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Benzobicyclon will be the first 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)–inhibiting herbicide available in US rice production pending registration completion. An observation of benzobicyclon controlling weedy rice in two field trials prompted a greenhouse and field evaluation to determine if benzobicyclon would control weedy rice accessions from Arkansas, Mississippi, and southeastern Missouri. A total of 100 accessions were screened in the greenhouse and field. Percentage mortality was determined in the greenhouse, and percentage control was recorded in the field. Benzobicyclon at 371 g ai ha–1 caused at least 80% mortality of 22 accessions in the greenhouse and at least 80% control of 30 accessions in the field. For most accessions, individual plants within the accession varied in response to benzobicyclon. Based on these results, the sensitivity of weedy rice to benzobicyclon varies across accessions collected in the midsouthern United States, and it may provide an additional control option for weedy rice in some fields.
Tonsillectomy is a common procedure with significant post-operative pain. This study was designed to compare post-operative pain, returns to a normal diet and normal activity, and duration of regular analgesic use in Coblation and bipolar tonsillectomy patients.
A total of 137 patients, aged 2–50 years, presenting to a single institution for tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were recruited. Pain level, diet, analgesic use, return to normal activity and haemorrhage data were collected.
Coblation tonsillectomy was associated with significantly less pain than bipolar tonsillectomy on post-operative days 1 (p = 0.005), 2 (p = 0.006) and 3 (p = 0.010). Mean pain scores were also significantly lower in the Coblation group (p = 0.039). Coblation patients had a significantly faster return to normal activity than bipolar tonsillectomy patients (p < 0.001).
Coblation tonsillectomy is a less painful technique compared to bipolar tonsillectomy in the immediate post-operative period and in the overall post-operative period. This allows a faster return to normal activity and decreased analgesic requirements.
Field experiments were conducted in Louisiana and Mississippi from 2011 through 2013 to evaluate crop injury, weed control, and yield in field corn following pyroxasulfone applied PRE and POST. Pyroxasulfone PRE or POST did not injure corn at any evaluation. Barnyardgrass control was not improved with the addition of any POST treatment to pyroxasulfone alone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE; however, all POST treatments increased barnyardgrass control to at least 95% at all evaluations following atrazine PRE. All treatments that contained a PRE followed by POST application controlled browntop millet ≥90% at all evaluations. All POST treatments increased ivyleaf morningglory control to ≥92% following atrazine or pyroxasulfone alone PRE. However, control with atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE was similar or greater 28 d after POST than all treatments that received a POST application. In the absence of a POST treatment, pyroxasulfone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE controlled Palmer amaranth 93 to 96% at all evaluations, but atrazine alone PRE provided 84, 82, and 66% control 7, 14, and 28 d after POST, respectively. All programs that contained a PRE followed by POST herbicide treatment controlled Palmer amaranth >90% at all evaluations. Corn yield following all treatments except atrazine alone PRE and the nontreated were similar and ranged from 10990 to 12330 kg ha−1. This research demonstrated that pyroxasulfone can be a valuable tool for weed management in a corn weed management program.
Introduction: The CJEM Social Media Team was created in 2014 to assist the journal with the dissemination of its research online. It consists of two Social Media Editors (Junior and Senior) and a team of volunteer medical students and residents to assist their work. Collaborative promotional agreements were developed to promote CJEM articles on the Skeptics’ Guide to Emergency Medicine (SGEM) podcast through the ‘Hot off the Press’ (HOP) series and the CanadiEM blog through an infographic series. Methods:CJEM papers were selected for promotion by the Team based on their perceived interest to the online community of emergency physicians. Altmetric scores, which are a measure of online dissemination derived from a weighted algorithm of social media metrics, were collated for articles promoted using the SGEM HOP or CanadiEM blogs. A control group was created using the articles with the top two Altmetric scores in each CJEM issue in 2015 and 2016. Erratum, Letters, and articles written by the social media editors were excluded from the control groups. The success of the social media promotion was quantified through the measurement of Altmetric scores as of January 1, 2017. Unpaired two-tailed t-tests with unequal variance were used to test for significant differences. Results: 106 and 82 eligible articles were published in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Four articles in 2015 and two articles in 2016 were excluded from the control groups because they were written by the social media editors. SGEM HOP podcasts promoted one article in 2015 and five articles in 2016. CanadiEM infographics promoted three articles in 2015 and eight articles in 2016. No articles were promoted in both series. The average Altmetric score was higher for SGEM HOP (61.0) than CanadiEM Infographics (31.5, p<0.04), 2015 controls (15.8, p<0.01), and 2016 controls (13.6, p<0.01). The average Altmetric score for CanadiEM Infographics was higher than 2015 controls (p<0.04) and 2016 controls (p<0.02). There was no significant difference between the control groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that collaborating with established social media websites to promote CJEM articles using podcasts and infographics increases their social media dissemination. Given the nonrandomized design of these results, causative conclusions cannot be drawn. A randomized study of the impact of social media promotion on readership is underway.
