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Conceptual metaphor theory and other important theories in metaphor research are often experimentally tested by studying the effects of metaphorical frames on individuals’ reasoning. Metaphorical frames can be identified by at least two levels of analysis: words vs. concepts. Previous overviews of metaphorical-framing effects have mostly focused on metaphorical framing through words (metaphorical-words frames) rather than through concepts (metaphorical-concepts frames). This means that these overviews included only experimental studies that looked at variations in individual words instead of at the broader logic of messages. For this reason, we conducted a meta-analysis (k = 91, N = 34,783) to compare the persuasive impact of both types of metaphorical frames. Given that patterns of metaphor usage differ across discourse domains, and that effects may differ across modalities and discourse domains, we focused on one mode of presentation and one discourse domain only: verbal metaphorical framing in political discourse. Results showed that, compared to non-metaphorical frames, both metaphorical-words and metaphorical-concepts frames positively influenced beliefs and attitudes. Yet, these effects were larger for metaphorical-concepts frames. We therefore argue that future research should more explicitly describe and justify which level of analysis is chosen to examine the nature and effects of metaphorical framing.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe depression. However, little is known regarding brain functional processes mediating ECT effects.
In a non-randomized prospective study, functional magnetic resonance imaging data during the automatic processing of subliminally presented emotional faces were obtained twice, about 6 weeks apart, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) before and after treatment with ECT (ECT, n = 24). Additionally, a control sample of MDD patients treated solely with pharmacotherapy (MED, n = 23) and a healthy control sample (HC, n = 22) were obtained.
Before therapy, both patient groups equally showed elevated amygdala reactivity to sad faces compared with HC. After treatment, a decrease in amygdala activity to negative stimuli was discerned in both patient samples indicating a normalization of amygdala function, suggesting mechanisms potentially unspecific for ECT. Moreover, a decrease in amygdala activity to sad faces was associated with symptomatic improvements in the ECT sample (rspearman = −0.48, p = 0.044), and by tendency also for the MED sample (rspearman = −0.38, p = 0.098). However, we did not find any significant association between pre-treatment amygdala function to emotional stimuli and individual symptom improvement, neither for the ECT sample, nor for the MED sample.
In sum, the present study provides first results regarding functional changes in emotion processing due to ECT treatment using a longitudinal design, thus validating and extending our knowledge gained from previous treatment studies. A limitation was that ECT patients received concurrent medication treatment.
Current ultra-high-risk (UHR) criteria appear insufficient to predict imminent onset of first-episode psychosis, as a meta-analysis showed that about 20% of patients have a psychotic outcome after 2 years. Therefore, we aimed to develop a stage-dependent predictive model in UHR individuals who were seeking help for co-morbid disorders.
Baseline data on symptomatology, and environmental and psychological factors of 185 UHR patients (aged 14–35 years) participating in the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation study were analysed with Cox proportional hazard analyses.
At 18 months, the overall transition rate was 17.3%. The final predictor model included five variables: observed blunted affect [hazard ratio (HR) 3.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56–7.35, p < 0.001], subjective complaints of impaired motor function (HR 5.88, 95% CI 1.21–6.10, p = 0.02), beliefs about social marginalization (HR 2.76, 95% CI 1.14–6.72, p = 0.03), decline in social functioning (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01–1.17, p = 0.03), and distress associated with suspiciousness (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.03, p = 0.01). The positive predictive value of the model was 80.0%. The resulting prognostic index stratified the general risk into three risk classes with significantly different survival curves. In the highest risk class, transition to psychosis emerged on average ⩾8 months earlier than in the lowest risk class.
Predicting a first-episode psychosis in help-seeking UHR patients was improved using a stage-dependent prognostic model including negative psychotic symptoms (observed flattened affect, subjective impaired motor functioning), impaired social functioning and distress associated with suspiciousness. Treatment intensity may be stratified and personalized using the risk stratification.
The Be X-ray binaries show rather weak and variable X-rays. They can be divided into two types, the transient sources and the permanent sources. Two ranges for the X-ray luminosity Lx can be discerned: a) Lx~1034erg s−1 (X Per, λ Cas, 2S0114+65, all permanent sources); b) Lx~1036erg s−1. They have long periods, hence wide orbits, they ar not eclipsing and their mass loss rates are low. The optical spectra are generally very variable and irregular, masking periodic changes. No optical orbits exist and only for 4U0115+63 an X-ray orbit is known (Rappaport et al.1978). An overview of the Be X-ray binaries with some of their characteristics is given in Table 1.
