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This paper uses evidence from a previously unresearched ecclesiastical textile associated with Archbishop John Morton (c 1420−1500) to generate new insights into the material culture of the Roman Catholic faith before, during and after the penal period in England (c 1558−1829). This composite textile was initially thought to be made up of fragments of a late 1400s cope bearing Morton’s rebus, reconfigured as an altar frontal, which had survived in the house of an important Roman Catholic family. The embroidered motifs include a unique Lily Crucifix. The textile’s complex biography is ‘unpicked’ using physical and textual evidence to understand its changing forms, roles and significance. Analysis of the material and construction, combined with evidence gained through X-radiography, showed the frontal to be composed of parts of a cope and at least one other vestment, with a now missing image of the Annunciation. Mapping the stages of fragmentation, removal and re-modelling demonstrates the transformation of significant mainstream vestments into other forms. The paper illuminates aspects of Morton’s faith and provides new insights into the practices of recusant Roman Catholics.
The Church of England successfully resisted proposals to bring decisions about alterations to its churches within the provisions of the Ancient Monuments Act (1913). However, the quid pro quo for the continuation of that ecclesiastical exemption was a strengthening of the operation of the faculty jurisdiction of diocesan chancellors. The First World War brought more urgent concerns for dioceses, but what no-one had foreseen was the huge death toll that war would bring, and the consequent pressure for communal and individual memorials to be created in churches and churchyards. In addition to the greatly increased volume of faculty applications, and the problem of some churches going ahead with commemorative projects without seeking the necessary faculties, some war memorial plans involving crucifixes began to raise the spectre of Ritualistic illegality.
Introduction: Time-to-treatment plays a pivotal role in survival from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Every minute delay in defibrillation results in a 7-10% reduction in survival. This is particularly problematic in rural and remote regions, where bystander and EMS response is often prolonged and automated external defibrillators (AED) are often not available. Our objective was to examine the feasibility of a novel AED drone delivery method for rural and remote SCA. A secondary objective was to compare times between AED drone delivery and ambulance response to various mock SCA resuscitations. Methods: We conducted 6 simulations in two different rural communities in southern Ontario. During phase 1 (4 simulations) a “mock” call was placed to 911 and a single AED drone and an ambulance were simultaneously dispatched from the same location to a pre-determined destination. Once on scene, trained first responders retrieved the AED from the drone and initiated resuscitative efforts on a manikin. The second phase (2 scenarios) were done in a similar manner save for the drone being dispatched from a regionally optimized location for drone response. Results: Phase 1: The distance from dispatch location to scene varied from 6.6 km to 8.8 km. Mean (SD) response time from 911 call to scene arrival was 11.2 (+/- 1.0) minutes for EMS compared to 8.1 (+/- 0.1) for AED drone delivery. In all four simulations, the AED drone arrived before EMS, ranging from 2.1 to 4.4 minutes faster. The mean time for trained responders to retrieve the AED and apply it to the manikin was 35 (+/- 5) sec. No difficulties were encountered in drone activation by dispatch, drone lift off, landing or removal of the AED from the drone by responders. Phase 2: The ambulance response distance was 20km compared to 9km for the drone. Drones were faster to arrival at the scene by 7 minutes and 8 minutes with AED application 6 and 7 minutes prior to ambulance respectively. Conclusion: This implementation study suggests AED drone delivery is feasible with improvements in response time during a simulated SCA scenario. These results suggest the potential for AED drone delivery to decrease time to first defibrillation in rural and remote communities. Further research is required to determine the appropriate distance for drone delivery of an AED in an integrated EMS system as well as optimal strategies to simplify bystander application of a drone delivered AED.
Some patients with schizophrenia switch medications due to lack of efficacy or side effects; improvement in symptoms and side effects following a switch must be assessed.
In a 12-week, open-label, baseline-controlled, flexible dose switch study, adult outpatients with schizophrenia experiencing suboptimal efficacy or tolerability problems were switched from haloperidol (n=99), olanzapine (n=82), or risperidone (n=104) to ziprasidone (80¬–160 mg/d; dosed bid with food). The primary efficacy evaluation was the BPRS score at Week 12. Safety evaluations included change from baseline in movement disorders (SAS, BAS, AIMS), weight, prolactin, and fasting lipids levels. Statistical tests were 1-sided non-inferiority comparisons with correction for multiple comparisons (0.025/3 significance level), for the primary efficacy endpoint, or 2-sided (0.05 significance level), for secondary endpoints.
BPRS scores improved significantly compared with all 3 preswitch medications at Week 12. Mean change from baseline (SD) for patients switched from haloperidol, olanzapine, and risperidone was –11.3 (16.3), –6.3 (14.2), and –9.9 (13.2), respectively (p < 0.0001 vs baseline). Movement disorders, measured by SAS, BAS, and AIMS, improved significantly for subjects switched from haloperidol and risperidone. Change in weight (kg ± SD) from baseline was 0.4 ± 3.97, –2.0 ± 3.99 (p < 0.001), and –0.6 ± 3.21 for subjects switched from haloperidol, olanzapine, and risperidone, respectively.
