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Complement factor H (CFH) plays a key role in regulating the cascade of the alternative pathway of the complement system. Dysregulation of CFH may be involved in the pathophysiology of various inflammation-mediated diseases including neuropsychiatric illnesses. This study aimed to investigate this relationship by examining determining CFH levels in elderly individuals with and without depression.
A total of 152 elderly individuals (major depressive disorder (MDD) group, n = 76; comparison sample, n = 76) were selected from the Ansan Geriatric study. The plasma level of CFH was measured. MDD was diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview as per DSM-IV criteria. The severity of depression was evaluated with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). Mean CFH levels were compared using the Mann–Whitney U test. After adjusting for possible confounding factors including age, sex, marital status, education, alcohol use, hemoglobin levels, and the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-KC), a multiple regression analysis was conducted. The GDS score and plasma level of CFH were analyzed using Spearman's correlation.
Plasma CFH level was significantly higher in individuals with MDD than in the comparison sample (289.51 ± 21.16 vs. 339.67 ± 66.23, p < 0.001). In a regression model adjusted for possible confounders, CFH was significantly associated with geriatric depression (p < 0.001). CFH levels were not significantly related to GDS scores in the depressed group.
This study revealed an association between high plasma levels of CFH and geriatric depression, thereby suggesting the alternative pathway of the complement system contributing to the development of geriatric depression.
Our aim was to describe the efficacy and tolerability of pimavanserin, a highly selective serotonin 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist/antagonist indicated for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson’s disease psychosis (PDP), using the metrics of number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH).
Categorical efficacy and tolerability data were extracted from the clinical trial databases of the double-blind placebo-controlled studies of pimavanserin in persons with PDP. NNT and NNH values were calculated with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The likelihood to be helped or harmed (LHH) was then calculated contrasting therapeutic response versus discontinuation because of an adverse event.
NNT values for pimavanserin 34 mg/d versus placebo for several definitions of clinical response are <10, and as robust as 4. NNH values for tolerability outcomes for pimavanserin 34 mg/d (as well as for doses that range from 8.5 to 51 mg/d) are >10, and/or are not statistically significant, and/or show an advantage for pimavanserin over placebo (such as for postural hypotension). In terms of LHH, pimavanserin 34 mg/d is about five times more likely to result in clinical response (as measured by a ≥3 point decrease from baseline on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms adapted for Parkinson’s disease) versus discontinuation due to an adverse event.
Using the metrics of NNT, NNH, and LHH, pimavanserin 34 mg/d for the treatment of PDP appears to have a compelling benefit/risk profile.
To assess patterns and levels of dietary supplement use among Australian Defence Forces, previously deployed to the Middle East Area of Operations.
A cross-sectional study. Participants of a large survey self-completed questions about dietary supplement use, health status, personal and job-related characteristics, and lifestyle factors. Frequency of current use of supplements was assessed in three categories (bodybuilding, energy and weight loss).
Middle East Area of Operations post-deployment health survey.
Current and ex-serving Australian Defence Force personnel (n 14 032) who deployed to the Middle East between 2001 and 2009.
Bodybuilding supplements were used by 17·5 % of participants, energy supplements by 24·5 % and weight-loss supplements by 7·6 %. Overall, 32·3 % of participants used any of these supplements. Bodybuilding and energy supplements were more often used by men, younger persons and those in the Army, while weight-loss supplements were more commonly used by women and Navy personnel. Supplements in all three categories were more commonly used by persons in lower ranks, active service and combat roles. Users of bodybuilding supplements had healthier lifestyles and better health status, while users of energy and weight-loss supplements had less healthy lifestyles and poorer mental and physical health status. Overall, 11·7 % of participants used supplements containing caffeine and 3·6 % used a creatine-containing product.
Use of dietary supplements among Australian Defence Force personnel is common, and patterned by lifestyle factors and health status.
