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The partition of the total genetic variance into its additive and non-additive components can differ from trait to trait, and between purebred and crossbred populations. A quantification of these genetic variance components will determine the extent to which it would be of interest to account for dominance in genomic evaluations or to establish mate allocation strategies along different populations and traits. This study aims at assessing the contribution of the additive and dominance genomic variances to the phenotype expression of several purebred Piétrain and crossbred (Piétrain × Large White) pig performances. A total of 636 purebred and 720 crossbred male piglets were phenotyped for 22 traits that can be classified into six groups of traits: growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass composition, meat quality, behaviour, boar taint and puberty. Additive and dominance variances estimated in univariate genotypic models, including additive and dominance genotypic effects, and a genomic inbreeding covariate allowed to retrieve the additive and dominance single nucleotide polymorphism variances for purebred and crossbred performances. These estimated variances were used, together with the allelic frequencies of the parental populations, to obtain additive and dominance variances in terms of genetic breeding values and dominance deviations. Estimates of the Piétrain and Large White allelic contributions to the crossbred variance were of about the same magnitude in all the traits. Estimates of additive genetic variances were similar regardless of the inclusion of dominance. Some traits showed relevant amount of dominance genetic variance with respect to phenotypic variance in both populations (i.e. growth rate 8%, feed conversion ratio 9% to 12%, backfat thickness 14% to 12%, purebreds-crossbreds). Other traits showed higher amount in crossbreds (i.e. ham cut 8% to 13%, loin 7% to 16%, pH semimembranosus 13% to 18%, pH longissimus dorsi 9% to 14%, androstenone 5% to 13% and estradiol 6% to 11%, purebreds-crossbreds). It was not encountered a clear common pattern of dominance expression between groups of analysed traits and between populations. These estimates give initial hints regarding which traits could benefit from accounting for dominance for example to improve genomic estimated breeding value accuracy in genetic evaluations or to boost the total genetic value of progeny by means of assortative mating.
Objectives: Research has shown that analyzing intrusion errors generated on verbal learning and memory measures is helpful for distinguishing between the memory disorders associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease (HD). Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that certain clinical populations may be prone to exhibit different types of intrusion errors. Methods: We examined the prevalence of two new California Verbal Learning Test-3 (CVLT-3) intrusion subtypes – across-trial novel intrusions and across/within trial repeated intrusions – in individuals with AD or HD. We hypothesized that the encoding/storage impairment associated with medial-temporal involvement in AD would result in a greater number of novel intrusions on the delayed recall trials of the CVLT-3, whereas the executive dysfunction associated with subcortical-frontal involvement in HD would result in a greater number of repeated intrusions across trials. Results: The AD group generated significantly more across-trial novel intrusions than across/within trial repeated intrusions on the delayed cued-recall trials, whereas the HD group showed the opposite pattern on the delayed free-recall trials. Conclusions: These new intrusion subtypes, combined with traditional memory analyses (e.g., recall versus recognition performance), promise to enhance our ability to distinguish between the memory disorders associated with primarily medial-temporal versus subcortical-frontal involvement.
Errors pertinent in dual beam absorptiometry have been studied. Five areas are given in detail: 1. Scattering, in which a computer analysis of multiple scattering shows little error. 2. Geometrical configuration effects, in which the shape of the sample influences accuracy. 3. Poisson variations, in which dosage and statistical error are minimized. 4. Absorption coefficients, in which variations in compilations are examined. 5. Filtering, wherein is shown the need for Kβ filtering. A zero filter system is outlined.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease burden worldwide, with lifetime prevalence in the United States of 17%. Here we present the results of the first prospective, large-scale, patient- and rater-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluating the clinical importance of achieving congruence between combinatorial pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing and medication selection for MDD.