Patients switched to ziprasidone demonstrated improvement in symptoms and movement disorders, with a weight neutral effect. Ziprasidone is an appropriate switch option for patients experiencing suboptimal efficacy or poor tolerability with their current treatment.
The diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis relies on the detection of NMDAR IgG autoantibodies in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of symptomatic patients. Commercial kits are available that allow NMDAR IgG autoantibodies to be measured in local laboratories. However, the performance of these tests outside of reference laboratories is unknown.
To report an unexpectedly low rate of NMDAR autoantibody detection in serum from patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis tested using a commercially available diagnostic kit in an exemplar clinical laboratory.
Paired CSF and serum samples from seven patients with definite anti-NMDAR encephalitis were tested for NMDAR IgG autoantibodies using commercially available cell-based assays run according to manufacturer’s recommendations. Rates of autoantibody detection in serum tested at our center were compared with those derived from systematic review and meta-analyses incorporating studies published during or before March 2019.
NMDAR IgG autoantibodies were detected in the CSF of all patients tested at our clinical laboratory but not in paired serum samples. Rates of the detection were lower than those previously reported. A similar association was recognized through meta-analyses, with lower odds of NMDAR IgG autoantibody detection associated with serum testing performed in nonreference laboratories.
Commercial kits may yield lower-than-expected rates of NMDAR IgG autoantibody detection in serum when run in exemplar clinical (nonreference) laboratories. Additional studies are needed to decipher the factors that contribute to lower-than-expected rates of serum positivity. CSF testing is recommended in patients with suspected anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
In this paper, we revisit our previous work in which we derive an effective macroscale description suitable to describe the growth of biological tissue within a porous tissue-engineering scaffold. The underlying tissue dynamics is described as a multiphase mixture, thereby naturally accommodating features such as interstitial growth and active cell motion. Via a linearization of the underlying multiphase model (whose nonlinearity poses a significant challenge for such analyses), we obtain, by means of multiple-scale homogenization, a simplified macroscale model that nevertheless retains explicit dependence on both the microscale scaffold structure and the tissue dynamics, via so-called unit-cell problems that provide permeability tensors to parameterize the macroscale description. In our previous work, the cell problems retain macroscale dependence, posing significant challenges for computational implementation of the eventual macroscopic model; here, we obtain a decoupled system whereby the quasi-steady cell problems may be solved separately from the macroscale description. Moreover, we indicate how the formulation is influenced by a set of alternative microscale boundary conditions.
To validate digitally displayed photographic portion-size estimation aids (PSEA) against a weighed meal record and compare findings with an atlas of printed photographic PSEA and actual prepared-food PSEA in a low-income country.
Participants served themselves water and five prepared foods, which were weighed separately before the meal and again after the meal to measure any leftovers. Participants returned the following day and completed a meal recall. They estimated the quantities of foods consumed three times using the different PSEA in a randomized order.
Two urban and two rural communities in southern Malawi.
Women (n 300) aged 18–45 years, equally divided by urban/rural residence and years of education (≤4 years and ≥5 years).
Responses for digital and printed PSEA were highly correlated (>91 % agreement for all foods, Cohen’s κw = 0·78–0·93). Overall, at the individual level, digital and actual-food PSEA had a similar level of agreement with the weighed meal record. At the group level, the proportion of participants who estimated within 20 % of the weighed grams of food consumed ranged by type of food from 30 to 45 % for digital PSEA and 40–56 % for actual-food PSEA. Digital PSEA consistently underestimated grams and nutrients across foods, whereas actual-food PSEA provided a mix of under- and overestimates that balanced each other to produce accurate mean energy and nutrient intake estimates. Results did not differ by urban and rural location or participant education level.
Digital PSEA require further testing in low-income settings to improve accuracy of estimations.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
In California, invasive grasses have displaced native plants, transforming much of the endemic coastal sage scrub (CSS) to nonnative grasslands. This has occurred for several reasons, including increased competitive ability of invasive grasses and long-term alterations to the soil environment, called legacy effects. Despite the magnitude of this problem, however, it is not well understood how these legacy effects have altered the soil microbial community and, indirectly, native plant restoration. We assessed the microbial composition of soils collected from an uninvaded CSS community (uninvaded soil) and a nearby 10-ha site from which the invasive grass Harding grass (Phalaris aquatica L.) was removed after 11 yr of growth (postinvasive soil). We also measured the survival rate, biomass, and length of three CSS species and P. aquatica grown in both soil types (uninvaded and postinvasive). Our findings indicate that P. aquatica may create microbial legacy effects in the soil that likely cause soil conditions inhibitory to the survival rate, biomass, and length of coastal sagebrush, but not the other two native plant species. Specifically, coastal sagebrush growth was lower in the postinvasive soil, which had more Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Agrobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium (R. leguminosarum), Candidatus koribacter, Candidatus solibacter, and rhizophilic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and fewer Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Nitrospira, and Rubrobacter compared with the uninvaded soil. Shifts in soil microbial community composition such as these can have important implications for restoration strategies in postinvasive sites.
