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The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
Perceptions of social-contextual food environments and associated factors that influence food purchases are understudied in American Indian (AI) communities. The purpose of the present study was to: (i) understand the perceived local food environment; (ii) investigate social-contextual factors that influence family food-purchasing choices; and (iii) identify diet intervention strategies.
This qualitative study consisted of focus groups with primary household shoppers and key-informant interviews with food retailers, local government food assistance programme directors and a dietitian. An inductive, constant comparison approach was used to identify major themes.
A large AI reservation community in the north-central USA.
Four focus groups (n 31) and seven key-informant interviews were conducted in February and May 2016.
Perceptions of both the higher cost of healthy foods and limited access to these foods influenced the types of foods participants purchased. Dependence on government assistance programmes and the timing of benefits also contributed to the types of foods purchased. Participants described purchasing foods based on the dietary needs and preferences of their children. Suggestions for improving the purchase and consumption of healthy foods included: culturally relevant and family-centred cooking classes and workshops focused on monthly food budgeting. Participants also emphasized the importance of involving the entire community in healthy eating initiatives.
Cost and access were the major perceived barriers to healthy eating in this large rural AI community. Recommended interventions included: (i) family-friendly and culturally relevant cooking classes; (ii) healthy food-budgeting skills training; and (iii) approaches that engage the entire community.
Up to 70 per cent of the population search online for medical or health-related information. This study aimed to assess the quality of online health resources available to educate patients on a variety of otolaryngological conditions.
Two clinicians independently analysed the quality and content of educational websites (patient.co.uk and wikipedia.org) for common and uncommon diagnoses, with cancerresearchuk.org also used to assess two head and neck cancers.
Cancerresearchuk.org, followed by patient.co.uk, scored most highly in their ability to inform readers on a selection of otolaryngological conditions. Although wikipedia.org was less likely to include all relevant information and was more difficult to read, it still provided mostly accurate information.
Where possible, patients should be advised to access professionally maintained health information websites (patient.co.uk and cancerresearchuk.org). However, wikipedia.org can provide adequate information, although it lacks depth and can be difficult to understand.
Among African Americans, spirituality is meaning or purpose in life and a faith in God who is in control of health and there to provide support and guidance in illness situations. Using qualitative methods, we explored the use of spirituality to make sense of the end-of-life and bereavement experiences among family members of a deceased cancer patient.
Data in this report come from 19 African Americans who experienced the loss of a family member to cancer. A qualitative descriptive design was used with criterion sampling, open-ended semistructured interviews, and qualitative content analysis.
Participants made sense of the death of their loved one using the following five themes: Ready for life after death; I was there; I live to honor their memory; God's wisdom is infinite; and God prepares you and brings you through. These five themes are grounded in conceptualizations of spirituality as connectedness to God, self, and others.
Significance of results
Our findings support the results that even during bereavement, spirituality is important in the lives of African Americans. African American family members might struggle with issues related to life after death, their ability to be physically present during end-of-life care, and disentangling beliefs around God's control over the beginning and ending of life. The findings in this report can be used to inform healthcare providers to better support and address the needs for support of African American family members during end-of-life and bereavement experiences.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients have been reported to display deficits in action control processes. While it is known that subliminally and consciously induced conflicts interact and conjointly modulate action control in healthy subjects, this has never been investigated for ADHD.
We investigated the (potential) interaction of subliminally and consciously triggered response conflicts in children with ADHD and matched healthy controls using neuropsychological methods (event-related potentials; ERPs) to identify the involved cognitive sub-processes.
Unlike healthy controls, ADHD patients showed no interaction of subliminally and consciously triggered response conflicts. Instead, they only showed additive effects as their behavioural performance (accuracy) was equally impaired by each conflict and they showed no signs of task-goal shielding even in cases of low conflict load. Of note, this difference between ADHD and controls was not rooted in early bottom-up attentional stimulus processing as reflected by the P1 and N1 ERPs. Instead, ADHD showed either no or reversed modulations of conflict-related processes and response selection as reflected by the N2 and P3 ERPs.
