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L’intérêt de la remédiation cognitive (RC) s’appuie sur l’observation de défaillances des fonctions exécutives dans de nombreux troubles psychiatriques. L’hypothèse est celle d’une restructuration cognitive du fait de la plasticité cérébrale et de la possibilité de remaniements cellulaires neurologiques stimulo-dépendants. Chez les enfants et les adolescents, des essais ont été réalisés chez des sujets cérébro-lésés et chez des sujets présentant un trouble déficit de l’attention/hyperactivité, un trouble du spectre autistique, un trouble des apprentissages ou une anorexie mentale [2–5]. Les programmes de remédiation cognitive s’appuient sur des tâches informatisées ou papier–crayon ou sur des jeux de société ciblant les déficits des fonctions exécutives. Le Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne a développé, depuis 2010, un centre psychiatrique de référence de remédiation cognitive et de réhabilitation psychosociale (C3RP) qui propose à des sujets adultes des programmes de Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) . En outre, depuis 2011, notre équipe réalise un travail clinique préliminaire de faisabilité en proposant à des enfants, en complément d’approches classiques appliquées en routine (rééducatives et/ou psychothérapiques), une prise en charge en RC. Nous utilisons des tâches « papier–crayon » de la CRT adaptées à l’enfant ainsi que des jeux de société issus des programmes anglo-saxons qui permettent à l’enfant d’utiliser différentes ressources cognitives. Notre but est d’améliorer les performances cognitives de ces enfants dans les domaines suivants : la flexibilité mentale, l’attention, la mémoire et la planification ainsi que l’estime de soi. Une évaluation neuropsychologique incluant un WISC-IV ; une figure de Rey et des sub-tests de la NEPSY mettent en avant des résultats prometteurs, illustrés par une vignette clinique portant sur un enfant qui a fait de nets progrès dans quatre dimensions sur cinq ciblées (Fig. 1). Ces résultats doivent être étendus à d’autres patients et sur d’autres centres pour envisager la généralisation de cette approche.
La dépression maternelle en période périnatale est fréquente et peut avoir des répercussions négatives sur le développement des enfants. La prévention de la dépression chez les femmes qui ont des enfants en bas âge est donc un objectif de santé publique prioritaire. Ceci exige une bonne connaissance des facteurs associés à la dépression maternelle, des conséquences sur le développement des enfants, et des mesures préventives pouvant être efficaces. Cette session thématique abordera chacun de ces trois axes à partir de résultats récents d’études épidémiologiques et d’intervention menées en France (ELFE, EDEN, CAPEDP). Les facteurs associés à la dépression maternelle au cours de la grossesse et en post-partum, ainsi que l’accès à des interventions de prévention qui visent à prévenir les difficultés psychologiques des mères, telles que l’entretien prénatal précoce et les cours de préparation à la parentalité, ont pu être étudiés à partir des données de la cohorte ELFE, une étude représentative au niveau national. Les résultats montrent notamment que les femmes qui ont une situation sociale défavorisée ont des niveaux élevés de difficultés psychologiques, alors que ce sont celles qui bénéficient le moins des interventions de prévention. L’impact en termes de difficultés comportementales ou développementales chez les enfants a pu être étudié à partir des données de la cohorte EDEN montrant l’importance de différentes trajectoires longitudinales de dépression maternelle vis-à-vis du développement émotionnel, comportemental et cognitif des enfants jusqu’à 6 ans. Enfin, la faisabilité et l’efficacité d’interventions de prévention de la dépression maternelle seront discutées à partir des résultats de l’étude CAPEDP, un programme de visites à domicile chez des familles en situation difficile.
The preparation, screening, and characterization of affinity membranes require a deep knowledge of the behavior of all components of the affinity material. Several studies report the effect of different spacers in combination with the ligand molecule, but the effect of the spacer arm “per se” is generally disregarded. The effect of the spacer 1,2-diaminoethane on non-specific protein adsorption was recently investigated and the results were compared with the ones obtained with A2P affinity membranes. The results show that this spacer has indeed an important effect and that similar specific studies need to be performed for every spacer molecule.
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder, linked to several structural abnormalities of the brain. More specifically, previous findings have suggested that increased gyrification in frontal and temporal regions are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
The current study included participants at high familial risk of schizophrenia who remained well (n = 31), who developed sub-diagnostic symptoms (n = 28) and who developed schizophrenia (n = 9) as well as healthy controls (HC) (n = 16). We first tested whether individuals at high familial risk of schizophrenia carried an increased burden of trait-associated alleles using polygenic risk score analysis. We then assessed the extent to which polygenic risk was associated with gyral folding in the frontal and temporal lobes.