Reproducing the planes of co-orbiting satellites observed in the MW and M31 so far has represented a challenge for cosmological simulations. We have developed a new method to search for kinematically-coherent groups of satellites and applied it to 2 different cosmological hydro-simulations of disc galaxies. In each simulation we have found such a group, that represents roughly half of the total satellite population and is distributed on a fairly thin plane that persists in time. These results are compatible with the MW and M31 observed planes.
Understanding the peculiar properties of Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) via spectroscopic analysis is a challenging task that is now becoming feasible. The advent of 10m-class telescopes and high sensitivity instruments is enabling the gathering of high quality spectra even for the faintest systems. In addition, advances in the modelling of stellar populations, stellar libraries, and full-spectral fitting codes are allowing the recovery of the stellar content shaping those spectra with unprecedented reliability. In this contribution we report on the extensive tests we have carried out using the inversion code STECKMAP. The similarities between the Star Formation Histories (SFH) recovered from STECKMAP (applied to high-quality spectra) and deep Colour-Magnitude diagrams fitting (resolved stars) in two Local Group dwarf galaxies (LMC and LeoA) are remarkable, demonstrating the impressive performance of STECKMAP. We exploit the capabilities of STECKMAP and perform one of the most complete and reliable characterisations of the stellar component of UDGs to date using deep spectroscopic data. We measure radial and rotation velocities, SFHs and mean population parameters, such as ages and metallicities, for a sample of five UDG candidates in the Coma cluster. From the radial velocities, we confirm the Coma membership of these galaxies. We find that their rotation properties, if detected at all, are compatible with dwarf-like galaxies. The SFHs of the UDG are dominated by old (∼ 7 Gyr), metal-poor ([M/H] ∼ -1.1) and alpha-enhanced ([Mg/Fe]∼ 0.4) populations followed by a smooth or episodic decline which halted ∼ 2 Gyr ago, possibly a sign of cluster-induced quenching. We find no obvious correlation between individual SFH shapes and any UDG morphological properties. The recovered stellar properties for UDGs are similar to those found for DDO 44, a local UDG analogue resolved into stars. We conclude that the UDGs in our sample are extended dwarfs whose properties are likely the outcome of both internal processes, such as bursty SFHs and/or high-spin haloes, as well as environmental effects within the Coma cluster.
Metacognitive Training for Depression (D-MCT) is a highly standardized group program targeted at depression-related (“Beckian”) emotional as well as cognitive biases, including mood-congruent and false memory. While prior results are promising with respect to psychopathological outcomes (depression), it is unclear whether D-MCT also meets its goal of improving cognitive biases, such as false memories.
In the framework of a randomized controlled trial (registered trial, DRKS00007907), we investigated whether D-MCT is superior to an active control condition (health training, HT) in reducing the susceptibility of depressed patients for false memories. False memories were examined using parallel versions of a visual variant of the Deese-Roediger McDermott paradigm.
Both groups committed less false memories at post assessment after 4 weeks compared to baseline. Relative to HT, D-MCT led to a significant decrease in high-confident false memories over time.
The study presents first evidence that D-MCT decreases the susceptibility of depressed patients for false memories, particularly for errors made with high confidence that are presumably the most “toxic” in terms of mood-congruent memory distortions.
Background: We set out to test the discriminative power of an age-adjusted upper reference limit (URL) for CSF total protein (CSF-TP) in identifying pathological causes of albuminocytologic dissociation (ACD). Methods: We reviewed the charts of 2,627 adult patients who underwent a lumbar puncture at a tertiary care center over a 20-year period. Samples with CSF-TP above 45 mg/dL (0.45 g/L) were included. Samples with white blood cell count > 5×109/L, red blood cell count > 50×109/L, and glucose < 2.5 mmol/L (45 mg/dL) were excluded. Patients with CSF-TP elevated above 45 mg/dL were considered to have ‘pseudo’ albuminocytologic dissociation (ACD) or ‘true’ ACD if their CSF-TP was in excess of age-adjusted norms. Results: Among all patients with ACD, a pathological source of CSF-TP elevation was identified in 57% (1490/2627) of cases, 51% of those with ‘pseudo’ ACD, and 75% with ‘true’ ACD (p< 0.001). Use of an age-adjusted upper reference limit favored the detection of polyneuropathy patients (13.5% proportionate increase) and excluded a larger number of patients with isolated headache (10.7% proportionate decrease; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Elevated CSF-TP is a relatively common finding. Use of age-adjusted upper reference limits for CSF-TP values improve diagnostic specificity and help to avoid over-diagnosis of ACD.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.