There are fundamental differences in the architecture of cognitive control which might be of use for future diagnostic procedures. Unlike healthy controls, ADHD patients do not seem to be endowed with a threshold which allows them to maintain high behavioural performance in the face of low conflict load. ADHD patients seem to lack sufficient top-down attentional resources to maintain correct response selection in the face of conflicts by shielding the response selection process from response tendencies evoked by any kind of distractor.
In everyday life it is often required to integrate multisensory input to successfully conduct response inhibition (RI) and thus major executive control processes. Both RI and multisensory processes have been suggested to be altered in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is, however, unclear which neurophysiological processes relate to changes in RI in ASD and in how far these processes are affected by possible multisensory integration deficits in ASD.
Combining high-density EEG recordings with source localization analyses, we examined a group of adolescent ASD patients (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 20) using a novel RI task.
Compared to controls, RI processes are generally compromised in adolescent ASD. This aggravation of RI processes is modulated by the content of multisensory information. The neurophysiological data suggest that deficits in ASD emerge in attentional selection and resource allocation processes related to occipito-parietal and middle frontal regions. Most importantly, conflict monitoring subprocesses during RI were specifically modulated by content of multisensory information in the superior frontal gyrus.
RI processes are overstrained in adolescent ASD, especially when conflicting multisensory information has to be integrated to perform RI. It seems that the content of multisensory input is important to consider in ASD and its effects on cognitive control processes.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Besides inattention and hyperactivity, impulsivity is the third core symptom leading to diverse and serious problems. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity in ADHD are still not fully understood. This is all the more the case when patients with the ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-C) are considered who are characterized by both symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity.
Combining high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recordings with source localization analyses, we examined what information processing stages are dysfunctional in ADHD-C (n = 20) compared with controls (n = 18).
Patients with ADHD-C made more impulsive errors in a Go/No-go task than healthy controls. Neurophysiologically, different subprocesses from perceptual gating to attentional selection, resource allocation and response selection processes are altered in this patient group. Perceptual gating, stimulus-driven attention selection and resource allocation processes were more pronounced in ADHD-C, are related to activation differences in parieto-occipital networks and suggest attentional filtering deficits. However, only response selection processes, associated with medial prefrontal networks, predicted impulsive errors in ADHD-C.
Although the clinical picture of ADHD-C is complex and a multitude of processing steps are altered, only a subset of processes seems to directly modulate impulsive behaviour. The present findings improve the understanding of mechanisms underlying impulsivity in patients with ADHD-C and might help to refine treatment algorithms focusing on impulsivity.
Species co-occurrence is an important ecological research area. Mark-and-recapture studies of mammals allow identification of coexisting species, a necessary step in determining mechanisms enabling habitat sharing. Using data from five 1-ha grids in January 2004 in tropical dry deciduous forest of coastal Colima, Mexico, we detected significantly more interspecific overlap than expected between seven species pairs. Oryzomys couesi shared more stations than expected with Sigmodon mascotensis, Baiomys musculus and Peromyscus perfulvus. Baiomys musculus was associated positively with S. mascotensis and Reithrodontomys fulvescens. Heteromys pictus shared fewer stations than expected with O. couesi and S. mascotensis. For species collectively, there was non-random community structuring, with two grids displaying more species aggregation than expected. While two grids had non-random co-occurrence patterns, three grids did not differ from random, which differs from that reported for mammalian taxa on average. Other small-mammal studies have documented species segregation, while this study detected more positive than negative associations. Similarities in preference and habitat use (or diet) are likely explanations for interspecific overlap patterns at stations and co-occurrence patterns among grids. Simultaneously evaluating associations of species pairs and all species on a grid collectively is novel methodology as applied to mammals, adding to understanding of species co-occurrence.
