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The apparatus of Vogelgnathus simplicatus (Rhodes, Austin, and Druce, 1969) is reconstructed from discrete elements from a sample of limited diversity from the Limerick Province (Ireland). The apparatus is typical of the order Ozarkodinida and the P1 element was previously placed within Gnathodus. Here we assign it to Vogelgnathus by applying a multielemental concept rather than using P1 element morphology. The holotype and paratypes are re-illustrated and the species distribution revised based on published data. Vogelgnathus simplicatus ranges from the late Tournaisian to the early Viséan (Mississippian, Carboniferous), with common occurrences relating to the growth of Waulsortian bank complexes in a high-stand sea-level along the southern and western margins of the Laurussian landmass (Belgium, the British Isles, the Republic of Ireland, and USA). Vogelgnathus simplicatus appears to represent the rootstock from which deep-water and shallow-water Viséan species of Vogelgnathus evolved in the Mississippian.
The church of Santa Comba de Bande in north-west Spain has long been considered a model for regional Late Antique and early medieval architecture. Controversy, however, has recently emerged concerning its construction date. Is it a ‘Visigothic’ (seventh century) or ‘Mozarabic’ (ninth to tenth centuries) church? The combination of stratigraphic data with absolute dating methods has now provided a date of AD 751–789 for construction of the church. This result has historical and architectural implications: Santa Comba de Bande represents an extremely early example of Mozarabic architecture, and demonstrates the dynamic circulation of influences between the Islamic south and Christian north in eighth-century Iberia.
Individuals with one psychiatric disorder are at increased risk for incidence and recurrence of other disorders. We characterize whether the magnitude of such heterotypic continuity varies based on whether the first disorder remits or persists over time.
Cohorts were selected from participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions wave 1 (2001–2002) and wave 2 (2004–2005) surveys with ⩾1 mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder at wave 1. Among respondents remitting (n = 6719) or not remitting (n = 3435) from ⩾1 of disorder at wave 2, the analyses compared the odds of developing new disorders.
As compared with adults whose disorders persisted from wave 1 to wave 2, those with ⩾1 remission had lower odds of incidence or recurrence of another disorder. Remission from alcohol dependence [odds ratio (OR) 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3–0.5] and drug dependence (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3–0.6) were associated with the lowest odds of incidence of another disorder. Social anxiety disorder was associated with the lowest adjusted odds of recurrence (adjusted OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.6). Remission of disorders within one class (mood, anxiety, substance use) was consistently associated with lower odds of incidence or recurrence of disorders from the same class than with developing disorders from the other classes.
Remission from common psychiatric disorders tends to decrease the risk for incidence or recurrence of disorders and this effect is stronger within than across disorder classes. These results do not support the concept of heterotypic continuity as a substitution of one disorder for another.
Fourier Transform spectroscopy is able to provide high accuracy atomic parameters needed by many ongoing galactic surveys. Our laboratory has carried out a study of the neutral iron spectrum over the last years to measure oscillator strengths much needed for the calculation of chemical abundances. The main aim of this contribution is to encourage further dialogue with astronomers regarding their current necessities of spectroscopic data, as this would help spectroscopists to prioritise present-day needs within the field.
Gaia DR1 has opened a new era of stellar age dating, that is crucial for many astrophysical objectives. In addition, the Gaia based isochrone fitting ages can be compared to other chemical clocks like the [Y/Mg] one (Nissen et al. 2015). In our work we have used ESO archived data of the AMBRE project (de Laverny et al. 2013) for UVES spectra, in order to evaluate the age [Y/Mg] abundance correlation for turn off stars. 310 turn off stars of the UVES-archive (setups 564 and 580) are included in the TGAS database. Isochrone fitting ages were derived. We have applied the GAUGUIN procedure for those stars to derive the Mg and the Y abundances. As the result we present the [Y/Mg] vs stellar age dependence for ~40 TO-stars.