We found that individuals at high familial risk of schizophrenia who developed schizophrenia carried a significantly greater burden of risk-conferring variants for the disorder compared to those at high risk (HR) who developed sub-diagnostic symptoms or remained well and HC. Furthermore, within the HR cohort, there was a significant and positive association between schizophrenia polygenic risk score and bilateral frontal gyrification.
These results suggest that polygenic risk for schizophrenia impacts upon early neurodevelopment to confer greater gyral folding in adulthood and an increased risk of developing the disorder.
Maser observations of both linearly and circularly polarized emission have provided unique information on the magnetic field in the densest parts of star forming regions, where non-maser magnetic field tracers are scarce. While linear polarization observations provide morphological constraints, magnetic field strengths are determined by measuring the Zeeman splitting in circularly polarized emission. Methanol is of special interest as it is one of the most abundant maser species and its different transitions probe unique areas around the protostar. However, its precise Zeeman-parameters are unknown. Experimental efforts to determine these Zeeman-parameters have failed. Here we present quantum-chemical calculations of the Zeeman-parameters of methanol, along with calculations of the hyperfine structure that are necessary to interpret the Zeeman effect in methanol. We use this model in re-analyzing methanol maser polarization observations. We discuss different mechanisms for hyperfine-state preference in the pumping of torsion-rotation transitions involved in the maser-action.
There is now a well-established link between childhood adversity (CA) and schizophrenia. Similar structural abnormalities to those found in schizophrenia including alterations in grey-matter volume have also been shown in those who experience CA.
We examined whether global estimates of cortical thickness or surface area were altered in those familial high-risk subjects who had been referred to a social worker or the Children's Panel compared to those who had not.
We found that the cortical surface area of those who were referred to the Children's Panel was significantly smaller than those who had not been referred, but cortical thickness was not significantly altered. There was also an effect of social work referral on cortical surface area but not on thickness.
Cortical surface area increases post-natally more than cortical thickness. Our findings suggest that CA can influence structural changes in the brain and it is likely to have a greater impact on cortical surface area than on cortical thickness.
Aguinis and Glavas (2013) ask, “When and why does CSR lead to positive outcomes for employees, organizations, and society?” Although the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is elusive and comprises a wide range of definitions, there is convergence on the voluntary nature of these actions. But who implements these voluntary initiatives? CSR will take effect, as Aguinis and Glavas point out, at micro levels, through the actions of lower-level units and employees. Thus, there is a need to specify mechanisms by which macro-level CSR policies result in microlevel outcomes.
According to a popular scenario supported by numerical models, the mass assembly and growth of massive galaxies, in particular the Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), is, below a redshift of 1, mainly due to the accretion of multiple gas–poor satellites. In order to get observational evidence of the role played by minor dry mergers, we are obtaining extremely deep optical images of a complete volume limited sample of nearby ETGs. These observations, done with the CFHT as part of the ATLAS3D, NGVS and MATLAS projects, reach a stunning 28.5 – 29 mag.arcsec−2 surface brightness limit in the g' band. They allow us to detect the relics of past collisions such as faint stellar tidal tails as well as the very extended stellar halos which keep the memory of the last episodes of galactic accretion. Images and preliminary results from this on-going survey are presented, in particular a possible correlation between the fine structure index (which parametrizes the amount of tidal perturbation) of the ETGs, their stellar mass, effective radius and gas content.
The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to
an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The
Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities
to investigate the radioecological impact of this input, in particular the potential
contamination of products of marine origin used for human consumption. This article
describes the close link between the responses provided and the availability of the data,
as well as their nature and ability to meet the requirements of expert investigation.
These responses were needed: (i) to evaluate the inputs of radionuclides into the marine
environment, (ii) to understand their dispersion in seawater, and (iii) to estimate their
transfer to the biota and sediments. Three phases can be distinguished which characterise
these processes during the accident and post-accident periods. The first phase corresponds
to an emergency phase during which no measurements were available on samples from the
marine environment. It involved the formulation of hypotheses based solely on the
expertise of the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety. The second phase
started when the Japanese authorities provided measurements of the concentrations of
radionuclides in seawater. Although these data were not yet adapted to addressing the
problems of radioecology, the scenarios could then be refined and the estimates developed
in more detail. During the third phase, the accumulation of data over the course of time
made it possible to study the phenomena in an appropriate way. The chronology of the
events shows that it is essential to have (i) significant measurements of concentration
from samples collected in the various matrices of the marine environment, regularly
updated and sufficiently well-documented, (ii) samples of seawater collected at the
earliest opportunity as close as possible to the damaged site to characterise the source
term, and (iii) a numerical tool allowing rapid modelling of the dispersion of
radionuclides in seawater, as well as their transfer to sediments and the biota,
ultimately for the purpose of estimating the dose to humans.