Serum and cervical secretions were collected from patients with cervical dysplasia, carcinoma-in-situ (CIS), squamous cell carcinoma (cervical SCC), and controls with normal cervices, attending clinics within the West Lambeth Health District, London. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to examine cervical secretory IgA (sIgA) and serum IgG and IgA antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV). Sexual and demographic factors were considered during data analysis, which involved fitting multiple linear or multiple logistic regressions to HSV antibody levels. Prevalence of sIgA-HSV and levels of serum antibodies to HSV in all groups were compared with those of gynaecology controls. Caucasian women with mild dysplasia had a significantly higher prevalence of sIgA-HSV. Serum IgG levels to HSV (IgG-HSV) were significantly elevated in women with mild dysplasia and severe dysplasia/ClS. Serum IgA levels to HSV1 (IgG-HSV1) were significantly higher in women with cervical SCC (after adjusting for smoking habits) and other genital tumours. Significantly higher levels of serum IgA to HSV2 (IgA-HSV2) were also found among Caucasian women with cervical SCC. The possible role of HSV as a co-factor in cervical carcinogenesis is discussed.
Attempts were made to correlate virus excretion, joint symptoms and antibody response with human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in seronegative adult women given attenuated rubella vaccine. No association was shown between HLA antigens of the A and B loci and excretion of either high or low titres of RA27/3 vaccine among 26 volunteers. However, virus excretion was influenced by such factors as the time of day at which specimens were collected and the method of virus isolation. Our study therefore failed to confirm the hypothesis that certain persons are good ‘spreaders’ of rubella virus and that this capacity is associated with HLA-A1 and B8.
The study of joint symptoms following vaccination with Cendehill, HPV77. DE-5, RA27/3 or To-336 vaccines showed no association between such symptoms and HLA antigens. However, joint symptoms occurred within 7 days of the onset of menstruation in 33 of 47 (70%) vaccinees (P < 0.01) and it is therefore suggested that hormonal factors must play a role. No association between HLA antigens and haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titres, 8 weeks after vaccination with RA27/3, was found amongst 34 volunteers.
Keeping goats can make an important contribution to the livelihoods of small and landless farmers in Nepal, one of the world’s poorest countries. However, the capital cost of buying a goat can be prohibitive for very poor households. An alternative entry point is to keep the goats on a share basis, with a richer neighbour providing a goat or goats to a poorer neighbour to keep. The practice is governed by a complex set of rules and norms which are not easy to set out categorically, but the principle seems to be that equal shares go to owner and keeper. For example, when does that are kept in this way kid, one of the kids is generally given to the goat raiser, while the doe and her other kids may be returned to the goat owner after weaning. The price raised by selling shared goats is generally split equally between the owner and the goat’s keeper, after deducting the initial price of the goat if it was bought in by the owner. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of this practice in the southern region of Nepal, and to estimate the contribution that share-keeping goats may make to the livelihoods of households that were unable to buy a goat for themselves.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated abnormalities of brain structure, particularly of the temporal lobes, in schizophrenia. These are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin, but when they become evident is unknown.
To determine iftemporal lobe volumes reduce during the development of symptoms of schizophrenia in initially well people at high riskofthis disorder.
A group of 66 people who had at least two first— or second-degree relatives with schizophrenia and a control group of 20 healthy people had a structural MRI scan ofthe whole brain which was repeated after approximately 2 years. Regions of interest, specifically the amygdala-hippocampus complex and the temporal lobes, were traced semi-automatically by three masked raters with good inter— and intrarater reliability
Regional brain volume changes over 2 years did notdiffer between high-risk and healthy participants. Within the high-risk group, the 19 people with psychotic symptoms (12 at first assessment) had a mean reduction of 2163 mm3 intherighttemporal lobe compared with 97 mm3 in the 47 without symptoms (P⩵0.02).
Our findings suggest that people at high risk of schizophrenia with psychotic symptoms show reductions in temporal lobe volumes.
