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The Paleolithic diet excludes two major sources of fibre, grains and legumes. However, it is not known whether this results in changes to resistant starch (RS) consumption. Serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced mainly from colonic fermentation and hepatic conversion of animal protein and is implicated in CVD, but changes in RS intake may alter concentrations. We aimed to determine whether intake of RS and serum concentrations of TMAO varied in response to either the Paleolithic or the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) diets and whether this was related to changes in food group consumption. A total of thirty-nine women (mean age 47 (sd 13) years, BMI 27 (sd 4) kg/m2) were randomised to AGHE (n 17) or Paleolithic diets (n 22) for 4 weeks. Serum TMAO concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography–MS; food groups, fibre and RS intake were estimated from weighed food records. The change in TMAO concentrations between groups (Paleolithic 3·39 μmv. AGHE 1·19 μm, P = 0·654) did not reach significance despite greater red meat and egg consumption in the Paleolithic group (0·65 serves/d; 95 % CI 0·2, 1·1; P <0·01, and 0·22 serves/d; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·4, P <0·05, respectively). RS intake was significantly lower on the Paleolithic diet (P <0·01) and was not associated with TMAO concentrations. However, the limited data for RS and the small sample size may have influenced these findings. While there were no significant changes in TMAO concentrations, increased meat consumption and reduced RS intake warrant further research to examine the markers of gastrointestinal health of Paleolithic diet followers and to update Australian food databases to include additional fibre components.
The Kabwe Zn-Pb deposit (central Zambia) consists of a cluster of mixed sulfide and non-sulfide orebodies. The sulfide ores comprise sphalerite, galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite and accessory Ge-sulfides (±Ga and In). The non-sulfide ores comprise: (1) willemite-dominated zones encasing massive sulfide orebodies and (2) oxide-dominated alteration bands, overlying both the sulfide and Zn-silicate orebodies. This study focuses on the Ge, In and Ga distribution in the non-sulfide mineralization, and was carried out on a suite of Kabwe specimens, housed in the Natural History Museum Ore Collection (London). Petrography confirmed that the original sulfides were overprinted by at least two contrasting oxidation stages dominated by the formation of willemite (W1 and W2), and a further event characterized by weathering-related processes. Oxygen isotopic analyses have shown that W1 and W2 are unrelated genetically and furthermore not related to supergene Zn-Pb-carbonates in the oxide-dominated assemblage. The δ18O composition of 13.9–15.7‰ V-SMOW strongly supports a hydrothermal origin for W1. The δ18O composition of W2 (−3.5‰ to 0‰ V-SMOW) indicates that it precipitated from groundwaters of meteoric origin in either a supergene or a low-T hydrothermal environment. Gallium and Ge show a diversity of distribution among the range of Zn-bearing minerals. Gallium has been detected at the ppm level in W1, sphalerite, goethite and hematite. Germanium occurs at ppm levels in W1 and W2, and in scarcely detectable amounts in hemimorphite, goethite and hematite. Indium has low concentrations in goethite and hematite. These different deportments among the various phases are probably due to the different initial Ga, In and Ge abundances in the mineralization, to the different solubilities of the three elements at different temperatures and pH values, and finally to their variable affinities with the various minerals formed.
Since the last General Assembly in Patras, Greece, we have held three meetings of the Working Group. The 10th Meeting was held in Mzkheta, the ancient capital of Georgia, USSR, hosted by their Academy of Sciences on April 3-7, 1984. All members except one, who was represented by a member of his Task Group, were present at the very productive meeting.
Because of the fragmentary preservation of the earliest Cooksonia-like terrestrial plant macrofossils, younger Devonian fossils with complete anatomical preservation and documented gametophytes often have received greater attention concerning the early evolution of vascular plants and the alternation of generations. Despite preservational deficits, however, possible physiologies of Cooksonia-like fossils can be constrained by considering the overall axis size in conjunction with the potential range of cell types and sizes, because their lack of organ differentiation requires that all plant functions be performed by the same axis. Once desiccation resistance, support, and transport functions are taken into account, smaller fossils do not have volume enough left over for an extensive aerated photosynthetic tissue, thus arguing for physiological dependence on an unpreserved gametophyte. As in many mosses, axial anatomy is more likely to have ensured continued spore dispersal despite desiccation of the sporophyte than to have provided photosynthetic independence. Suppositions concerning size constraints on physiology are supported by size comparisons with fossils of demonstrable physiological independence, by preserved anatomical detail, and by size correlations between axis, sporangia, and sporangial stalk in Silurian and Early Devonian taxa. Several Cooksonia-like taxa lump fossils with axial widths spanning over an order of magnitude—from necessary physiological dependence to potential photosynthetic competence—informing understanding of the evolution of an independent sporophyte and the phylogenetic relationships of early vascular plants.
