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Better understanding of interplay among symptoms, cognition and functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) is crucial to promoting functional recovery. Network analysis is a promising data-driven approach to elucidating complex interactions among psychopathological variables in psychosis, but has not been applied in FEP.
This study employed network analysis to examine inter-relationships among a wide array of variables encompassing psychopathology, premorbid and onset characteristics, cognition, subjective quality-of-life and psychosocial functioning in 323 adult FEP patients in Hong Kong. Graphical Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) combined with extended Bayesian information criterion (BIC) model selection was used for network construction. Importance of individual nodes in a generated network was quantified by centrality analyses.
Our results showed that amotivation played the most central role and had the strongest associations with other variables in the network, as indexed by node strength. Amotivation and diminished expression displayed differential relationships with other nodes, supporting the validity of two-factor negative symptom structure. Psychosocial functioning was most strongly connected with amotivation and was weakly linked to several other variables. Within cognitive domain, digit span demonstrated the highest centrality and was connected with most of the other cognitive variables. Exploratory analysis revealed no significant gender differences in network structure and global strength.
Our results suggest the pivotal role of amotivation in psychopathology network of FEP and indicate its critical association with psychosocial functioning. Further research is required to verify the clinical significance of diminished motivation on functional outcome in the early course of psychotic illness.
Background: This is an updated on-line survey of the awareness and knowledge of stroke and heart disease amongst Chinese-Canadians carried out in 2017. Methods: 1001 randomnly selected Chinese-Canadians from Toronto and Vancouver area. Results: 46% were > 45 years old and male to female ratio was: 49.3 : 50.8, with native language being Cantonese in 40%, Mandarin 24% and 31% English. 82% were Canadian citizens and 31% had been in Canada < 10 years. 44% were from Mainland China, 37% Hong Kong , 6% Taiwan and 12% were borned in Canada. 85% were able to name at least one symptom of heart attack (p=0.005) while 80% were able to name at least one symptom of stroke (p=0.0008). 85% would call 911 in response to symptoms of heart attack or stroke compared to only 20% in a previous 2004 telephone survey (p=0.00001) . Conclusions: There is a dramatic improvement in the awareness and knowledge of stroke and heart disease amongst Chinese-Canadians compared to a previous telephone survey in 2004. This significant change could be due to difference in survey technique, but these improvements could also be due to the ongoing health promotion efforts by the Chinese-Canadian Council in support of the Heart & Stroke Foundation.
Oats can be processed in a variety of ways ranging from minimally processed such as steel-cut oats (SCO), to mildly processed such as large-flake oats (old fashioned oats, OFO), moderately processed such as instant oats (IO) or highly processed in ready-to-eat oat cereals such as Honey Nut Cheerios (HNC). Although processing is believed to increase glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, the effect of oat processing in these respects is unclear. Thus, we compared the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses elicited by 628 kJ portions of SCO, OFO, IO and HNC and a portion of Cream of Rice cereal (CR) containing the same amount of available-carbohydrate (23 g) as the oatmeals. Healthy males (n 18) and females (n 12) completed this randomised, cross-over trial. Blood was taken fasting and at intervals for 3 h following test-meal consumption. Glucose and insulin peak-rises and incremental AUC (iAUC) were subjected to repeated-measures ANOVA using Tukey’s test (two-sided P<0·05) to compare individual means. Glucose peak-rise (primary endpoint, mean (sem) mmol/l) after OFO, 2·19 (sem 0·11), was significantly less than after CR, 2·61 (sem 0·13); and glucose peak-rise after SCO, 1·93 (sem 0·13), was significantly less than after CR, HNC, 2·49 (sem 0·13) and IO 2·47 (sem 0·13). Glucose iAUC was significantly lower after SCO than CR and HNC. Insulin peak rise was similar among the test meals, but insulin iAUC was significantly less after SCO than IO. Thus, the results show that oat processing affects glycaemic and insulinaemic responses with lower responses associated with less processing.
TAOS II is a next-generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small end of the Kuiper Belt (objects with diameters 0.5–30 km). Such objects have magnitudes r > 30, and are thus undetectable by direct imaging. The project will operate three telescopes at San Pedro Mártir Observatory in Baja California, México. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom-built camera comprised of a focal-plane array of CMOS imagers. The cameras will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. The telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation detections, thus minimising the false-positive rate. This talk described the project, and reported on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.
Increased mass losses from the Greenland ice sheet and inferred contributions to sea-level rise have heightened the need for hydrologic observations of meltwater exiting the ice sheet. We explore whether temporal variations in ice-sheet surface hydrology can be linked to the development of a downstream sediment plume in Kangerlussuaq Fjord by comparing: (1) plume area and suspended sediment concentration from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and field data; (2) ice-sheet melt extent from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) passive microwave data; and (3) supraglacial lake drainage events from MODIS. Results confirm that the origin of the sediment plume is meltwater release from the ice sheet. Interannual variations in plume area reflect interannual variations in surface melting. Plumes appear almost immediately with seasonal surface-melt onset, provided the estuary is free of landfast sea ice. A seasonal hysteresis between melt extent and plume area suggests late-season exhaustion in sediment supply. Analysis of plume sensitivity to supraglacial events is less conclusive, with 69% of melt pulses and 38% of lake drainage events triggering an increase in plume area. We conclude that remote sensing of sediment plume behavior offers a novel tool for detecting the presence, timing and interannual variability of meltwater release from the ice sheet.