Background. Despite more than 100 years of study, there remains no definitive diagnostic
validation of the functional psychoses. Factor analysis suggests the presence of three or more
psychopathological syndromes in functional psychoses as a whole. The relationship between these
factors and cerebral anatomy has been investigated in schizophrenia only. This study aimed to
address the relationship of symptom factors to clinically important variables and cerebral anatomy
in a sample of psychotic patients with a spread of diagnoses.
Methods. In a sample of patients with functional psychoses, symptom data was obtained on four
consecutive admissions using the OPCRIT symptom checklist. OPCRIT data was used to generate
operational diagnoses in accordance with pre-set criteria and a principle components analysis was
performed on symptom data. Factor loadings were compared between each admission to examine
factor stability over time. Factor scores at first admission were also correlated with clinical variables
obtained from patients' case notes. From the sample of 204 patients, 64 subjects were recruited and
underwent an MRI scan of the brain. Regional anatomical volumes were compared with diagnosis
and factor loadings at first admission.
Results. A principal components analysis gave a four-factor solution of ‘manic’, ‘depressive’,
‘disorganization’ and ‘reality distortion’ factors at each admission. Factors showed a high degree
of stability over the four admissions studied. The factors were significantly associated with several
clinical variables. Three of the four factors were associated with a specific pattern of cerebral
Conclusions. This study suggests that factors may correspond to relatively specific disease processes
underlying functional psychotic illness. We propose that the use of symptom factors may facilitate
the investigation of the underlying mechanisms of psychotic illness.
Patients with schizophrenia differ from controls in several measures of brain structure and function, but it is uncertain how these relate to clinical features of the illness. We dichotomised patient groups by treatment response to test the hypothesis that treatment-resistant patients exhibit more marked biological abnormalities than treatment-responsive parients.
Twenty treatment-responsive and 20 treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia, matched for sex, age, and illness duration, were compared by magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography, and detailed neuropsychological assessment.
Brain-imaging variables were not statistically related to treatment response, although poorly responsive patients had lower volumes of most brain structures. Several highly significant differences emerged between patient groups on neuropsychological testing. Episodic memory functioning distinguished patient groups even after we controlled for global cognitive impairment.
Cerebral structure and blood flow have a limited effect on treatment response in schizophrenia, but long-term episodic memory impairment is associated with, and may predict, poor prognosis.
Yellow nutsedge control with rust (Puccinia canaliculata (Schw.) Lagerh.) collected in Salisbury, MD., was evaluated alone or in combination with pebulate at 1.7 or 3.3 kg ai ha-1 in transplanted tomato. Foliar applications of urediniospores in mid-June did not affect the yellow nutsedge population; however, tuber biomass was reduced 32%. In July, yellow nutsedge infection was manifest as an increase of phytotoxicity from 2.3 to 4.1 (0 to 10) and of disease incidence increase from 3 to 37%. Pebulate, 3.3 kg ha-1 reduced the yellow nutsedge population and ground cover by 79 and 90%, respectively, in June, with a 48% reduction of both tuber population and biomass in September. Tomato yields were not increased by rust or pebulate treatments. Marketable tomato yield was increased 46% by handweeding. Yellow nutsedge control was not enhanced by the combination treatments of pebulate followed by rust inoculation.
Total weed density increased after 1 yr of no-tillage and after 2 yr of conventional tillage in a 4-yr experiment with repeated assignment of the same treatment to the same plots. Large crabgrass, goosegrass, and carpetweed densities were higher in the no-tillage compared with the conventional-tillage treatment in at least 1 yr whereas common lambsquarters density was greater in the conventional-tillage treatment the last year of the experiment. Within the no-tillage treatment, rye or hairy vetch residue reduced total weed density an average of 78% compared to the treatment without cover crop when cover crop biomass exceeded 300 g m–2 and when residue covered more than 90% of the soil. Goosegrass, stinkgrass, and carpetweed densities were reduced by cover crop residue in at least 1 yr whereas large crabgrass was unaffected. Common lambsquarters density increased where rye was grown as a cover crop prior to conventional tillage. Despite differences in weed density among treatments, weed biomass was equivalent in all treatments during the last 2 yr.