Nutrient dynamics in tropical montane cloud forests
W. Wilcke, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany,
J. Boy, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany,
R. Goller, University of Bayreuth, Germany,
K. Fleischbein, University of Potsdam, Germany,
C. Valarezo, Universidad Nacional de Loja, Ecuador,
W. Zech, University of Bayreuth, Germany
Tropical montane forests are frequently located on steep slopes with pronounced differences in topographic exposure, related microclimatic conditions and hence in composition and structure of the vegetation over small distances. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that topographic position significantly influences soil fertility and water flow in these forests. Soil properties were determined at various topographic positions and water samples of selected ecosystem fluxes analyzed over a 1-year period for oxygen isotopes in three small, steep watersheds under lower montane forest in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes in southern Ecuador. The soils are subject to lateral material movement (landsliding and solifluction). This, together with the pronounced variation in climatic conditions and vegetation over small distances, resulted in high heterogeneity of soil properties. The pH of the A-horizon ranged between 3.7 and 6.4; concentrations of base metals (calcium, magnesium), sulfur and phosphorus, and trace metals (manganese, zinc) showed enormous spatial variation (coefficient of variation: 358–680% over a surface area of <30 ha). The steepness of the study area and the large contrast in hydraulic conductivities of the organic layer and the mineral soil resulted in a hillslope flow regime dominated by fast lateral flow. During baseflow conditions, δ18O values were similar to that of the sub-soil solution, but rapidly became similar to values in the top-soil solution during rain storms. The chemical composition of stormflows resembled that of the litter leachate. Stormflow had lower pH and higher organic carbon and metal concentrations than did baseflow. […]
The mass assembly of galaxies leaves various imprints on their surroundings, such as shells, streams and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of these fine structures depend on the mechanism driving the mass assembly: e.g. a monolithic collapse, rapid cold-gas accretion followed by violent disk instabilities, minor mergers or major dry/wet mergers. Therefore, by studying the outskirts of galaxies, one can learn about their main formation mechanism. I present here our on-going work to characterize the outskirts of Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), which are powerful probes at low redshift of the hierarchical mass assembly of galaxies. This work relies on ultra–deep optical images obtained at CFHT with the wide-field of view MegaCam camera of field and cluster ETGs obtained as part of the ATLAS3D and NGVS projects. State of the art numerical simulations are used to interpret the data. The images reveal a wealth of unknown faint structures at levels as faint as 29 mag arcsec−2 in the g-band. Initial results for two galaxies are presented here.
The Nicotrol® (Pfizer, USA) nicotine inhaler reduces craving by mimicking the behavioural component of cigarettes and delivering controlled doses of nicotine, which binds to the beta-2 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (β2*-nAChRs). Previous studies examined β2*-nAChR occupancy after administration of regular and low-nicotine cigarettes. Here, we measured occupancy of β2*-nAChRs after administration of nicotine via inhaler, and the relationship between occupancy and changes in craving for tobacco smoking and withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco smokers participated in [123I]5-IA-85380 SPECT studies with either a nicotine inhaler (n=9) or tobacco cigarette (n=4) challenge. [123I]5-IA was administered as a bolus plus constant infusion. After equilibrium was achieved, three 30-min baseline scans were collected, and subjects either used the nicotine inhaler or a regular cigarette, and up to six additional scans were obtained. Receptor occupancy was determined based on the Lassen plot method. Craving for tobacco smoking and withdrawal symptoms were evaluated pre- and post-challenge. Use of the nicotine inhaler produced an average 55.9±6.4% occupancy of β2*-nAChRs 2–5 h post-challenge, whereas use of a cigarette produced significantly higher receptor occupancy (F=10.6, p=0.009) with an average 67.6±14.1% occupancy 1.5–5 h post-challenge. There was a significant decrease in withdrawal symptoms post-nicotine inhaler use (F=6.13, p=0.04). These results demonstrate significant differences in occupancy of β2*-nAChRs by nicotine after use of the inhaler vs. a cigarette and confirm the ability of the nicotine inhaler to relieve withdrawal symptoms.
