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Healthcare organizations are required to provide workers with respiratory protection (RP) to mitigate hazardous airborne inhalation exposures. This study sought to better identify gaps that exist between RP guidance and clinical practice to understand issues that would benefit from additional research or clarification.
Highly resolved, well-dated paleoclimate records from the southern South African coast are needed to contextualize the evolution of the highly diverse extratropical plant communities of the Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) and to assess the environmental impacts on early human hunter-gatherers. We present new speleothem stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios (δ18Oc and δ13C) from two caves at Pinnacle Point, South Africa, covering the time between 330 and 43 ka. Composite δ18Oc and δ13C records were constructed for Staircase Cave and PP29 by combining all stable isotope analyses into a single time series and smoothing by a 3-point running mean. δ18Oc and δ13C values record changes in rainfall seasonality and the proportions of C3 and C4 plants in the vegetation, respectively. We show that in general increased summer rainfall brought about a wider spread of C4 grasses and retreat of the C3 plant–dominated GCFR communities. The occurrence of summer rainfall on the southern coast of South Africa was linked to total rainfall amounts in the interior region through tropical temperate troughs. These rainfall systems shifted the southern coastal climate toward more summer (winter) rainfall when precession was high (low) and/or the westerlies were in a northern (southern) position.
Oldowan sites in primary geological context are rare in the archaeological record. Here we describe the depositional environment of Oldowan occurrences at Kanjera South, Kenya, based on field descriptions and granulometric analysis. Excavations have recovered a large Oldowan artefact sample as well as the oldest substantial sample of archaeological fauna. The deposits at Kanjera South consist of 30 m of fluvial, colluvial and lacustrine sediments. Magneto- and biostratigraphy indicate the Kanjera South Member of the Kanjera Formation was deposited during 2.3–1.92 Ma, with 2.0 Ma being a likely age for the archaeological occurrences. Oldowan artefacts and associated fauna were deposited in the colluvial and alluvial silts and sands of beds KS1–3, in the margins of a lake basin. Field descriptions and granulometric analysis of the sediment fine fraction indicate that sediments from within the main archaeological horizon were emplaced as a combination of tractional and hyperconcentrated flows with limited evidence of debris-flow deposition. This style of deposition is unlikely to significantly erode or disturb the underlying surface, and therefore promotes preservation of surface archaeological accumulations. Hominins were repeatedly attracted to the site locale, and rapid sedimentation, minimal bone weathering and an absence of bone or artefact rounding further indicate that fossils and artefacts were quickly buried.
For decades, sociological inquiry and praxis about social problems have developed a primary orientation focused on the nation-state and policy solutions within the nation-state system. We argue for globalizing the study of social problems by adjusting analytical frames that explain, address, or remedy social problems. We first examine several transnational processes that illuminate ways that public issues are bursting the seams of nation-states while weaving new spaces for the emergence of, and contest over, global social problems. We then briefly recap a recent history of globalization, suggesting that both the forms of world-historical processes and their consequences trigger new, globally specific social problems. Adapting social problems theory, we then present an analytical framework for globalizing social problems inquiry and praxis. Two cases illustrate this globalized approach to social problems. Last, we conclude with a view toward the future of global social problems research, its place in the wider sociological project, and the importance of transnational intellectual and organizational praxis.
Traditional change management approaches that focus on linear models and top-down control have proved less than adequate in addressing organizational change within the complexity and speed of today's unprecedented change. Researchers have suggested that by developing greater workforce agility, companies may be better positioned to manage or moderate rapid change and use this capability as a competitive advantage. Complementing current strategies with a different approach to managing change focused on individual agility and resilience may be a first step. This article focuses on the development, validation, and practical application of an employee agility and resilience measurement scale as part of a program in support of an alternative approach to managing organizational change. Results indicate that focusing on individual agility and resilience can prepare employees to handle uncertainty more successfully by adapting to change quicker and managing stress more effectively.
King George Island is the largest of the South Shetland Islands, close to the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. The annual mean temperature on the island has increased by 1°C during the past three decades, and the ice cap that covers the majority of the island is sensitive to climatic change. We present data from two field campaigns (1997 and 2007): 700 km of global positioning system (GPS) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles were collected on Arctowski Icefield and on the adjacent central part. The data were analysed to determine the surface and bed topography and the thermal regime of the ice. Average ice thickness is 250 m and maximum thickness is 420 m. The GPR profiles show isochrones throughout the ice cap which depict the uparching of Raymond bumps beneath or close to the ice divides. A water table from percolation of meltwater in the snowpack shows the firn-ice boundary at ∼ 3 5 m depth. The firn layer may be temperate due to the release of latent heat. In the area below 400ma.s.l., backscatter by water inclusions is abundant for ice depths below the water table. We interpret this as evidence for temperate ice. Scatter decreases significantly above 400 m. Ice temperatures below the water table in this part of the ice cap are subject to further field and modelling investigations.
