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We evaluated provider adherence to practice guidelines for inpatients diagnosed with Clostridoides difficile infection (CDI) before and after implementation of a best practice alert (BPA) linking a positive test result to guideline-based orders. After implementation of the BPA, guideline-based prescribing increased from 39.4% in 2013 to 67.7% in 2016 (P = .014).
Increasing the representation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is one of our nation's most pressing imperatives. As such, there has been increased lay and scholarly attention given to understanding the causes of women's underrepresentation in such fields. These explanations tend to fall into two main groupings: individual-level (i.e., her) explanations and social-structural (i.e., our) explanations. These two perspectives offer different lenses for illuminating the causes of gender inequity in STEM and point to different mechanisms by which to gain gender parity in STEM fields. In this article, we describe these two lenses and provide three examples of how each lens may differentially explain gender inequity in STEM. We argue that the social-structural lens provides a clearer picture of the causes of gender inequity in STEM, including how gaining gender equity in STEM may best be achieved. We then make a call to industrial/organizational psychologists to take a lead in addressing the societal-level causes of gender inequality in STEM.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Recent commentary has suggested that performance management (PM) is fundamentally “broken,” with negative feelings from managers and employees toward the process at an all-time high (Pulakos, Hanson, Arad, & Moye, 2015; Pulakos & O'Leary, 2011). In response, some high-profile organizations have decided to eliminate performance ratings altogether as a solution to the growing disenchantment. Adler et al. (2016) offer arguments both in support of and against eliminating performance ratings in organizations. Although both sides of the debate in the focal article make some strong arguments both for and against utilizing performance ratings in organizations, we believe there continue to be misunderstandings, mischaracterizations, and misinformation with respect to some of the measurement issues in PM. We offer the following commentary not to persuade readers to adopt one particular side over another but as a call to critically reconsider and reevaluate some of the assumptions underlying measurement issues in PM and to dispel some of the pervasive beliefs throughout the performance rating literature.
The acheulian site at Boxgrove contains one of the most extensive areas of in situ fauna and flintwork yet discovered in Britain. This material is found in a complex sequence of sediments which represent depositional conditions from a 42 m sea level rise to the onset of a full periglacial climate. Excavation of the archaeological horizon has been accompanied by a programme of multidisciplinary research examining site formation processes, palaeolandscape and palaeoecological development, using sedimentological and environmental reconstruction techniques. Dating of the site is tentative as no absolute dates are available at present. However, comparative analysis with other British sites would suggest a position for the Boxgrove sequence within the Middle Pleistocene. The archaeological horizon is interpreted as being deposited towards the latter part of an interglacial or an interstadial period.
In January 2009, the IAEA EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety II) program was launched. The goal of the program is to develop, compare and test models for the assessment of radiological impacts to the public and the environment due to radionuclides being released or already existing in the environment; to help countries build and harmonize their capabilities; and to model the movement of radionuclides in the environment. Within EMRAS II, nine working groups are active; this paper will focus on the activities of Working Group 1: Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases. Within this working group environmental transfer and dose assessment models are tested under different scenarios by participating countries and the results compared. This process allows each participating country to identify characteristics of their models that need to be refined. The goal of this working group is to identify reference methodologies for the assessment of exposures to the public due to routine discharges of radionuclides to the terrestrial and aquatic environments. Several different models are being applied to estimate the transfer of radionuclides in the environment for various scenarios. The first phase of the project involves a scenario of nuclear power reactor with a coastal location which routinely (continuously) discharges 60Co, 85Kr, 131I, and 137Cs to the atmosphere and 60Co, 137Cs, and 90Sr to the marine environment. In this scenario many of the parameters and characteristics of the representative group were given to the modellers and cannot be altered. Various models have been used by the different participants in this inter-comparison (PC-CREAM, CROM, IMPACT, CLRP POSEIDON, SYMBIOSE and others). This first scenario is to enable a comparison of the radionuclide transport and dose modelling. These scenarios will facilitate the development of reference methodologies for controlled discharges.
Four Class I maser sources were detected at 44, 84, and 95 GHz toward chemically rich outflows in the regions of low-mass star formation NGC 1333I4A, NGC 1333I2A, HH25, and L1157. One more maser was found at 36 GHz toward a similar outflow, NGC 2023. Flux densities of the newly detected masers are no more than 18 Jy, being much lower than those of strong masers in regions of high-mass star formation. The brightness temperatures of the strongest peaks in NGC 1333I4A, HH25, and L1157 at 44 GHz are higher than 2000 K, whereas that of the peak in NGC 1333I2A is only 176 K. However, a rotational diagram analysis showed that the latter source is also a maser. The main properties of the newly detected masers are similar to those of Class I methanol masers in regions of massive star formation. The former masers are likely to be an extension of the latter maser population toward low luminosities of both the masers and the corresponding YSOs.
We have observed electroluminescence from 4H-SiC Ni-Schottky diodes on 1015cm−3 nitrogen doped n-type epilayers. A high barrier Schottky contact will form an inversion layer close to it. This creates minority carriers that can be injected into the epi and recombine to emit light. The spectral composition and its temperature dependence have been investigated from liquid He temperatures to room temperature. Band edge luminescence, Al related luminescence and DI bound exciton have been observed. To study the electroluminescence from Schottky diodes provides an easy and additional technique for defect characterization of epitaxial layers.
