We demonstrate the use of x-ray diffraction to provide accurate compositional information, together with grazing incidence reflectivity to provide information on layer thicknesses and surface and interface roughnesses, on Si/Si1-xGex superlattice structures of less than 200nm total thickness.
The quality of SiGe interfaces has been investigated in superlattices where x varies from 0.1 to 0.5. At low Ge compositions the interfaces are shown to be smooth to a few angstroms. However, as the Ge composition in the SiGe layer approaches 50%, severe roughness is observed at the SiGe to Si interfaces, although the Si to SiGe interfaces remain relatively smooth.
Upon annealing for one hour at 850°C the Ge diffuses outwards from the SiGe layers and can be closely modelled by inclusion of a (2.4±0.3)nm linearly graded layer either side of the SiGe layer into a simulation program. The long range roughness at the SiGe to Si interface is lost upon annealing leaving only a short range roughness of similar size to the Si to SiGe interface roughness.
Reflectivity measurements have been shown to distinguish between interface roughness and interdiffusion for the annealed system.