1,167 outpatients diagnosed with MDD and an inadequate response to ≥1 psychotropic medications were enrolled and randomized 1:1 to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) arm or PGx-guided care arm. Combinatorial PGx testing categorized medications in three groups based on the level of gene-drug interactions: use as directed, use with caution, or use with increased caution and more frequent monitoring. Patient assessments were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, 12 and 24. Patients, site raters, and central raters were blinded in both arms until after week 8. In the guided-care arm, physicians had access to the combinatorial PGx test result to guide medication selection. Primary outcomes utilized the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) and included symptom improvement (percent change in HAM-D17 from baseline), response (50% decrease in HAM-D17 from baseline), and remission (HAM-D17<7) at the fully blinded week 8 time point. The durability of patient outcomes was assessed at week 24. Medications were considered congruent with PGx test results if they were in the ‘use as directed’ or ‘use with caution’ report categories while medications in the ‘use with increased caution and more frequent monitoring’ were considered incongruent. Patients who started on incongruent medications were analyzed separately according to whether they changed to congruent medications by week8.
At week 8, symptom improvement for individuals in the guided-care arm was not significantly different than TAU (27.2% versus 24.4%, p=0.11). However, individuals in the guided-care arm were more likely than those in TAU to achieve remission (15% versus 10%; p<0.01) and response (26% versus 20%; p=0.01). Remission rates, response rates, and symptom reductions continued to improve in the guided-treatment arm until the 24week time point. Congruent prescribing increased to 91% in the guided-care arm by week 8. Among patients who were taking one or more incongruent medication at baseline, those who changed to congruent medications by week 8 demonstrated significantly greater symptom improvement (p<0.01), response (p=0.04), and remission rates (p<0.01) compared to those who persisted on incongruent medications.
Combinatorial PGx testing improves short- and long-term response and remission rates for MDD compared to standard of care. In addition, prescribing congruency with PGx-guided medication recommendations is important for achieving symptom improvement, response, and remission for MDD patients.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Assurex Health, Inc.
Let H0 be the mth power (m a positive integer) of the self-adjoint operator defined in the Hilbert space L2(0, π) by the differential operator — (d2/dx2) and the boundary conditions u(0) = u(π) = 0. The eigenvalues of H0 are μn = n2m and the corresponding eigenfunctions are ϕn = (2/π)1/2 sin nx, n = 1 , 2 , . . ..
Let p be a (2m — 2)-times continuously differentiate real valued function defined over the interval [0, π] satisfying the conditions p(j)(0) = p(j)(π) = 0 for j odd and less than 2m — 4.
Objectives: The third edition of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-3) includes a new index termed List A versus Novel/Unrelated recognition discriminability (RD) on the Yes/No Recognition trial. Whereas the Total RD index incorporates false positive (FP) errors associated with all distractors (including List B and semantically related items), the new List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index incorporates only FP errors associated with novel, semantically unrelated distractors. Thus, in minimizing levels of source and semantic interference, the List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index may yield purer assessments of yes/no recognition memory independent of vulnerability to source memory difficulties or semantic confusion, both of which are often seen in individuals with primarily frontal-system dysfunction (e.g., early Huntington’s disease [HD]). Methods: We compared the performance of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and HD in mild and moderate stages of dementia on CVLT-3 indices of Total RD and List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD. Results: Although AD and HD subgroups exhibited deficits on both RD indices relative to healthy comparison groups, those with HD generally outperformed those with AD, and group differences were more robust on List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD than on Total RD. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the clinical utility of the new CVLT-3 List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index, which (a) maximally assesses yes/no recognition memory independent of source and semantic interference; and (b) provides a greater differentiation between individuals whose memory disorder is primarily at the encoding/storage level (e.g., as in AD) versus at the retrieval level (e.g., as in early HD). (JINS, 2018, 24, 833–841)
The importance of parasites as a selective force in host evolution is a topic of current interest. However, short-term ecological studies of host–parasite systems, on which such studies are usually based, provide only snap-shots of what may be dynamic systems. We report here on four surveys, carried out over a period of 12 years, of helminths of spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus), the numerically dominant rodents inhabiting dry montane wadis in the Sinai Peninsula. With host age (age-dependent effects on prevalence and abundance were prominent) and sex (female bias in abundance in helminth diversity and in several taxa including Cestoda) taken into consideration, we focus on the relative importance of temporal and spatial effects on helminth infracommunities. We show that site of capture is the major determinant of prevalence and abundance of species (and higher taxa) contributing to helminth community structure, the only exceptions being Streptopharaus spp. and Dentostomella kuntzi. We provide evidence that most (notably the Spiruroidea, Protospirura muricola, Mastophorus muris and Gongylonema aegypti, but with exceptions among the Oxyuroidae, e.g. Syphacia minuta), show elements of temporal-site stability, with a rank order of measures among sites remaining similar over successive surveys. Hence, there are some elements of predictability in these systems.
