To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this series, rates of admission and daily bed use in south Southwark were 30% higher than in Hammersmith & Fulham, principally because of a higher rate of admission for affective disorders. Factors associated with compulsory admission did not differ between the districts. This final paper examines the severity of symptoms, the reasons given for admission and factors relevant to the judgement to admit, in order to test the hypothesis that more resources mean better service.
Sampling and data collection methods were described in the first paper.
In both districts, major reasons for admission were self-neglect and risk of self-harm, poor adaptive functioning, and poor acceptance of medication. In south Southwark, a group of patients had affective disorders and less severe symptoms but a stated risk of suicide. Rates for, and severity of, schizophrenia were similar in the two districts. Social and preventive reasons for admission were given more frequently in south Southwark, where patients had more often been in contact with services before admission. Staff there, but not in Hammersmith & Fulham, suggested that many could have benefited from alternative forms of residential care.
A ‘buffer’ of hospital beds in south Southwark may have allowed a more acceptable service, particularly for affective disorders. The possibility that this buffer could be replaced by a wider range of residential accommodation, including hostels away from the District General Hospital, is discussed. Ten recommendations are listed.
Twenty-six per cent of patients in two Inner London districts were admitted to acute wards under the provisions of the Mental Health Act. Compared with those not under compulsion, they were young, male, more likely to be of black Caribbean origin, and to have a diagnosis of schizophrenia of short duration. The hypothesis is tested that ethnicity determines rates of compulsory admission independently of the other factors.
Sampling and data collection methods were described in the first paper. Statistical analyses included a log-linear analysis of six key variables: compulsory admission, challenging behaviour, diagnosis, ethnicity, age, and sex.
There were no substantial differences between districts. Analysis provided two similar statistical models. In both, admission under the Act was strongly associated with challenging behaviour and diagnosis of schizophrenia. In the model of best fit there was no significant interaction term for ethnicity and compulsion. In the second model there was a weak association.
Ethnicity did not appear to be of outstanding importance in decisions to use the Mental Health Act. There was a strong link between ethnicity and diagnosis, independent of compulsion. Differences between the districts made no major contribution to the rates of compulsory admission.
There is pressure on acute admission services in inner-city areas. Two deprived London districts with markedly different acute bed ratios but similar sociodemographic backgrounds were compared to test the hypothesis that more facilities mean better service.
An instrument for auditing the use of short-stay hospital beds was constructed to collect information concerning admissions to, and short-stay patients in, the chosen districts during a three-month period.
There was a higher admission rate and substantially greater use of beds per unit population in south Southwark than in Hammersmith & Fulham. Much of the difference was attributable to a higher rate of admission of patients with affective disorders in south Southwark.
The results are not explained by variations in population need, longer in-patient stay, or poorer aftercare leading to early relapse. The question of whether there is over-provision of services compared with real need in south Southwark, or under-provision (particularly for people with affective disorders) in Hammersmith & Fulham, is considered but left open for discussion following a study of ethnic issues and the reasons for admission.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.