An intrinsic defect spectrum, commonly observed after ion-implantation, electron, proton or neutron irradiation and even after SIMS measurements is investigated using photoluminescence techniques. The spectrum is associated with carbon related isoelec-tronic centers having a pseudodonor like behaviour. Vacancy-interstitial pair complexes are tentatively suggested as the defect centers responsible for this intrinsic spectrum.
Nanoparticles of ZnO were synthesized using a sonochemical technique. Sonochemistry arises from an acoustic cavitation phenomenon, that is, the formation, growth and implosive collapse of bubbles in a liquid medium. The ultraviolet photoluminescence (PL) studies of the samples showed a strong PL intensity and a significant blue shift relative to the PL of the bulk. Shifts up to 70 meV were observed and attributed to a confinement effect. Scanning electron microscopy indicated roughly spherical particles, ∼160 nm in diameter. However, nano-platelets and rods were observed in transmission electron micrographs. Preliminary electrical measurements indicated a highly resistive nature of the nanoparticulate material.
Hardness properties of CVD SiO2, films deposited on silicon substrates are investigated by microindentation techniques. It is found that the hardness of these films is sensitive to the thermal histories and doping and is less influenced by the residual stress levels.
Radiative recombination of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a modulation doped GaAs/AIGaAs heterojunction (the so called H-band luminescence) has been studied under transverse electric field perturbation (i.e. perpendicular to the layers) in special structures prepared by molecular beam epitaxy. Both positive and negative gate voltages have been applied to the GaAs/AIGaAs interface, and shifts of the H-band energy position depending on the gate voltage are induced by the corresponding changes in the notch potential and the potential across the GaAs layer. It is demonstrated that a transverse electric field allows a simple way to modify the width and shape of the potential, so that detailed spectroscopy can be done on the recombination of carriers localized in a interface potential.
The study of electronic properties of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) has traditionally been focused on intrinsic phenomena, in particular the free exciton behaviour. Defects and impurities have often been regarded as less relevant compared to the case of bulk semiconductors. Doping in QWs is important in many applications, however, and recently the knowledge about the structure of shallow donors and acceptors from optical spectroscopy has advanced to a level comparable to the situation in bulk semiconductors. A dramatic difference from the bulk case is the common occurrence of localisation effects due to interface roughness in QW structures. The recombination of bound excitons (BEs) differs drastically from bulk, BE lifetimes decrease with decreasing well thickness Lw, but increase with decreasing barrier thickness Lb (at constant Lw) below Lb=70Å. Exciton capture at impurities is a process which is strongly influenced by the localisation potentials from the interface roughness. The recombination process in doped QWs involves a nonradiative component, for shallow acceptors an excitonic Auger process has been identified. Deep nonradiative defects in the (MBE grown) QW as well as in the barrier material are manifested in measurements of the PL decay time vs temperature. In undoped multiple QWs the decay times vs T are consistent with thermal emission out of the well into the barrier, where nonradiative recombination via deep level defects occur. Nonradiative recombination in the well itself can be studied in electron-irradiated structures. Preliminary data also demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen passivation of dopants as well as deep levels in the QW structures.
We have measured the photoluminescence decay time of the bound excitons at the neutral nitrogen donors in the 6H and 3C polytypes of SiC. At 2K the decay times are 8.0 ns, 1.8 ns and 1.5 ns, for the P, R and S bound excitons in 6H SiC. For the nitrogen exciton in 3C, we find a decay time of 160 ns. These values are faster than previously reported for shallow donors in other indirect bandgap materials such as Si or GaP. Each of the observed decay times is found to be independent of the doping level in the sample, is temperature independent at low temperatures but decrease when the bound excitons are thermally ionised. The decay time related to different donor levels in 6H exhibits a strong dependence on the donor binding energy. We suggest that the dominant mechanism responsible for the observed decay time is a phonon-less Auger process. In high-purity 6H samples we have also measured the free exciton decay time at low temperatures to be 12 ns.
We have performed time resolved photoluminescence measurements of the exciton recombination in different GaN samples at low temperatures. In epitaxial layers the decay time of the free exciton is typically faster than 100 ps. This is due to a dominating non-radiative recombination process. In thick bulk samples we have resolved and measured the decay time of the free exciton with a value of about 200 ps. We believe that this value is close to the radiative lifetime for free excitons in GaN. We have also shown that excitation transfer occurs between free and bound exciton states. We have furthermore measured the decay of the donor and acceptor bound excitons, and obtained values of the decay time of 250 ps and 1200 ps, respectively.
A theoretical study of composite thermoelectric media has resulted in the development of a number of simple approximations, as well as some exact results. The latter include exact upper and lower bounds on the bulk effective thermoelectric transport coefficients of the composite and upper bounds on the bulk effective thermoelectric quality factor Ze. In particular, as a result of some exact theorems and computer simulations we conclude that Ze can never be greater than the largest value of Z in the different components that make up the composite.
The quasi-LO and quasi-TO modes of AIN crystallite were investigated. The analysis indicates that the Raman mode behavior concurs with Loudons’ model of mode-mixing in wurtzite (WZ) structure crystals which is due to the long-range electrostatic field. Phonon-lifetimes of GaN and AIN crystallites were studied via Raman lineshape. It was found that the low energy E2 mode lifetime is about an order of magnitude longer than that of the other modes, and that impurities impact significantly the phonon-lifetimes.