Good education requires student experiences that deliver lessons about practice as well as theory and that encourage students to work for the public good—especially in the operation of democratic institutions (Dewey 1923; Dewy 1938). We report on an evaluation of the pedagogical value of a research project involving 23 colleges and universities across the country. Faculty trained and supervised students who observed polling places in the 2016 General Election. Our findings indicate that this was a valuable learning experience in both the short and long terms. Students found their experiences to be valuable and reported learning generally and specifically related to course material. Postelection, they also felt more knowledgeable about election science topics, voting behavior, and research methods. Students reported interest in participating in similar research in the future, would recommend other students to do so, and expressed interest in more learning and research about the topics central to their experience. Our results suggest that participants appreciated the importance of elections and their study. Collectively, the participating students are engaged and efficacious—essential qualities of citizens in a democracy.
Very large volumes of ice break off regularly from Taconnaz hanging glacier, French Alps. During winter, when the snow mantle is unstable, these collapses can trigger very large avalanches that represent a serious threat to inhabited areas below. Photogrammetric measurements have been performed over 1 year to assess the volume and frequency of the largest collapses. Major collapses occur when the glacier reaches a critical geometry. After a major ice collapse, the glacier is in a minimal position and subsequently recharges over 6 months to reach the maximum position again. This critical geometry is a necessary but not sufficient condition for further large collapses. Large collapses do not systematically occur in the maximum position, as ice is often removed by disintegration into small ice blocks. For two major collapses, the volume of ice breaking off has been assessed at ~275 000 m3. Photogrammetric measurements were used to determine an ice flux of 820 000 m3 a–1 through the studied ice stream, in agreement with an assessment based on ice-flow modeling. This ice flux estimation was used to determine the average ice volumes breaking off over surveyed periods.
Simulations of glacier evolution are needed to assess future changes in the runoff regime of mountain catchments. A simplified parameterized model is applied here to simulate future thickness changes and glacier retreat of Mer de Glace, French Alps. A normalized thickness change function describing the spatial distribution of surface-elevation changes as a function of elevation has been determined. The model reveals that under present climatic conditions Mer de Glace will continue to shrink dramatically in the coming decades, retreating by 1200 m between now and 2040. The method has certain limitations related to the uncertainties of the normalized function based on thickness change data. An error of 10% in the normalized function leads to uncertainties of 46%, 30% and 18% in Mer de Glace front, surface area and glacier-wide mass-balance changes respectively in 2040. Because the difference of the normalized function largely exceeds 10% from one glacier to another, even within a given glacier size class and elevation range, it would be very risky to extrapolate the normalized function to unmeasured glaciers. Consequently, the method is applicable only on glaciers where past surface elevation changes are well constrained.
For most of the Twentieth Century the angiosperm archetypal flower has been viewed as relatively large, multiparted, with spirally arranged fleshy appendages, and as being probably beetle pollinated as in some extant Magnoliales. However, the preponderance of fossil evidence indicates that flowers with such characters do not appear until the mid-Cretaceous, well after smaller simpler fossil flowers such as platanoids and chloranthoids. Winteraceous and Chloranthaceous pollen appears more or less simultaneously in the Lower Cretaceous, but rapidly mounting evidence for mosaicism in Cretaceous taxa makes it unwise to extrapolate floral structure on the basis of dispersed pollen. Mid-Late Cretaceous fossils illustrate an increasing proportion of simple flowered Rosidae in the angiosperm flora. We report new fossil evidence of charcoalified flowers and fruits representing at least 20–30 diverse angiosperm taxa from the Cenomanian and Turonian deposits of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. These fossil flowers include representatives with hypanthia and floral cups, sympetaly, syncarpy, inferior ovaries, campylotropous ovules, nectaries of various forms, specialized anther dehiscence, epipetalous stamens, and connate filament tubes. Major taxonomic groups (as defined by Cronquist) represented by these fossils include Dilleniidae, Magnoliidae, Rosidae, monocots, and possibly Caryophyllidae. Thus, the early Late Cretaceous angiosperm flora had greater floral diversity than has previously been documented. This array of floral structures includes features that are now associated with bees and other specialized insect pollinators, thus providing a new perspective on the evolution of insect pollination.