In this paper, we present a comparison of the radio and X-ray morphology of the supernova remnant G109.1–1.0, based on recent radio observations at 6 and 20 cm and investigate the relationship of the SNR to a neighbouring molecular cloud.
The conduct of high-quality nutrition research requires the selection of appropriate markers as outcomes, for example as indicators of food or nutrient intake, nutritional status, health status or disease risk. Such selection requires detailed knowledge of the markers, and consideration of the factors that may influence their measurement, other than the effects of nutritional change. A framework to guide selection of markers within nutrition research studies would be a valuable tool for researchers. A multidisciplinary Expert Group set out to test criteria designed to aid the evaluation of candidate markers for their usefulness in nutrition research and subsequently to develop a scoring system for markers. The proposed criteria were tested using thirteen markers selected from a broad range of nutrition research fields. The result of this testing was a modified list of criteria and a template for evaluating a potential marker against the criteria. Subsequently, a semi-quantitative system for scoring a marker and an associated template were developed. This system will enable the evaluation and comparison of different candidate markers within the same field of nutrition research in order to identify their relative usefulness. The ranking criteria of proven, strong, medium or low are likely to vary according to research setting, research field and the type of tool used to assess the marker and therefore the considerations for scoring need to be determined in a setting-, field- and tool-specific manner. A database of such markers, their interpretation and range of possible values would be valuable to nutrition researchers.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
The development of solar acoustic holography over the past decade has opened a major new diagnostic avenue in local helioseismology (Lindsey & Braun 1990; 1997; 2000b). Its application to SOI-MDI data from SOHO has revealed “acoustic moats” surrounding sunspots, “acoustic glories” surrounding complex activeregions, and “acoustic condensations” suggesting the existence of significant seismic anomalies up to 20 Mm beneath active-region photospheres. It has given us the first seismic images of a solar flare, and has uncovered a remarkable anomaly in the statistical distribution of seismic emission from acoustic glories. A review of these and other accomplishments is given by Braun & Lindsey (2000a).
Computational seismic holography, applied to Solar Oscillations Investigation -Michelson Doppler Imager (SOI-MDI) data from SOHO, has recently given us the first images of an active region on the far side of the Sun(Lindsey & Braun 2000). The advent of phase-coherent seismic imaging is now allowing us quite literally to look into the solar interior from a local perspective, indeed to see through the solar interior acoustically to its far surface. Solar activity is critical to near-Earth space weather. A great deal of effort has been invested towards the prediction of flares and CMEs, based on the formidable presence of active regions on the near solar surface. Active regions can emerge rapidly from beneath the photosphere or appear on the east limb with relatively little warning. Because of this, the ability to anticipate the appearances of active regions will contribute substantially to forecasts of space weather on time scales of more than about a day. In collaboration with Dr. Phil Scherrer and the MDI team at Stanford University we are currently deriving far-side images from the lower resolution “medium-l” SOI-MDI Dopplergrams, which are obtained continuously through the year and arrive at MDI headquarters within 24 hours of their acquisition by the SOHO spacecraft. We are therefore already capable of locating large far-side active regions and predicting their appearance on the east solar limb to within a few hours more than a week in advance. In addition, ground-based networks such as GONG will soon have the capability for “real-time helioseismology”, and will be routinely monitoring the far surface of the Sun, and perhaps beneath the near surface, for emerging solar activity.
We aimed to evaluate emergency medical services (EMS) data as disaster metrics and to assess stress in surrounding hospitals and a municipal network after the closure of Bellevue Hospital during Hurricane Sandy in 2012.
We retrospectively reviewed EMS activity and call types within New York City’s 911 computer-assisted dispatch database from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2013. We evaluated EMS ambulance transports to individual hospitals during Bellevue’s closure and incremental recovery from urgent care capacity, to freestanding emergency department (ED) capability, freestanding ED with 911-receiving designation, and return of inpatient services.
A total of 2,877,087 patient transports were available for analysis; a total of 707,593 involved Manhattan hospitals. The 911 ambulance transports disproportionately increased at the 3 closest hospitals by 63.6%, 60.7%, and 37.2%. When Bellevue closed, transports to specific hospitals increased by 45% or more for the following call types: blunt traumatic injury, drugs and alcohol, cardiac conditions, difficulty breathing, “pedestrian struck,” unconsciousness, altered mental status, and emotionally disturbed persons.