Some studies suggested that the chemical abundance trend with the condensation temperature, Tc, is a signature of rocky planet formation. Very recently, a strong Tc trend was reported in ζ2 Ret relative to its companion (ζ1 Ret) and was explained by the presence of a debris disk around ζ2 Ret. We re-evaluated the presence and variability of the Tc trend in this system with a goal to understand the impact of the presence of the debris disk on a star. Our results confirm the reported abundance difference between ζ2 Ret and ζ1 Ret and its dependence on the Tc. However, we also found that the Tc trends depend on the individual spectrum used. We conclude that for the ζ Reticuli system, for example, nonphysical factors can be at the root of the Tc trends for the case of individual spectra. For more details see Adibekyan et al. (2016b).
TW Hydrae is a very young and nearby association with about 30 known members which is an excellent target for studies on stellar evolution since several of its members present a particular interest (planetary system, brown dwarfs, etc.). With the new data from TGAS and the Gaia DR1 eventually combined with others astrometric data we intend to improve our kinematic knowledge of this association.
Using the data from the LAMOST Galactic spectroscopic surveys and some other surveys, we have started a series of work to measure the mass distribution of our Galaxy. As a result of the first-stage, we have constructed the Galactic rotation curve out to 100 kpc and the Galactic escape velocity curve between 5 and 14 kpc. From the two curves, we have built parametrized mass models for our Galaxy, respectively. Both models yield a similar result for the Milky Way's virial mass: ~ 0.9 × 1012 M⊙.
In order to understand the Galactic structure, we perform a statistical analysis of the distribution of various cluster parameters based on an almost complete sample of Galactic open clusters yet available. The geometrical and physical characteristics of a large number of open clusters given in the MWSC catalogue are used to study the spatial distribution of clusters in the Galaxy and determine the scale height, solar offset, local mass density and distribution of reddening material in the solar neighbourhood. We also explored the mass-radius and mass-age relations in the Galactic open star clusters. We find that the estimated parameters of the Galactic disk are largely influenced by the choice of cluster sample.
We present an in-depth study of metal-poor stars, based high resolution spectra combined with newly released astrometric data from Gaia, with special attention to observational uncertainties. The results are compared to those of other studies, including Gaia benchmark stars. Chemical evolution models are discussed, highlighting few puzzles that are still affecting our understanding of stellar nucleosynthesis and of the evolution of our Galaxy.
Thanks to their point-like structure and to their lack of significant proper motion, quasars represent the ideal objects for modeling quasi-inertial directions in space. For that reason the present primary conventional reference frame, the ICRF-2, is constructed from the set of the celestial coordinates of a sample of extragalactic objects, whose the very large majority are quasars. Thus any newly discovered quasar must be considered as a potential future ideal astrometric marker. Therefore compiling all the recorded quasars at a given epoch looks as a useful task. This constitutes the aim of the LQAC (Large Quasar Astrometric Catalogue). We present here the contents of the future release of this catalogue quoted as the LQAC-4, insisting on the related strategy of compilation. Preliminary results concerning the cross-identification with the Gaia DR1 catalogue are emphasized
ESA's Gaia space astrometry mission is performing an all-sky survey of stellar objects. At the beginning of the nominal mission in July 2014, an operation scheme was adopted that enabled Gaia to routinely acquire observations of all stars brighter than the original limit of G~6, i.e. the naked-eye stars. We present the current status and extent of those observations.
We present new empirical Colour-Colour and Effective Temperature-Colour Gaia Red Clump calibrations. The selected sample takes into account high photometric quality, good spectrometric metallicity, homogeneous effective temperatures and low interstellar extinctions. From those calibrations we developed a method to derive the absolute magnitude, temperature and extinction of the Gaia RC. We tested our colour and extinction estimates on stars with measured spectroscopic effective temperatures and Diffuse Interstellar Band (DIB) constraints. Within the Gaia Validation team these calibrations are also being used, together with asteroseismic constraints, to check the parallax zero-point with Red Clump stars.
The mass of a Cepheid is a fundamental parameter for studying the pulsation and evolution of intermediate-mass stars. But determining this variable has been a long-standing problem for decades. Detecting the companions (by spectroscopy or imaging) is a difficult task because of the brightness of the Cepheids and the close orbit of the components. So most of the Cepheid masses are derived using stellar evolution or pulsation modeling, but they differ by 10-20 %. Measurements of dynamical masses offer the unique opportunity to make progress in resolving this mass discrepancy.