A cosmic ray detector, sensitive to γ-Rays with energies greater than 500 MeV is being flown on board the OGO-5 satellite. The spacecraft was launched into a highly eccentric orbit, apogee 145000 km, on March 4, 1968. γ-Ray observations are restricted to altitudes higher than 80000 km, thereby excluding interference from the radiation belts and reducing the influence from the earth albedo flux. A description of the instrument is published in the literature (Rogowski et al., 1969).
Background: Hypospadias is associated with twinning. The incidence of hypospadias in monochorionic and dichorionic male twins is, however, yet to be determined. Methods: All medical records of monochorionic and dichorionic twins admitted to our neonatal nursery between January 2004 and August 2013 were reviewed for the presence of hypospadias. Results: A total of 350 monochorionic and 303 dichorionic male twins were included in the study. The incidence of hypospadias in monochorionic and dichorionic groups was 4% (14/350) and 1% (3/303) (p = .016) respectively. In 11 of the 15 twin couples, hypospadias occurred in the twin with the lowest birth weight. The rate of hypospadias in twin infants small-for-gestational-age group was 10% (6/60) compared with 2% (11/593) in the appropriate-for-gestational-age group (p = .002). In a multivariate analysis, both monochorionicity and small-for-gestational-age were independently associated with hypospadias, odds ratio 4.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–14.7) and 6.1 (95% CI: 2.2–17.2) respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of hypospadias is four-fold higher in monochorionic twins compared with dichorionic twins. Hypospadias is also independently associated with small-for-gestational-age.
High resolution Schottky barrier detectors for alpha particles have been fabricated on 20 μm n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers. Schottky barrier contact structure was accomplished by deposition of 10 nm nickel on the Si face of the epilayers. The detectors were characterized for structural, electrical, and spectroscopic properties. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optical microscopy revealed a micropipe density lower than 1 cm-2. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the device exhibited very low leakage current of the order of 6.5 pA at an operating bias of 90 V. C-V measurements revealed a typical effective doping concentrations of 2.4 × 1014 cm-3 in these epilayers. The detectors were evaluated for alpha particles detection using a 241Am source. An energy resolution of ∼0.98% for 5.48 MeV alpha particles was observed. The separate contribution of charge carrier drift and diffusion to the total charge collection efficiency has been calculated in these detectors following a drift-diffusion model. Detailed electronic noise analysis in terms of equivalent noise charge (ENC) was carried out to study the effect of various noise components that contribute to the total electronic noise in the detection system. Effect of shaping time, presence of source and bias on the ENC has been studied in details.
Cd0.9Zn0.1Te (CZT) single crystal has been grown using a tellurium solvent method. Two CZT crystals have been chosen from two different locations of the grown ingot. The two crystals were characterized using infrared transmission (IR) imaging and radiation detectors in planar geometry were fabricated on them. Current-voltage characteristics (I-V) revealed a resistivity of ∼8.6×1010 Ω−cm for detector A (6.9×6.9×4.8 mm3) and 6.7×1010 Ω−cm for detector B (11.5×11.7×2.6 mm3). IR imaging showed a lesser concentration of Te inclusions/precipitates in detector A. The transport properties viz., electron drift-mobility and electron mobility-lifetime product were measured using alpha spectroscopy in these detectors in a planar configuration. Detector A showed better charge transport properties compared to detector B. The superior transport properties of crystal A were reflected in the spectroscopic properties of the detectors. Gamma pulse height measurements using a 241Am isotope revealed an energy resolution of ∼5 % for detector A and ∼7 % for detector B. A digital spectrometer and a biparametric correction scheme was incorporated to recover the pulse height spectrum of high energy gamma rays (137Cs source) from the effect of poor hole movement.