EMS data identified hospitals with disproportionately increased patient loads after Hurricane Sandy. Loss of Bellevue, a public, safety net medical center, produced statistically significant increases in specific types of medical and trauma transports at surrounding hospitals. Focused redeployment of human, economic, and social capital across hospital systems may be required to expedite regional health care systems recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:333–343)
Local helioseismology encompasses remote observations, data analysis, and theoretical modeling of solar oscillations to infer the three-dimensional structure within localized regions of the solar interior. What defines a region as “local” is relative, however, since targets of interest have included sunspots and convective elements with spatial scales ∼10−2R⊙ as well as large-scale plasma flows spanning much of a solar hemisphere. As a relatively new discipline first explored in the 1980s, local helioseismology has two main components: first, a research component to understand the interaction of solar oscillations (acoustic and surface gravity) with perturbations within the Sun and, second, the design and application of methods to infer the properties of the perturbations by modeling the measurements of those waves. Successful applications require a thorough understanding of the physics of the waves and their interaction with in homogeneities inside the Sun. The research component is particularly critical. For example, the types of perturbations found in the Sun can include magnetic fields for which the wave interactions can be quite complicated. Currently, the types of structures most amenable to modeling using local helioseismic measurements consist of isotropic wave-speed perturbations and the three components of plasma flows. Assessing the subsurface magnetic field directly is a challenging, but largely unrealized, goal of the field. While the status of the field is evolving, the determination of plasma flows in the first few tens of Mm below the solar surface remains one of the primary practical applications.
We outline in this chapter the practical applications of, and resulting measurements made with, common local helioseismic methods. Broadly speaking, local helioseismology can be roughly divided into Fourier methods (which operate in the frequency–wave number domain) and cross-covariance based methods (which operate in the space–time domain). The former (Section 6.3) can be considered in many ways as extensions of the analysis of global oscillations (Chapter 5) to localized regions of the Sun.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
In recent years, lithic studies have emphasized the role of technology in the overall adaptation of past societies to their environments, including the economization of lithic resources. This paper explores how particular characteristics of individual, unretouched flakes can be altered in ways that increase their economy, as reflected in the ratio of edge length to mass. Results of controlled laboratory experiments are presented that identify exterior platform angle and platform depth as being primary independent variables affecting this ratio. These relationships are then tested against a number of archaeological assemblages.
Optimal functioning of the immune system is crucial to human health, and nutrition is one of the major exogenous factors modulating different aspects of immune function. Currently, no single marker is available to predict the effect of a dietary intervention on different aspects of immune function. To provide further guidance on the assessment and interpretation of the modulation of immune functions due to nutrition in the general population, International Life Sciences Institute Europe commissioned a group of experts from academia, government and the food industry to prepare a guidance document. A draft of this paper was refined at a workshop involving additional experts. First, the expert group defined criteria to evaluate the usefulness of immune function markers. Over seventy-five markers were scored within the context of three distinct immune system functions: defence against pathogens; avoidance or mitigation of allergy; control of low-grade (metabolic) inflammation. The most useful markers were subsequently classified depending on whether they by themselves signify clinical relevance and/or involvement of immune function. Next, five theoretical scenarios were drafted describing potential changes in the values of markers compared with a relevant reference range. Finally, all elements were combined, providing a framework to aid the design and interpretation of studies assessing the effects of nutrition on immune function. This stepwise approach offers a clear rationale for selecting markers for future trials and provides a framework for the interpretation of outcomes. A similar stepwise approach may also be useful to rationalise the selection and interpretation of markers for other physiological processes critical to the maintenance of health and well-being.
The future of centimetre and metre-wave astronomy lies with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a telescope under development by a consortium of 17 countries that will be 50 times more sensitive than any existing radio facility. Most of the key science for the SKA will be addressed through large-area imaging of the Universe at frequencies from a few hundred MHz to a few GHz. The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a technology demonstrator aimed in the mid-frequency range, and achieves instantaneous wide-area imaging through the development and deployment of phased-array feed systems on parabolic reflectors. The large field-of-view makes ASKAP an unprecedented synoptic telescope that will make substantial advances in SKA key science. ASKAP will be located at the Murchison Radio Observatory in inland Western Australia, one of the most radio-quiet locations on the Earth and one of two sites selected by the international community as a potential location for the SKA. In this paper, we outline an ambitious science program for ASKAP, examining key science such as understanding the evolution, formation and population of galaxies including our own, understanding the magnetic Universe, revealing the transient radio sky and searching for gravitational waves.