This study explores the growth and welfare effects of monetary policy in a scale-invariant Schumpeterian growth model with endogenous human capital accumulation. We model money demand via a cash-in-advance (CIA) constraint on research and development (R&D) investment. Our results can be summarized as follows. We find that an increase in the nominal interest rate leads to a decrease in R&D and human capital investment, which, in turn, reduces the long-run growth rates of technology and output. This result stands in stark contrast to the case of exogenous human capital accumulation in which the long-run growth rates of technology and output are independent of the nominal interest rate. Simulating the transitional dynamics, we find that the additional long-run growth effect under endogenous human capital accumulation amplifies the welfare effect of monetary policy. Decreasing the nominal interest rate from 10% to 0% leads to a welfare gain that is equivalent to a permanent increase in consumption of 2.82% (2.38%) under endogenous (exogenous) human capital accumulation.
This paper highlights experimental and theoretical efforts dedicated to developing plasmonic-enhanced electrodes for the photo-electrochemical ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) at room temperature in alkaline media. However, decoupling the electrocatalytic dark response from the plasmon-enhanced improvement presents a difficult challenge. To understand the plasmonic-enhancement of the photo-electrochemical EOR, multiple Au-Fe2O3 were fabricated and evaluated in parallel with discrete dipole approximation (DDA) modeling. Different Au-Fe2O3 were synthesized with Au nanoparticles located at variable positions within and/or on the Fe2O3 layer(s). The configurations investigated include thin film, embedded, surface and sandwich layered electrodes to facilitate optimal electrode design considerations for plasmonic-enhancement. The design strategies and configurations were guided by DDA simulations to assess absorption, scattering, and near-field enhancements within or near the semiconductor band edge, as well as the solution/electrode interface. For the different Fe2O3 loadings and Au nanoparticle sizes/distributions considered, it is determined that the Au-Fe2O3 surface configurations significantly enhanced the EOR in terms of a large positive current density enhancement, an increased photo-voltage and a lower onset potential relative to the other electrode designs.
In linear system, in-plane motions are decoupled from out-of-plane motions for planar frame structures. A theoretical method is proposed that permits the efficient calculations of modal characteristics of planar multi-story frame structures. There are 3 × m beam components for a planar m-story frame structure. By analyzing the transverse and longitudinal motions of each component simultaneously and considering the compatibility requirements across each frame joint, the undetermined variables of the entire m-story frame structure system can be reduced to six, regardless of the number of stories, and that can be determined by the application of the boundary conditions. The main feature of this method is to decrease the dimensions of the matrix involved in the finite element methods and certain other analytical methods.
We have mapped the kinematics of the ionized gas in 30 Dor, and find numerous examples of fast expanding shells. There is good correlation between the high-velocity material and the bright diffuse X-ray emission in 30 Dor. The fast shells are probably supernova remnants, stellar wind-blown bubbles, or combinations of both.
A new Edition of the Asiago Catalogue of QSOs (Barbieri et al. 1982) is available on magnetic tape. It contains essentially all the information of the previous editions updated with the papers published before Dec.31, 1984. The catalog should be essentially complete to that date in respect to objects having slit spectra (2330 objects), while it is seriously incomplete regarding candidates discovered by objective prism or grism/grens surveys after 1982 (279 such objects included in the present version).
We present results from new HST imaging and spectroscopy of the peculiar Large Magellanic Cloud H II region N 44C and its ionizing star. While this nebula exhibits strong He II recombination emission, the source of the He+ ionizing photons has not been found. The UV spectrum of the ionizing star suggests an approximate spectral class of 07–08; the UV Si IV, He II, and N IV features do not show P-Cygni profiles, indicating that the ionizing star is not a supergiant. No companion star has yet been detected. Ground-based and HST optical spectroscopy of the ionized gas shows that the nebular abundances of C, N, O and He are not anomalous relative to other LMC H II regions, suggesting that no previous WR/SN companion has disappeared. Echelle spectroscopy has also ruled out the presence of high velocity shocked gas. Deep ROSAT imaging shows no X-ray point source in this location. The “fossil X-ray binary” hypothesis of Pakull & Motch (1989) remains the best explanation for the ionization of this nebula; however, convincing evidence for this hypothesis remains elusive.