Semiconductor materials have shown promise as ionizing radiation detection devices; however, to be used as a neutron detector, these materials require the addition of a nucleus with a large neutron absorption cross section (such as 10B or 6Li) to capture thermal neutrons and convert them into directly detectable particles. A semiconducting material that contains the neutron absorber within its regular stoichiometry has the potential to be more efficient than a layered or heterogeneous device at transferring the kinetic energy of the charged particle into the semiconducting material. One class of materials that has shown promise is Li-containing AIBIIIXVI2 compounds such as LiGaTe2, LiGaSe2, and LiInSe2. These materials have band gaps (2-3.5 eV) appropriate for room-temperature detection of thermal neutrons and would be the first detection material that is simultaneously, exquisitely sensitive to thermal neutrons; is insensitive to gammas; and acts as a direct conversion device. A vacuum distillation process provided high-purity lithium metal for AIBIIIXVI2 synthesis. Single crystals of sufficient bulk resistivity (grown for LiGaSe2 and LiInSe2LiInSe2) showed a distinct photo response as well as a clear response to alpha particles. Additional radiation measurements indicated that a 6 mm x 7 mm x 1.33 mm crystal of LiInSe2 detected gamma rays, and despite being composed of natural abundance lithium, responded to thermal neutrons as well.
The electronic properties of ThO2 single crystals were studied using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results show that the Th 4f core level is in an oxidation state that is consistent with that expected for Th in ThO2. The effective Debye temperature is estimated from the temperature dependent photoemission intensities of the Th 4f core level over the temperature range of 290 to 360 K. A Debye temperature of 468±32 K has been determined.
In France, nuclear glass canisters arising from spent fuel reprocessing are expected to be disposed in a deep geological repository using a multi-barrier concept (glass/canister/steel overpack and claystone). In this context, glass - iron or corrosion products interactions were investigated in a clayey environment to better understand the mechanisms and driving forces controlling the glass alteration. Integrated experiments involving glass - metallic iron or magnetite - clay stacks were run at laboratory scale in anoxic conditions for two years. The interfaces were characterized by a multiscale approach using SEM, TEM, EDX and STXM at the SLS Synchrotron. Characterization of glass alteration patterns on cross sections revealed various morphologies or microstructures and an increase of the glass alteration with the proximity between the glass and the source of iron (metallic iron or magnetite) due to the consumption of the silica coming from the glass alteration. In case of magnetite, the silica consumption is mainly driven by a sorption of silica onto the magnetite. For experiments containing metallic iron, the silica consumption seems to be strongly driven by silicates precipitation including Fe and Fe/Mg when the Fe is not enough available. Moreover, in addition to Fe-silicates observed at the surface of the gel layers, iron is incorporated within the gel probably as nanosized precipitates of Fe-silicates which could affect its physical and chemical properties. Those results highlighted the impact of the distance between glass and iron source and the nature of the iron source which drive the process consuming the silica coming from the glass alteration.
Solid-state neutron detectors from heterostructures that incorporate Gd intrinsically or as a dopant may significantly benefit from the high thermal neutron capture cross section of gadolinium. Semiconducting devices with Gd atoms can act as a neutron capture medium and simultaneously detect the electronic signal that characterizes the interaction. Neutron capture in natural isotopic abundance gadolinium predominantly occurs via the formation of 158mGd, which decays to the ground state through the emission of high-energy gamma rays and an internal conversion electron. Detection of the internal conversion electron and/or the subsequent Auger electron emission provides a distinct and identifiable signature that neutron capture has occurred. Ensuring that the medium responds to these emissions is imperative to maximizing the efficiency and separating out other interactions from the radiation environment. A GEANT4 model, which includes incorporation of the nuclear structure of Gd, has been constructed to simulate the expected device behavior. This model allows the energy deposited from the decay of the meta-stable state to be localized and transported, providing for analysis of various device parameters. Device fabrication has been completed for Gd doped HfO2 on n-type silicon, Gd2O3 on p-type silicon and Gd2O3 on SiC for validation of the code. A preliminary evaluation of neutron detection capabilities of these devices using a GEANT4 modeling approach is presented.
We report on the optical and charge transport properties of novel alkali metal chalcogenides, Cs2Hg6S7 and Cs2Cd3Te4, pertaining to their use in radiation detection. Optical absorption, photoconductivity, and gamma ray response measurements for undoped crystals were measured. The band gap energies of the Cs2Hg6S7 and Cs2Cd3Te4 compounds are 1.63 eV and 2.45 eV, respectively. The mobility-lifetime products for charge carriers are of the order of ~10-3 cm2/V for electrons and ~10-4 cm2/V for holes. Detectors fabricated from the ternary compound Cs2Hg6S7 shows well-resolved spectroscopic features at room temperature in response to ϒ -rays at 122 keV from a 57Co source, indicating its potential as a radiation detector.