A population of junglerice from Sunflower County, MS, exhibited resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. An 11-fold difference in ED50 (the effective dose needed to reduce growth by 50%) values was observed when comparing the resistant population (249 g ae ha–1) with susceptible plants (20 g ae ha–1) collected from a different field. The resistant population was controlled by clethodim and sethoxydim at the field rate. Sequencing of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which encodes the enzyme targeted by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, did not reveal the presence of any known resistance-conferring point mutations. An enzyme assay confirmed that the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase in the resistant population is herbicide sensitive. Further investigations with two cytochrome P450 inhibitors, malathion and piperonyl butoxide, and a glutathione-S-transferase inhibitor, 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan, did not indicate involvement of any metabolic enzymes inhibited by these compounds. The absence of a known target-site point mutation and the sensitivity of the ACCase enzyme to herbicide show that fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in this population is due to a non–target-site mechanism or mechanisms.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
The Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (Acbar) is a multifrequency millimeter-wave receiver optimized for observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in clusters of galaxies. Acbar was installed on the 2.1 m Viper telescope at the South Pole in January 2001 and the results presented here incorporate data through July 2002. The power spectrum of the CMB at 150 GHz over the range ℓ = 150 — 3000 measured by Acbar is presented along with estimates for the values of the cosmological parameters within the context of ΛCDM models. The inclusion of ΩΛ greatly improves the fit to the power spectrum. Three-frequency images of the SZ decrement/increment are also presented for the galaxy cluster 1E0657–67.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
The WFPC2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain deep images in three fields at different radial positions in the nearest Globular cluster, M4 (NGC 6121). In this paper, we discuss the white dwarf cooling sequence and show how the dynamical structure of the cluster will affect their cumulative distribution function. We also present the first discussion of our observations of the faint cluster main sequence stars.
Primordial binaries in globular clusters are important both because their properties are an integral part of the description of the stellar population and because they can strongly influence the dynamical evolution of the cluster (see Hut, this volume).
The red variables whose amplitude is larger than 1.3 mag in the MOA database are studied for the LMC. Among 3 196 such stars, 532 stars are likely to be Miras or red semiregular variables. The period–colour relation of these stars is shown.
On May 22, 1989 the Japanese Ginga Team discovered a new X-ray source that was cataloged as GS 2023+338. This source was subsequently identified as coincident in position with a previously known nova cataloged as V404 Cygni. Its last recorded outburst was in 1938 when it rose to about 12th mag. Spectroscopic data were obtained and confirmed the nature of the outburst. Additional ground based data were obtained by us at CTIO and the VLA. The X-ray behavior of this object has been reported to be very unusual and it reached a peak of about 17 crab about one week after discovery. Since then it has varied widely in magnitude at all wavelengths at which it has been studied. We present a brief summary of the observations that have been obtained up to the time of the meeting and shortly thereafter.
A large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both the LMC and the SMC, which has been established by the MOA project, is a useful resource to study variable stars. In our preliminary study, variables identified as β Lyrae type stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars have been found amongst blue stars.
A review of the MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics) project is presented. MOA is a collaboration of approximately 30 astronomers from New Zealand and Japan established with the aim of finding and detecting microlensing events towards the Magellanic Clouds and the Galactic bulge, which may be indicative of either dark matter or of planetary companions. The observing program commenced in 1995, using very wide band blue and red filters and a nine-chip mosaic CCD camera.
As a by-product of these observations a large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both LMC and SMC has been established. In one preliminary analysis 576 bright variable stars were confirmed, nearly half of them being Cepheids. Another analysis has identified large numbers of blue variables, and 205 eclipsing binaries are included in this sample. In addition 351 red variables (AGB stars) have been found. Light curves have been obtained for all these stars. The observations are carried out on a 61-cm f/6.25 telescope at Mt John University Observatory where a new larger CCD camera was installed in 1998 July. From this latitude (44° S) the Magellanic Clouds can be monitored throughout the year.