Introduction: A novel bladder stimulation technique has been described for midstream urine (MSU) collection in well-feeding, inpatient newborns. We sought to determine the performance of this technique amongst infants presenting to the Emergency Department (ED). Methods: Our prospective ED-based study enrolled a convenience cohort of infants aged ≤ 90 days who required urine testing. Infants with significant feeding issues, moderate to severe dehydration, or critical illness were excluded. Bladder stimulation consisted of finger tapping on the lower abdomen with or without lower back massage while holding the child upright. Healthcare providers received standardized training in the technique. Primary outcome was the proportion of infants with successful MSU collection via the technique. Success was defined as adequate sample collection (≥ 1 mL urine) within 5 minutes of initiating stimulation. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of contaminated MSU samples, time required for MSU collection and full protocol completion, and patient discomfort as perceived by parent/guardian using a 100 mm visual analog scale [VAS]. Assuming success a priori in 50% of infants, a sample size of 115 allowed a 95% confidence interval of +/- 9.1% around the point estimate. Results: We enrolled 115 infants. Mean age was 53.0 days old (interquartile range [IQR] 26.7-68.0); 58.3% were male (69.2% uncircumcised). Midstream urine was successfully collected in 61 infants (53.0%; 95% CI 0.44,0.62). Thirty-one MSU samples (50.8%) were contaminated; uncircumcised males held the highest proportion (55.0%). Most contaminated samples (83.9%) were reported as “non-significant growth” or “growth of ≥ 3 organisms” and were easily identifiable as contaminants with minimal impact on clinical care. Only 4 (8.5%) of the 47 patients discharged home after successful MSU collection had a repeat ED visit for urine testing. Median stimulation time for MSU collection was 45 seconds (IQR 20-99 secs). Median time for full protocol completion was 30.83 minutes (IQR 24.42-46.83 mins). Mean VAS for infant discomfort was 20.2 mm (SD +/- 20.4 mm). Conclusion: Our pragmatic, ED-based study found the success rate of this bladder stimulation technique to be significantly lower (53%) than its published rate (86%). The contamination rate was high but most contaminated specimens were easily identifiable as such and had minimal clinical impact.
High precision photographic photometry indicates that two stars lying on the giant branch in the C-M diagram of M15 are small amplitude (~0.2 mag) variables. The two stars are Kustner 64 and 152. This investigation is based on plates taken with three telescopes: the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory 1.8-metre reflector, the David Dunlap 1.9-metre reflector and the Yunnan 1-metre reflector in China. The existing data is not sufficient for period determination.
We have obtained long slit echelle spectroscopy for 10 of the brightest supernova remnants in M33 using the KPNO 4 m telescope. The profiles at Hα indicate bulk motions in the range 100–350 km s−1 in these remnants. Nearly all of the objects show signs of contamination by low velocity H II emission at some level. This affects the line intensities measured from low resolution data and may affect diameter measurements of these remnants.
Giant HII regions contain large numbers of massive stars, and hence are expected to contain large numbers of SNRs. Until recently, however, only a few SNRs have been identified in extragalactic giant HII regions. Moreover, most of these SNRs are located at the outskirts of HII regions, instead of the core where most of the stars are located. The low detection rate and the outlying locations of the SNRs may be due to: 1) observational difficulties - the background HII regions are much more luminous than the SNRs in both optical line emission and radio continuum; 2) intrinsic invisibility of SNRs - stellar wind and SNRs may have created a supershell (Mac Low and McCray 1987), and the core of a giant HII region is filled with hot tenuous coronal gas; or 3) a genuine deficiency of supernovae and SNRs in the HII regions (Sramek and Weedman 1986).
This study provides a global, detailed, and complete energy-saving map of strong ocean currents from the absolute geostrophic velocities calculated from satellite altimetry data, with the focus on the strong Western Boundary Currents (WBCs) in the global ocean. Theoretically, the WBCs with speeds of 2–3 knots can reduce fuel consumption by 25–50% for vessels at a sailing speed of 6 knots. The fuel savings are greater for a lower sailing speed than for a higher sailing speed. For about 1·8 million motorised fishing vessels with a lower ship speed, strong currents can evidently save fuel, time and money. Since global fishing vessels generate roughly 130 million tonnes of CO2 per annum (FAO, 2012), effective utilisation of the energy-saving map could significantly reduce CO2 emissions from ship operations.
This study examined the temporal and spatial patterns of diarrhoea in relation to hydro-meteorological factors in the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. A time-series design was applied to examine the temporal pattern of the climate–diarrhoea relationship using Poisson regression models. Spatial analysis was applied to examine the spatial clusters of diarrhoea using Global Moran's I and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA). The temporal pattern showed that the highest peak of diarrhoea was from weeks 30–42 corresponding to August–October annually. A 1 cm increase in river water level at a lag of 1 week was associated with a small [0·07%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·01–0·1] increase in the diarrhoeal rate. A 1 °C increase in temperature at lag of 2 and 4 weeks was associated with a 1·5% (95% CI 0·3−2·7) and 1·1% (95% CI 0·1−2·3) increase in diarrhoeal risk, respectively. Relative humidity and diarrhoeal risk were in nonlinear relationship. The spatial analysis showed significant clustering of diarrhoea, and the LISA map shows three multi-centred diarrhoeal clusters and three single-centred clusters in the research location. The findings suggest that climatic conditions projected to be associated with climate change have important implication for human health impact in the Mekong Delta region.