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The preparation, screening, and characterization of affinity membranes require a deep knowledge of the behavior of all components of the affinity material. Several studies report the effect of different spacers in combination with the ligand molecule, but the effect of the spacer arm “per se” is generally disregarded. The effect of the spacer 1,2-diaminoethane on non-specific protein adsorption was recently investigated and the results were compared with the ones obtained with A2P affinity membranes. The results show that this spacer has indeed an important effect and that similar specific studies need to be performed for every spacer molecule.
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder, linked to several structural abnormalities of the brain. More specifically, previous findings have suggested that increased gyrification in frontal and temporal regions are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
The current study included participants at high familial risk of schizophrenia who remained well (n = 31), who developed sub-diagnostic symptoms (n = 28) and who developed schizophrenia (n = 9) as well as healthy controls (HC) (n = 16). We first tested whether individuals at high familial risk of schizophrenia carried an increased burden of trait-associated alleles using polygenic risk score analysis. We then assessed the extent to which polygenic risk was associated with gyral folding in the frontal and temporal lobes.
We found that individuals at high familial risk of schizophrenia who developed schizophrenia carried a significantly greater burden of risk-conferring variants for the disorder compared to those at high risk (HR) who developed sub-diagnostic symptoms or remained well and HC. Furthermore, within the HR cohort, there was a significant and positive association between schizophrenia polygenic risk score and bilateral frontal gyrification.
These results suggest that polygenic risk for schizophrenia impacts upon early neurodevelopment to confer greater gyral folding in adulthood and an increased risk of developing the disorder.
Maser observations of both linearly and circularly polarized emission have provided unique information on the magnetic field in the densest parts of star forming regions, where non-maser magnetic field tracers are scarce. While linear polarization observations provide morphological constraints, magnetic field strengths are determined by measuring the Zeeman splitting in circularly polarized emission. Methanol is of special interest as it is one of the most abundant maser species and its different transitions probe unique areas around the protostar. However, its precise Zeeman-parameters are unknown. Experimental efforts to determine these Zeeman-parameters have failed. Here we present quantum-chemical calculations of the Zeeman-parameters of methanol, along with calculations of the hyperfine structure that are necessary to interpret the Zeeman effect in methanol. We use this model in re-analyzing methanol maser polarization observations. We discuss different mechanisms for hyperfine-state preference in the pumping of torsion-rotation transitions involved in the maser-action.
Principal problems concerning the raw data and methodological limitations of statistical and conventional avalanche forecasting methods are summarized. The concepts of four statistical models based on multivariate data analysis, are outlined in a few words. In order to give an idea of the potential and quality of the different methods, test runs over two winters are discussed and a tentative store is established. Statistical models I and IV, together with the conventional forecast, attain a score of 70-80%, whereas statistical models II and III show a slightly poorer performance.
There is now a well-established link between childhood adversity (CA) and schizophrenia. Similar structural abnormalities to those found in schizophrenia including alterations in grey-matter volume have also been shown in those who experience CA.
We examined whether global estimates of cortical thickness or surface area were altered in those familial high-risk subjects who had been referred to a social worker or the Children's Panel compared to those who had not.
We found that the cortical surface area of those who were referred to the Children's Panel was significantly smaller than those who had not been referred, but cortical thickness was not significantly altered. There was also an effect of social work referral on cortical surface area but not on thickness.
Cortical surface area increases post-natally more than cortical thickness. Our findings suggest that CA can influence structural changes in the brain and it is likely to have a greater impact on cortical surface area than on cortical thickness.
The intensified efforts in recent years to bring definitional clarity to the field of religious education involve not simply elucidating the role of theology but also exploring the function of religious studies. A proposal is made in this essay that both theology and religious studies make different and necessary contributions to religious education, though neither subsumes it. The context for this argument is established by means of an initial review of the literature of religious education regarding the varied perspectives on the role of theology and then by attention to the relationship of theology and religious studies. The concluding section consists of three propositions specifying a conceptualization of the field of religious education with distinct functions for theology and religious studies.
Aguinis and Glavas (2013) ask, “When and why does CSR lead to positive outcomes for employees, organizations, and society?” Although the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is elusive and comprises a wide range of definitions, there is convergence on the voluntary nature of these actions. But who implements these voluntary initiatives? CSR will take effect, as Aguinis and Glavas point out, at micro levels, through the actions of lower-level units and employees. Thus, there is a need to specify mechanisms by which macro-level CSR policies result in microlevel outcomes.
According to a popular scenario supported by numerical models, the mass assembly and growth of massive galaxies, in particular the Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), is, below a redshift of 1, mainly due to the accretion of multiple gas–poor satellites. In order to get observational evidence of the role played by minor dry mergers, we are obtaining extremely deep optical images of a complete volume limited sample of nearby ETGs. These observations, done with the CFHT as part of the ATLAS3D, NGVS and MATLAS projects, reach a stunning 28.5 – 29 mag.arcsec−2 surface brightness limit in the g' band. They allow us to detect the relics of past collisions such as faint stellar tidal tails as well as the very extended stellar halos which keep the memory of the last episodes of galactic accretion. Images and preliminary results from this on-going survey are presented, in particular a possible correlation between the fine structure index (which parametrizes the amount of tidal perturbation) of the ETGs, their stellar mass, effective radius and gas content.