Żabińskiite, ideally Ca(Al0.5Ta0.5)(SiO4)O,
was found in a Variscan granitic pegmatite at Piława Górna, Lower Silesia,
SW Poland. The mineral occurs along with (Al,Ta,Nb)- and (Al,F)-bearing
titanites, a pyrochlore-supergroupmineral and a K-mica in compositionally
inhomogeneous aggregates, ∼120 μm × 70 μm in size, in a fractured crystal of
zircon intergrown with polycrase-(Y) and euxenite-(Y). Żabińskiite is
transparent, brittle, brownish, with a white streak, vitreous lustre and a
Mohs hardness of ∼5. The calculated density for the refined crystal is equal
to 3.897 g cm–3, but depends strongly on composition. The mineral
is non-pleochroic, biaxial (–), with mean refractive indices ≥1.89. The
mol.% Ca[Al0.5(Ta,Nb)0.5](SiO4)O; is close
in composition to previously described synthetic material. Żabińskiite is
triclinic (space group symmetry A1) and has unit-cell
parameters a = 7.031(2) Å, b = 8.692(2)
Å,c = 6.561(2) Å, α = 89.712(11)°, β = 113.830(13)°, γ =
90.352(12)° and V = 366.77 (11) Å3. It is
isostructural with triclinic titanite and bond-topologically identical with
titanite and other minerals of the titanite group.Żabińskiite crystallized
along with (Al,Ta,Nb)-bearing titanites at increasing Ti and Nb, and
decreasing Ta activities, almost coevally with polycrase-(Y) and
euxenite-(Y) from Ca-contaminated fluxed melts or early hydrothermal
Carbon films were energetically deposited onto copper foil using the physical vapor deposition technique filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that high quality graphene films of uniform thickness can be deposited onto copper foil at temperatures of 850 °C. The films can be prepared at high deposition rates (∼1 nm/min) and were comparable to graphene films grown at 1050 °C using chemical vapor deposition. This lower growth temperature was made possible by the energetic carbon flux which assisted the arrangement of carbon atoms into graphene layers on the Cu growth surface. Floating substrate potential was found to produce the highest quality graphene and the addition of hydrogen gas during film growth resulted in more defective films.
The origin of ionic conductivity in bulk lithium lanthanum titanate, a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries, has long been under debate, with experiments showing lower conductivity than predictions. Using first-principles-based calculations, we find that experimentally observed type I boundaries are more stable compared with the type II grain boundaries, consistent with their observed relative abundance. Grain boundary stability appears to strongly anti-correlate with the field strength as well as the spatial extent of the space charge region. Ion migration is faster along type II grain boundaries than across, consistent with recent experiments of increased conductivity when type II densities were increased.
Previous studies suggest that there is a strong association between depression and cognitive decline, and that concurrent depressive symptoms in MCI patients could contribute to a difference in neurocognitive characteristics compared to MCI patients without depression. The authors tried to compare neurocognitive functions between MCI patients with and without depression by analyzing the results of neuropsychological tests.
Participants included 153 MCI patients. Based on the diagnosis of major depressive disorder, the participants were divided into two groups: depressed MCI (MCI/D+) versus non-depressed MCI (MCI/D−). The general cognitive and functional statuses of participants were evaluated. And a subset of various neuropsychological tests was presented to participants. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed using Student t-test or χ2 test.
A total of 153 participants were divided into two groups: 94 MCI/D+ patients and 59 MCI/D− patients. Age, sex, and years of education were not significantly different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in general cognitive status between MCI/D+ and MCI/D− patients, but MCI/D+ participants showed significantly reduced performance in the six subtests (Contrasting Program, Go-no-go task, Fist-edge-palm task, Constructional Praxis, Memory Recall, TMT-A) compared with MCI/D− patients.
There were significantly greater deficits in neurocognitive functions including verbal memory, executive function, attention/processing speed, and visual memory in MCI/D+ participants compared to MCI/D−. Once the biological mechanism is identified, distinct approaches in treatment or prevention will be determined.
Studies have suggested that maternal PUFA status during pregnancy may influence early childhood allergic diseases, although findings are inconsistent. We examined the relationship between maternal PUFA status and risk of allergic diseases in early childhood in an Asian cohort. Maternal plasma samples from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother–offspring cohort were assayed at 26–28 weeks of gestation for relative abundance of PUFA. Offspring (n 960) were followed up from 3 weeks to 18 months of age, and clinical outcomes of potential allergic diseases (rhinitis, eczema and wheezing) were assessed by repeated questionnaires. Skin prick testing (SPT) was also performed at the age of 18 months. Any allergic disease with positive SPT was defined as having any one of the clinical outcomes plus a positive SPT. The prevalence of a positive SPT, rhinitis, eczema, wheezing and any allergic disease with positive SPT was 14·1 % (103/728), 26·5 % (214/808), 17·6 % (147/833), 10·9 % (94/859) and 9·4 % (62/657), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal total n-3, n-6 PUFA status and the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were not significantly associated with offspring rhinitis, eczema, wheezing, a positive SPT and having any allergic disease with positive SPT in the offspring (P>0·01 for all). A weak trend of higher maternal n-3 PUFA being associated with higher risk of allergic diseases with positive SPT in offspring was observed. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of early childhood allergic diseases is modified by variation in maternal n-3 and n-6 PUFA status during pregnancy in an Asian population.
The warm white light emission from the MOS capacitor containing the Zr-doped HfO2 high-k thin film on a p-type Si wafer under various post deposition annealing temperatures has been investigated. The light intensity is affected by the annealing temperature and the magnitude of the stress voltage. The annealing temperature changes the defect density and the physical thickness of the high-k stack. The high stress voltage induces the strong light emission because of the passage of a large current through the conductive path. The broad band emission spectrum covers the visible and near IR wavelength range with a large color rendering index. This new light emission device has a very long lifetime of > 1,000 hours at the atmosphere without a protection layer. The device is made of the IC compatible material and fabrication process, which favors the application over a wide range of products.