The deadliest outburst flood from an englacial cavity occurred on Glacier de Tête Rousse in the Mont Blanc area, French Alps, in 1892. A subglacial reservoir was discovered in the same glacier in 2010 and drained artificially in 2010, 2011 and 2012 to protect the 3000 inhabitants downstream. The mechanism leading to the spontaneous refilling of the cavity following these pumping operations has been analyzed. For this purpose, the subglacial water volume changes between 2010 and 2013 were reconstructed. The size of the cavity following the pumping was found to have decreased from 53500 m3 in 2010 to 12 750 m3 in 2013. Creep and the partial collapse of the cavity roof explain a large part of the volume loss. Analysis of cavity filling showed a strong relationship between measured surface melting and the filling rate, with a time delay of 4–6 hours. A permanent input of 15 m3 d−1, not depending on surface melt, was also found. The meltwater and rain from the surface is conveyed to bedrock through crevasses and probably through a permeable layer of rock debris at the glacier bed. The drainage pathway permeability was estimated at 0.054 ms−1 from water discharge measurements and dye-tracing experiments.
Pigs selected for high performance may be more at risk of developing diseases. This study aimed to assess the health and performance of two pig lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) (low RFI (LRFI) v. high RFI (HRFI)) and housed in two contrasted hygiene conditions (poor v. good) using a 2×2 factorial design (n=40/group). The challenge period (Period 1), started on week zero (W0) when 12-week-old pigs were transferred to good or poor housing conditions. At week 6 (W6), half of the pigs in each group were slaughtered. During a recovery period (Period 2) from W6 to W13 to W14, the remaining pigs (n=20/group) were transferred in good hygiene conditions before being slaughtered. Blood was collected every three (Period 1) or 2 weeks (Period 2) to assess blood indicators of immune and inflammatory responses. Pulmonary lesions at slaughter and performance traits were evaluated. At W6, pneumonia prevalence was greater for pigs housed in poor than in good conditions (51% v. 8%, respectively, P<0.001). Irrespective of hygiene conditions, lung lesion scores were lower for LRFI pigs than for HRFI pigs (P=0.03). At W3, LRFI in poor conditions had the highest number of blood granulocytes (hygiene×line, P=0.03) and at W6, HRFI pigs in poor conditions had the greatest plasma haptoglobin concentrations (hygiene×line, P=0.02). During Period 1, growth rate and growth-to-feed ratio were less affected by poor hygiene in LRFI pigs than in HRFI pigs (hygiene×line, P=0.001 and P=0.02, respectively). Low residual feed intake pigs in poor conditions ate more than the other groups (hygiene×line, P=0.002). Irrespective of the line, fasting plasma glucose concentrations were higher in poor conditions, whereas fasting free fatty acids concentrations were lower than in good conditions. At the end of Period 2, pneumonia prevalence was similar for both housing conditions (39% v. 38%, respectively). During Period 2, plasma protein concentrations were greater for pigs previously housed in poor than in good conditions during Period 1. Immune traits, gain-to-feed ratio, BW gain and feed consumption did not differ during Period 2. Nevertheless, at W12, BW of HRFI previously housed in poor conditions was 13.4 kg lower than BW of HRFI pigs (P<0.001) previously housed in good conditions. In conclusion, health of the most feed efficient LRFI pigs was less impaired by poor hygiene conditions. This line was able to preserve its health, growth performance and its feed ingestion to a greater extent than the less efficient HRFI line.