The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to
an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The
Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities
to investigate the radioecological impact of this input, in particular the potential
contamination of products of marine origin used for human consumption. This article
describes the close link between the responses provided and the availability of the data,
as well as their nature and ability to meet the requirements of expert investigation.
These responses were needed: (i) to evaluate the inputs of radionuclides into the marine
environment, (ii) to understand their dispersion in seawater, and (iii) to estimate their
transfer to the biota and sediments. Three phases can be distinguished which characterise
these processes during the accident and post-accident periods. The first phase corresponds
to an emergency phase during which no measurements were available on samples from the
marine environment. It involved the formulation of hypotheses based solely on the
expertise of the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety. The second phase
started when the Japanese authorities provided measurements of the concentrations of
radionuclides in seawater. Although these data were not yet adapted to addressing the
problems of radioecology, the scenarios could then be refined and the estimates developed
in more detail. During the third phase, the accumulation of data over the course of time
made it possible to study the phenomena in an appropriate way. The chronology of the
events shows that it is essential to have (i) significant measurements of concentration
from samples collected in the various matrices of the marine environment, regularly
updated and sufficiently well-documented, (ii) samples of seawater collected at the
earliest opportunity as close as possible to the damaged site to characterise the source
term, and (iii) a numerical tool allowing rapid modelling of the dispersion of
radionuclides in seawater, as well as their transfer to sediments and the biota,
ultimately for the purpose of estimating the dose to humans.
Microstructural changes occurring during the early stages of rapid thermal annealing of polycrystalline silicon bipolar emitters crucially affect the final dopant distribution and hence the performance of these devices. The first stage of annealing is epitaxial regrowth in the solid phase of the layer amorphised by the implantation. In-situ studies using time-resolved reflectivity measurements, combined with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of partly annealed structures, have determined the effects of initial grain size, annealing temperature and amorphising species (Si or As) on the rate of regrowth and the microstructural changes which occur during annealing. As the grain size is reduced, the regrowth rate decreases and the interface roughness increases. Arsenic implantation alters the rate of regrowth in such a manner as to produce a smoother interface than that in silicon implanted material.
Nutrient dynamics in tropical montane cloud forests
W. Wilcke, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany,
J. Boy, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany,
R. Goller, University of Bayreuth, Germany,
K. Fleischbein, University of Potsdam, Germany,
C. Valarezo, Universidad Nacional de Loja, Ecuador,
W. Zech, University of Bayreuth, Germany
Tropical montane forests are frequently located on steep slopes with pronounced differences in topographic exposure, related microclimatic conditions and hence in composition and structure of the vegetation over small distances. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that topographic position significantly influences soil fertility and water flow in these forests. Soil properties were determined at various topographic positions and water samples of selected ecosystem fluxes analyzed over a 1-year period for oxygen isotopes in three small, steep watersheds under lower montane forest in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes in southern Ecuador. The soils are subject to lateral material movement (landsliding and solifluction). This, together with the pronounced variation in climatic conditions and vegetation over small distances, resulted in high heterogeneity of soil properties. The pH of the A-horizon ranged between 3.7 and 6.4; concentrations of base metals (calcium, magnesium), sulfur and phosphorus, and trace metals (manganese, zinc) showed enormous spatial variation (coefficient of variation: 358–680% over a surface area of <30 ha). The steepness of the study area and the large contrast in hydraulic conductivities of the organic layer and the mineral soil resulted in a hillslope flow regime dominated by fast lateral flow. During baseflow conditions, δ18O values were similar to that of the sub-soil solution, but rapidly became similar to values in the top-soil solution during rain storms. The chemical composition of stormflows resembled that of the litter leachate. Stormflow had lower pH and higher organic carbon and metal concentrations than did baseflow. […]
The mass assembly of galaxies leaves various imprints on their surroundings, such as shells, streams and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of these fine structures depend on the mechanism driving the mass assembly: e.g. a monolithic collapse, rapid cold-gas accretion followed by violent disk instabilities, minor mergers or major dry/wet mergers. Therefore, by studying the outskirts of galaxies, one can learn about their main formation mechanism. I present here our on-going work to characterize the outskirts of Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), which are powerful probes at low redshift of the hierarchical mass assembly of galaxies. This work relies on ultra–deep optical images obtained at CFHT with the wide-field of view MegaCam camera of field and cluster ETGs obtained as part of the ATLAS3D and NGVS projects. State of the art numerical simulations are used to interpret the data. The images reveal a wealth of unknown faint structures at levels as faint as 29 mag arcsec−2 in the g-band. Initial results for two galaxies are presented here.
Early-type galaxies (ETGs) satisfy a now classic scaling relation Re ∝ σ1.2eI−0.8e, the Fundamental Plane (FP; Djorgovski & Davis 1987; Dressler et al. 1987), between their size, stellar velocity dispersion and mean surface brightness. A significant effort has been devoted in the past twenty years to try to understand why the coefficients of the relation are not the ones predicted by the virial theorem Re ∝ σ2eI−1e.