Global information on Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and extant non-angiosperm leaf morphologies has been gathered to investigate morphological diversity in leaves consistent with marginal growth and to identify likely departures from such development. Two patterns emerge from the principal coordinates analysis of this data set: (1) the loss of morphological diversity associated with marginal leaf growth among seed plants after sharing the complete Paleozoic range of such morphologies with ferns and (2) the repeated evolution of more complex, angiosperm-like leaf traits among both ferns and seed plants. With regard to the first pattern, morphological divergence of fern and seed plant leaf morphologies, indirectly recognized as part of the Paleophytic-Mesophytic transition, likely reflects reproductive and ecological divergence. The leaf-borne reproductive structures that are common to the ferns and Paleozoic seed plants may promote leaf morphological diversity, whereas the separation of vegetative and reproductive roles into distinct organs in later seed plant groups may have allowed greater functional specialization—and thereby morphological simplification—as the seed plants came to be dominated by groups originating in more arid environments. With regard to the second pattern, the environmental and ecological distribution of angiosperm-like leaf traits among fossil and extant plants suggests that these traits preferentially evolve in herbaceous to understory plants of warm, humid environments, thus supporting inferences concerning angiosperm origins based upon the ecophysiology of basal extant taxa.
A multi-faceted, multi-institutional laboratory astrophysics program is carried out at the Livermore electron beam ion trap facility, which is a mature spectroscopic source with unsurpassed controls and capabilities, and an unparalleled assortment of spectroscopic equipment, including a full complement of grating and crystal spectrometers and a 6x6 micro-calorimeter array. Recent results range from the calibration of x-ray diagnostics, including the Fe XVII and Fe XXV emission lines, extensive lists of L-shell ions, the first laboratory simulation and fit of a cometary x-ray emission spectrum, and the discovery of new spectral diagnostics for measuring magnetic field strengths.
Four vascular plant lineages, the ferns, sphenopsids, progymnosperms, and seed plants, evolved laminated leaves in the Paleozoic. A principal coordinate analysis of 641 leaf species from North American and European floras ranging in age from Middle Devonian through the end of the Permian shows that the clades followed parallel trajectories of evolution: each clade exhibits rapid radiation of leaf morphologies from simple (and similar) forms in the Late Devonian/Early Carboniferous to diverse, differentiated leaf forms, with strong constraint on further diversification beginning in the mid Carboniferous. Similar morphospace trajectories have been documented in studies of morphological evolution in animals; however, plant fossils present unique opportunities for understanding the developmental processes that underlie such patterns. Detailed comparison of venation in Paleozoic leaves with that of modern leaves for which developmental mechanisms are known suggests developmental interpretations for the origination and early evolution of leaves. The parallel evolution of a marginal meristem by the modification of developmental mechanisms available in the common ancestor of all groups resulted in the pattern of leaf evolution repeated by each clade. Early steps of leaf evolution were followed by constraint on further diversification as the possible elaborations of marginal growth were exhausted. Hypotheses of development in Paleozoic leaves can be tested by the study of living plants with analogous leaf morphologies.
In nature, biological structures often exhibit complex geometries that serve a wide range of specific mechanical functions. One such example are the ammonites, a large group of extinct mollusks, which produced elaborate, fractal-like hierarchical suture interface patterns. This report experimentally explores the influence of hierarchical suture interface designs on mechanical behavior by taking advantage of additive manufacturing and its ability to fabricate complex geometries. In addition, structure/property relationships of additively manufactured multi-material prototypes are investigated. It is shown that increasing the order of hierarchy amplifies stiffness by more than an order of magnitude. Tensile strength can also be tailored by changing the order of hierarchy, which alters the normal to shear stress ratio of the interfacial layer. The addition of failure mechanisms with increased order of hierarchy also significantly increases the toughness. Therefore, hierarchical suture interfaces can be used to diversify the mechanical behavior of additively manufactured materials.