A study was established to evaluate interactions between imazamox at 0 and 44 g ai ha−1 mixed with propanil at 0, 1,120, 2,240, 3,360, and 4,480 g ai ha−1 for the control of red rice and barnyardgrass. Blouin's Modified Colby's procedure was used to test for interactions. At 7 d after treatment (DAT), a synergistic response occurred for red rice treated with imazamox at 44 g ha−1 mixed with propanil at 3,360 and 4,480 g ha−1 by increasing expected control of 62% to an observed control of 67 and 75%, respectively, and the synergistic response continued across all evaluations through 49 DAT. No antagonism occurred for any imazamox plus propanil mixture for red rice control. An antagonistic response was shown for barnyardgrass control with imazamox at 44 g ha−1 mixed with any rate of propanil, at 7 DAT. However, imazamox plus propanil at 4,480 g ha−1 resulted in a neutral response at 14 through 49 DAT. Rice treated with imazamox plus propanil at 4,480 g ha−1 plus imazamox resulted in a yield of 6,640 kg ha−1. The synergistic response observed for red rice control with a mixture of imazamox plus propanil can benefit producers by increasing control of red rice, and this mixture contains two different modes of action that can be part of an overall resistance management strategy.
Field studies were conducted near Crowley, LA, to evaluate the effects of simulated herbicide drift on ‘Cocodrie' rice. Each treatment was made with the spray volume varying proportionally to herbicide dosage based on a spray volume of 234 L ha−1 and an imazamox rate of 44 g ai ha−1. The 6.3%, 2.7-g ha−1, herbicide rate was applied at a spray volume of 15 L ha−1 and the 12.5%, 5.5-g ha−1, herbicide rate was applied at a spray volume of 29 L ha−1. Rice was treated at the one-tiller, panicle differentiation, boot, and physiological maturity growth stages. Injury was observed with imazamox applied at the one-tiller timing. Injury was not observed until 21 and 28 d after treatment (DAT) when imazamox was applied at the panicle differentiation and boot timings. The greatest reduction in plant height resulted from applications at the one-tiller timing at 7 and 14 DAT; however, when evaluated at harvest, plant height was reduced no more than 10%. Imazamox, averaged over rate, applied to rice at the boot timing reduced primary crop yield 66% compared with the nontreated. Applications at the boot timing resulted in an increased ratoon crop yield; however, the yield increase did not compensate for the loss in the primary crop yield.
Overuse of acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides in rice has led to the evolution of halosulfuron-resistant rice flatsedge in Arkansas and Mississippi. Resistant accessions were cross-resistant to labeled field rates of ALS-inhibiting herbicides from four different families, in comparison to a susceptible (SUS) biotype. Resistance index of Arkansas and Mississippi accessions based on an R/S ratio of the lethal dose required for 50% plant mortality (LD50) to bispyribac-sodium, halosulfuron, imazamox, and penoxsulam was ≥ 21-fold. Control of Arkansas, Mississippi, and SUS accessions with labeled field rates of 2,4-D, bentazon, and propanil was ≥ 93%. An enzyme assay revealed that an R/S ratio for 50% inhibition (I50) of ALS for halosulfuron was 2,600 and 200 in Arkansas and Mississippi, respectively. Malathion studies did not reveal enhanced herbicide metabolism in resistant plants. The ALS enzyme assay and cross-resistance studies point toward altered a target site as the potential mechanism of resistance. Trp574–Leu amino acid substitution within the ALS gene was found in both Arkansas and Mississippi rice flatsedge accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform, which corresponds to the mechanism of resistance found in many weed species. Field-rate applications of 2,4-D, bentazon, and propanil can be used to control these ALS-resistant rice flatsedge accessions.
A study was conducted to evaluate interactions of imazethapyr co-application with propanil, thiobencarb, or a prepackaged mixture of propanil plus thiobencarb. At 7, 14, 21, and 49 d after treatment (DAT), synergism occurred for red rice treated with imazethapyr at 70 g ai ha−1 mixed with propanil plus thiobencarb at 1,680 and 3,360 g ai ha−1. A synergistic response was also observed with imazethapyr at 70 g ha−1 mixed with propanil at 1,680 g ha−1; however, all other co-applications evaluated resulted in a neutral response with no antagonism observed. At 7 DAT, antagonism was observed for barnyardgrass when treated with imazethapyr at 70 g ha−1 mixed with propanil plus thiobencarb at 1,680 g ha−1, propanil at 840 g ha−1, or thiobencarb at 840 and 1,680 g ha−1; however, a synergistic response occurred for barnyardgrass control at 14, 21, and 49 DAT with imazethapyr at 70 g ha−1 mixed with propanil plus thiobencarb at 3,360 g ha−1. The synergistic response observed for red rice and barnyardgrass control with a mixture of imazethapyr plus propanil plus thiobencarb can benefit producers by increasing control of red rice and barnyardgrass, and this mixture contains three herbicides with three different modes of action, which can be part of an overall resistance-management strategy in imidazolinone-resistant (IR) rice.