Introduction: Decreasing readmission rates and return emergency department (ED) visits represent a major challenge for health organizations. Seniors are especially vulnerable to discharge adverse events which can result in unplanned readmissions and loss of physical, functional and/or cognitive capacity. The ACE Collaborative is a national quality improvement initiative that aims to improve care of elderly patients. We aimed to adapt Mount Sinai’s Care Transitions program to our local context in order to decrease avoidable readmissions and ED visits among seniors. Methods: We performed a prospective pre/post implementation cohort study. We recruited frail elderly hospitalized patients (≥50 years old) discharged to home and at risk of readmission (modified LACE index score≥7/12). We excluded patients being discharged to long-term nursing homes or institutions. Our intervention is based on selected strategic ACE Care Transitions best practices: transition coach, telehealth personal response services and a structured discharge checklist. The intervention is offered to selected patients before hospital discharge. Our primary outcome is a 30-day post-discharge composite of hospital readmission and return ED visit rate. Our secondary outcomes are functional autonomy, satisfaction with care transition, quality of life, caregiver strain and healthcare resource use at recruitment and at 30-days follow-up. Hospital-level administrative data is also collected to measure global effect of practice changes. Results: The project is currently ongoing and preliminary results are available for the pre-implementation cohort only. Patients in this cohort (n=33) were mainly men (61%), aged 75±10 years and presented an OARS score (Activities of Daily Living instrument that ranges from 0-28) of 5.6±4.9. At 30 days post-discharge, the patients in our cohort had a 42.4% readmission rate (14 hospitalisations) and a 54.5% return ED visit rate (18 visits). For the same time period, readmission and return ED rates for all patients in the same corresponding age-group at the hospital level were 14.4% and 21.9%, respectively. Further results for our post-intervention cohort will be presented at CAEP 2017. Conclusion: Our cohort of elderly patients have high readmission and return ED visit rates. Our ongoing quality improvement project aims to decrease these readmissions and ED visits.
The primary goal was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine on fuel efficiency, as an antioxidant, and for muscle recovery in Labrador retrievers. Dogs were split into two groups, with one group being supplemented with 250 mg/d of Carniking™ l-carnitine powder. Two experiments (Expt 1 and Expt 2) were performed over a 2-year period which included running programmes, activity monitoring, body composition scans and evaluation of recovery using biomarkers. Each experiment differed slightly in dog number and design: fifty-six v. forty dogs; one endurance and two sprint runs per week v. two endurance runs; and differing blood collection time points. All dogs were fed a low-carnitine diet in which a fixed amount was offered based on maintaining the minimum starting weight. Results from Expt 1 found that the carnitine dogs produced approximately 4000 more activity points per km compared with the control group during sprint (P = 0·052) and endurance runs (P = 0·0001). Male carnitine dogs produced half the creatine phosphokinase (CPK) following exercise compared with male control dogs (P = 0·05). Carnitine dogs had lower myoglobin at 6·69 ng/ml following intensive exercise compared with controls at 24·02 ng/ml (P = 0·0295). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) results were not considered significant. In Expt 2, body composition scans indicated that the carnitine group gained more total tissue mass while controls lost tissue mass (P = 0·0006) and also gained lean mass while the control group lost lean mass (P < 0·0001). Carnitine dogs had lower CPK secretion at 23·06 v. control at 28·37 mU/ml 24 h after post-run (P = 0·003). Myoglobin levels were lower in carnitine v. control dogs both 1 h post-run (P = 0·0157; 23·83 v. 37·91 ng/ml) and 24 h post-run (P = 0·0189; 6·25 v.13·5 ng/ml). TAC indicated more antioxidant activity in carnitine dogs at 0·16 mmv. control at 0·13 mm (P = 0·0496). TBARS were also significantly lower in carnitine dogs both pre-run (P = 0·0013; 15·36 v. 23·42 µm) and 1 h post-run (P = 0·056; 16·45 v. 20·65 µm). Supplementing l-carnitine in the form of Carniking™ had positive benefits in Labrador retrievers for activity intensity, body composition, muscle recovery and oxidative capacity.