We propose a novel concept of optical detection of thermal neutrons in a passive device that exploits transmutation of Dy-164, a dominant, naturally occurring isotope of dysprosium, into a stable isotope of either holmium Ho-165 or erbium Er-166. Combination of the high thermal neutron capture cross section of ~2,650 barns and transmutation into two other lanthanides makes Dy-164 a very attractive alternative to traditional methods of neutron detection that will be completely insensitive to gamma irradiation, thus reducing greatly the likelihood of false alarms. The optically enabled neutron detection relies on significant differences in optical properties of Dy, Ho, and Er that are not sensitive to a particular isotope, but change considerably from one element to another. While the concept applies equally well to bulk materials and to nanocrystals, nanocrystalline approach is much more attractive due to its significantly lower cost, relative ease of colloidal synthesis of high quality nanocrystals (NCs), and superior optical and mechanical properties of NCs compared to their bulk counterparts. We report on colloidal synthesis of DyF3 NCs, both doped and undoped with Ho and co-doped with Ce and Eu to enhance their optical properties. We also report on DyF3:10%Ce and DyF3:10%Eu NCs irradiated with thermal neutrons from a Cf-252 source and their optical characterization.
Cd0.9Zn0.1Te (CZT) detector grade crystals were grown from zone refined Cd, Zn, and Te (7N) precursor materials, using the tellurium solvent method. These crystals were grown using a high temperature vertical furnace designed and installed in our laboratory. The furnace is capable of growing up to 8” diameter crystals, and custom pulling and ampoule rotation functions using custom electronics were furnished for this setup. CZT crystals were grown using excess Te as a solvent with growth temperatures lower than the melting temperatures of CZT (1092°C). Tellurium inclusions were characterized through IR transmittance maps for the grown CZT ingots. The crystals from the grown ingots were processed and characterized using I-V measurements for electrical resistivity, thermally stimulated current (TSC), and electron beam induced current (EBIC). Pulse height spectra (PHS) measurements were carried out using a 241Am (59.6 keV) radiation source, and an energy resolution of ~4.2% FWHM was obtained. Our investigation demonstrates high quality detector grade CZT crystals growth using this low temperature solvent method.
The Czochralski pulling process is the most valuable and cost efficient method for producing large oriented single crystals of the group IV and III-V semiconductors. However, there have been only a small number of reported attempts to use the Czochralski process for growing the wide bandgap compound semiconductors, needed for the room temperature operated gamma-ray detectors. The main difficulty is in the low chemical stability and high vapor pressure of the group II, V and VI elements, leading to off-stoichiometric composition, and various related defects. Among the heavy metal halides, indium iodide and indium bromide present an interesting exception. InI has a high molecular disassociation energy and a low vapor pressure, allowing for Czochralski pulling. We will describe the procedures used and the results obtained by Czochralski growth and characterization of indium iodide and the related ternary compounds that appear to be quite encouraging.
Wide bandgap semiconductor films were obtained by spray pyrolysis, thermal evaporation and casting. These films were characterized under similar conditions in order to compare their structures, surface morphology and photocurrent properties. All films show either a crystalline or a polycrystalline structure. SEM pictures of sprayed films present holes and fissures and non-total covering of the substrate. The photoresponse was obtained for evaporated TlBr films, HgI2 casted with polystyrene (PS) scaffold, sprayed and evaporated PbI2 films. The photo to dark current ratio is discussed as well as the difference of photo to dark current at an electric field of 100 V/cm. The discussion also focuses on a future optimized material.
Photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation was used to determine the energy level structure of Mn doped Li2B4O7crystals. Photoemission studies provided evidence of Mn in the bulk crystal at 47.2 eV. Valence band analysis provided the presence of surface states but no acceptor sites. Cathodoluminescence studies were also made on undoped and Mn doped Li2B4O7using various beam energies from 5 to 10 KeV at room temperature. Self trapped exciton emission states are evident in the undoped and Mn doped Li2B4O7 sample ranging in energies from 3.1 to 4.1 eV.
Carbon nanotubes are synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition. Various temperature and pressure are used to fabricate carbon nanotubes. It is found that the nanotube-diameter distribution mainly depends on the growth-temperature. With the substrate surface normal either along or against the gravity vector, different growth orientations of multi-walled carbon nanotubes are observed by scanning electron microscopy although the Raman spectra are similar for samples synthesized at different locations. The sizes of these carbon nanotubes in each sample are quite uniform and the length of the tube is up to hundreds of micrometers. These results suggest the gravitation effects in the growth of long and small diameter CNT.