Early-type galaxies (ETGs) satisfy a now classic scaling relation Re ∝ σ1.2eI−0.8e, the Fundamental Plane (FP; Djorgovski & Davis 1987; Dressler et al. 1987), between their size, stellar velocity dispersion and mean surface brightness. A significant effort has been devoted in the past twenty years to try to understand why the coefficients of the relation are not the ones predicted by the virial theorem Re ∝ σ2eI−1e.
The influence of different borazinic precursors on mesoporous boron nitride synthesis by using a nanocasting process of a mesoporous CMK-3 carbon is presented. Two borazinic precursors, the tri(methylamino)borazine (MAB) and the tri(chloro)borazine (TCB), have been converted to boron nitride (BN) inside the mesopores of a CMK-3 carbon mesoporous template by using thermal or chemical polycondensation processes. Ordered mesoporous boron nitride with a specific surface area around 800 m2/g, a mesoporous volume around 0.6 cm3/g, and a pore-size distribution located at 6 nm in diameter was synthesized by thermal condensation of a molecular MAB precursor. In addition, chemical condensation of TCB led to a disordered mesoporous boron nitride.
Background: The suggested induction dose of methohexital for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) varies widely influencing efficacy of ECT and safety of anaesthesia. Bispectral index (BIS), a monitor of consciousness, may be useful to assure adequate hypnosis with optimized methohexital dose. Methods: Patients with medically resistant major depression (ICD10), scheduled for multiple ECT's, were studied. Depth of anaesthesia was BIS controlled. ECT was not performed until BIS dropped below 50. Initially anaesthesia was induced with methohexital 1.0 mg kg−1, and stepwise reduced by 0.1 mg kg−1 during consecutive treatments. If BIS did not drop below 50, the methohexital was supplemented by further boluses of 0.5 mg kg−1, until the desired level of hypnosis was reached. The adequacy of the anaesthetic recommendation for methohexital (1.0–1.5 mg kg−1) as well as the psychiatric recommendation (0.75–1 mg kg−1) was investigated. Results: One-hundred and nine ECT's in 14 patients were studied. The recommended anaesthetic dose (1.0–1.5 mg kg−1) was inadequate in 40% of the treatments, with 12% exceeding 1.5 mg kg−1, and 28% below 1.0 mg kg−1. Psychiatric recommendation (0.75–1.0 mg kg−1) was inadequate in 49%, with 39% exceeding 1.0 mg kg−1 and 10% undershooting at 0.75 mg kg−1. Conclusions: Methohexital for ECT showed a great variability, exceeding as well as undershooting the dosage recommendations widely. BIS monitoring may be useful to secure adequate hypnosis during muscle relaxation and treatment and may optimize ECT efficacy.
Psychoactive substance use is strongly associated with psychiatric morbidity in both adults and adolescents.
To determine which of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is most closely linked to psychiatric disorders in early adolescence.
Data from 2624 adolescents aged 13–15 years were drawn from a national mental health survey of children. The relationship between psychiatric morbidity and smoking, drinking and cannabis use was examined by logistic regression analyses.
Having a psychiatric disorder was associated with an increased risk of substance use. Greater involvement with any one substance increased the risk of other substance use. Analyses of the interactions between smoking, drinking and cannabis use indicated that the relationship between substance use and psychiatric morbidity was primarily explained by regular smoking and (to a lesser extent) regular cannabis use.
In this sample, links between substance use and psychiatric disorders were primarily accounted for by smoking. The strong relationship is likely to be due to a combination of underlying individual constitutional factors and drug-specific effects resulting from consumption over the period of adolescent development and growth.
The links between drug use and psychosis are of major aetiological and prognostic significance. Psychosis and drug dependence frequently co-occur within the prison population, providing the opportunity to study this link more closely.
To explore the relationship between psychosis and drug dependence in a sample of prisoners.
A total of 3142 prisoners were surveyed nationally and structured clinical data were obtained from a subsample of 503 respondents. Psychiatric assessment was based on the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (version 1.0). Measures of amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and heroin use and dependence were obtained through self-report.
Logistic regression analyses indicated that first use of amphetamines or cocaine before the age of 16 years and severe cannabis or cocaine dependence were related to an increased risk of psychosis. In contrast, severe dependence on heroin was associated with a reduced risk of this classification.
Severe dependence on cannabis and psychostimulants is associated with a higher risk of psychosis and is in contrast to severe dependence on heroin, which has a negative relationship with psychosis.