This article reports on a case study of a decade-long organizing forms response to the need for groundbreaking innovation while maintaining existing operational performance – the explore–exploit conundrum. Employing ‘grounded research,’ data were collected on the experiences of the Asia-Pacific arm of a multinational professional service firm’s key decision-makers, innovators and entrepreneurs. The findings reveal a three-tiered organizing forms response to the explore–exploit paradox, characterized by a novel combination of heavy exploitation-driven actions alongside deep exploration projects. This case suggests that one successful approach to delivering on both explore and exploit focuses on a productive tension that emerges by enacting innovative organizing forms with contextual awareness. This productive tension was sufficiently powerful to impel individuals to innovate, but also sufficiently contained to avoid interfering with commercial outcomes. An explore–exploit framework conceptualizes organizational changes incorporating complexity and contradiction, without the implicit emphasis on removing or denying the existing tension.
This review summarizes the results from the INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) divergent selection experiment on residual feed intake (RFI) in growing Large White pigs during nine generations of selection. It discusses the remaining challenges and perspectives for the improvement of feed efficiency in growing pigs. The impacts on growing pigs raised under standard conditions and in alternative situations such as heat stress, inflammatory challenges or lactation have been studied. After nine generations of selection, the divergent selection for RFI led to highly significant (P<0.001) line differences for RFI (−165 g/day in the low RFI (LRFI) line compared with high RFI line) and daily feed intake (−270 g/day). Low responses were observed on growth rate (−12.8 g/day, P<0.05) and body composition (+0.9 mm backfat thickness, P=0.57; −2.64% lean meat content, P<0.001) with a marked response on feed conversion ratio (−0.32 kg feed/kg gain, P<0.001). Reduced ultimate pH and increased lightness of the meat (P<0.001) were observed in LRFI pigs with minor impact on the sensory quality of the meat. These changes in meat quality were associated with changes of the muscular energy metabolism. Reduced maintenance energy requirements (−10% after five generations of selection) and activity (−21% of time standing after six generations of selection) of LRFI pigs greatly contributed to the gain in energy efficiency. However, the impact of selection for RFI on the protein metabolism of the pig remains unclear. Digestibility of energy and nutrients was not affected by selection, neither for pigs fed conventional diets nor for pigs fed high-fibre diets. A significant improvement of digestive efficiency could likely be achieved by selecting pigs on fibre diets. No convincing genetic or blood biomarker has been identified for explaining the differences in RFI, suggesting that pigs have various ways to achieve an efficient use of feed. No deleterious impact of the selection on the sow reproduction performance was observed. The resource allocation theory states that low RFI may reduce the ability to cope with stressors, via the reduction of a buffer compartment dedicated to responses to stress. None of the experiments focussed on the response of pigs to stress or challenges could confirm this theory. Understanding the relationships between RFI and responses to stress and energy demanding processes, as such immunity and lactation, remains a major challenge for a better understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of the trait and to reconcile the experimental results with the resource allocation theory.
The present-day location of public parks should be understood in the proper social and historical context of residential segregation and urban development. In Los Angeles, discriminatory practices such as restrictive covenants were used not only for housing, but also to maintain segregated recreational spaces. In addition, the economic changes that came as a result of White flight, suburbanization, and inner city job loss brought with it a reduction in local government resources, including funds for public parks. These changes to the urban landscape disproportionately impacted low-income immigrant communities, including Latino neighborhoods. Health disparities researchers are concerned with the inequitable distribution of parks and recreation facilities because it may contribute to disparities in physical inactivity and obesity, health risks that disproportionately impact Latinos. However, much of the literature investigating disparities in the built environment fails to include a racial analysis. The current study uses a Critical Race Theory framework to examine disparities in park availability in Los Angeles. We used a unique park dataset created in ArcGIS to carry out a county-wide assessment of the availability of park features at the neighborhood level. Data come from two sources, the Los Angeles County Location Management System, which includes information on specific park features (e.g., swimming pools, parks and gardens, recreation centers) and the American Community Survey, which includes neighborhood-level sociodemographic information. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression model was used to test whether Latino immigrant neighborhood characteristics are associated with the availability of park features in Los Angeles. Results indicate that Latino immigrant neighborhoods have limited park availability. The discussion situates these findings of inequitable distribution of park resources in the appropriate social and historical context of Latinos living in Los Angeles.