The first problem in studying binary Cepheids is the high contrast between the components for wavelengths longer than 0.5 μm, which make them single-line spectroscopic binaries. In addition, the close orbit of the companions (<40 mas) prevents us from spatially resolving the systems with a single-dish 8m-class telescope. A technique able to reach high spatial resolution and high-dynamic range is long-baseline interferometry. We have started a long-term program that aims at detecting, monitoring and characterizing physical parameters of the Cepheid companions. The GAIA parallaxes will enable us to combine interferometry with single-line velocities to provide unique dynamical mass measurements of Cepheids.
Understanding how young stars and their circumstellar disks form and evolve is key to explain how planets form. The evolution of the star and the disk is regulated by different processes, both internal to the system or related to their environment. The former include accretion of material onto the central star, wind emission, and photoevaporation of the disk due to high-energy radiation from the central star. These are best studied spectroscopically, and the distance to the star is a key parameter in all these studies. Here we present new estimates of the distance to a complex of nearby star-forming clouds obtained combining TGAS distances with measurement of extinction on the line of sight. Furthermore, we show how we plan to study the effects of the environment on the evolution of disks with Gaia, using a kinematic modelling code we have developed to model young star-forming regions.
In this work we present chemical abundances of heavy elements (Z>28) for a homogeneous sample of 1059 stars from HARPS planet search program. We also derive ages using parallaxes from Hipparcos and Gaia DR1 to compare the results. We study the [X/Fe] ratios for different populations and compare them with models of Galactic chemical evolution. We find that thick disk stars are chemically disjunt for Zn adn Eu. Moreover, the high-alpha metal-rich population presents an interesting behaviour, with clear overabundances of Cu and Zn and lower abundances of Y and Ba with respect to thin disk stars. Several abundance ratios present a significant correlation with age for chemically separated thin disk stars (regardless of their metallicity) but thick disk stars do not present that behaviour. Moreover, at supersolar metallicities the trends with age tend to be weaker for several elements.
Current Galactic surveys, including the Gaia mission, rely on the efficiency of the spectral analysis techniques to provide precise and accurate spectral information (i.e. effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and chemical abundances) in the shortest computational time. In this work, we present a new package to preform complete spectral analyses based on the spectral synthesis technique (Tsantaki et al. 2017, submitted). We focus on deriving atmospheric parameters for FGK-type stars using both high and medium resolution (GIRAFFE) spectra. This method is implemented on the Gaia-ESO benchmark stars to confirm its validity, achieving similar accuracy for the two resolution setups.
Using the spectroscopic distances of over 0.12 million A-type stars selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC), we map their three-dimensional number density distributions in the Galaxy. These stellar number density maps allow an investigation of the Galactic young age thin disk structure with no a priori assumptions about the functional form of its components. The data show strong evidence for a significant flaring young disk. A more detail analysis show that the stellar flaring have different behaviours between the Northern and the Southern Galactic disks. The maps also reveal spatially coherent, kpc-scale stellar substructure in the thin disk. Finally, we detect the Perseus arm stellar overdensity at R ~ 10 kpc.
One of the ways to obtain a detailed 3D ISM map is by gathering interstellar (IS) absorption data toward widely distributed background target stars at known distances (line-of-sight/LOS data). The radial and angular evolution of the LOS measurements allow the inference of the ISM spatial distribution. For a better spatial resolution, one needs a large number of the LOS data. It requires building fast tools to measure IS absorption. One of the tools is a global analysis that fit two different diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) simultaneously. We derived the equivalent width (EW) ratio of the two DIBs recorded in each spectrum of target stars. The ratio variability can be used to study IS environmental conditions or to detect DIB family.
Chemical evolution of r-process elements in the Milky Way disc is still a matter of debate. We took advantage of high resolution HARPS spectra from the ESO archive in order to derive precise chemical abundances of 3 r-process elements Eu, Dy & Gd for a sample of 4 355 FGK Milky Way stars. The chemical analysis has been performed thanks to the automatic optimization pipeline GAUGUIN. Based on the [α/Fe] ratio, we chemically characterized the thin and the thick discs, and present here results of these 3 r-process element abundances in both discs. We found an unexpected Gadolinium and Dysprosium enrichment in the thick disc stars compared to Europium, while these three elements track well each other in the thin disc.