyond Japan to North America, South America, and Europe.
In this paper, we present a work plan for the dissemination of refreshable, photoactuatable tactile displays to the visually impaired, serving both Lab-to-Market and Lab-to-Classroom initiatives. The work plan is designed in accordance with the logic model, which identifies an overlap amongst classroom, market, and laboratory. This overlap seems to nucleate when a technology in developmental phase is deployed in a classroom with high affinity to such technology. In this scheme, students are stakeholders whom help decide both content and applications to be included in the developing curriculum, and provide technology feedback, effectively leading to increased consumer acceptance. The identified Lab-to-Market-to-Classroom continuum could be the missing link where to nurture sustainable scientific, technological, and curricular development.
In-depth materials science course offerings are crucial for training the next generation of researchers in many pure and applied fields. However, translating discoveries from the laboratory into domestic and industrial settings requires contributions from professionals outside of these strictly technical areas. Providing non-major students instruction in core scientific ideas and illustrating the myriad pathways by which these ideas become innovative technologies should be an additional goal of science and engineering programs. “Technologies of the Future” (ToF) is a novel course for non-science/engineering majors in which students participate in team-based laboratory and design projects with modern materials systems. After learning about a phenomenon or physical principle in class, students are given the opportunity to explore it in lab and are tasked with the design of a novel device that incorporates it. Example laboratory topics include superhydrophobic surfaces and dye-sensitized solar cells. In the design phase, instructors act as “consultants”, lending their expertise to students unfamiliar with engineering analysis or ancillary physical concepts. Summative activities are designed to leverage the diverse talents of the interdisciplinary teams of students. The course concepts and activities are designed to prepare students for both a modern workplace that requires innovative thinking and a modern world in which emerging technologies offer solutions to pressing environmental and social problems.