To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Longer-lived cows tend to be more profitable and the stayability trait is a selection criterion correlated to longevity. An alternative to the traditional approach to evaluate stayability is its definition based on consecutive calvings, whose main advantage is the more accurate evaluation of young bulls. However, no study using this alternative approach has been conducted for Zebu breeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare linear random regression models to fit stayability to consecutive calvings of Guzerá, Nelore and Tabapuã cows and to estimate genetic parameters for this trait in the respective breeds. Data up to the eighth calving were used. The models included the fixed effects of age at first calving and year-season of birth of the cow and the random effects of contemporary group, additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual. Random regressions were modeled by orthogonal Legendre polynomials of order 1 to 4 (2 to 5 coefficients) for contemporary group, additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Using Deviance Information Criterion as the selection criterion, the model with 4 regression coefficients for each effect was the most adequate for the Nelore and Tabapuã breeds and the model with 5 coefficients is recommended for the Guzerá breed. For Guzerá, heritabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.08, showing a quadratic trend with a peak between the fourth and sixth calving. For the Nelore and Tabapuã breeds, the estimates ranged from 0.03 to 0.07 and from 0.03 to 0.08, respectively, and increased with increasing calving number. The additive genetic correlations exhibited a similar trend among breeds and were higher for stayability between closer calvings. Even between more distant calvings (second v. eighth), stayability showed a moderate to high genetic correlation, which was 0.77, 0.57 and 0.79 for the Guzerá, Nelore and Tabapuã breeds, respectively. For Guzerá, when the models with 4 or 5 regression coefficients were compared, the rank correlations between predicted breeding values for the intercept were always higher than 0.99, indicating the possibility of practical application of the least parameterized model. In conclusion, the model with 4 random regression coefficients is recommended for the genetic evaluation of stayability to consecutive calvings in Zebu cattle.
Astrocytes are cellular bridges between the neurons and capillaries in the blood brain barrier. It was recently suggested that the nanophysical properties of the basement membrane of the blood brain barrier can influence astrocyte and neuron responses. In this work, cerebral cortical astrocytes were cultured on standard poly-L-Lysine coated glass substrates, Aclar substrates, and electrospun polyamide nanofibers whose properties may recapitulate those of the basement membrane. The nanoscale elasticity of each culture environment was investigated by force curve analysis and compared. The elasticity of the individual nanofibers on nanofibrillar surfaces was also investigated. Finally, variations in elasticity of scaffolds were correlated with astrocyte responses.
The metal-catalyst-free growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using chemical vapor deposition and the application in field-effect transistors (FETs) is presented. The CNT growth process used a 3-nm-thick Ge layer on SiO2 that was subsequently annealed to produce Ge nanoparticles. Raman measurements show the presence of radial breathing mode (RBM) peaks and the absence of the disorder induced D-band, indicating single walled CNTs (SWNTs) with a low defect density. The synthesized CNTs are used to fabricate CNTFETs and the best device has a state-of-the-art on/off current ratio of 3×108 and a steep sub-threshold slope of 110 mV/decade.
The nanoscale physical properties of newly electrospun polyamide nanofibrillar matrices < 1 year old versus those that were > 3 year old were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, contact angle measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. Significant differences in crystallinity, hydrophobicity, and chemistry were found and correspondingly different cell responses by cerebellar granular neurons were observed. The properties of the aged nanofibrillar scaffolds evoked a response for neuron burrowing into a more 3-dimensional environment in addition to better facilitation of neurite outgrowth. The nanophysical properties of tissue scaffolds have been recently shown to directly and indirectly regulate cellular responses. As physical properties can evolve over time, the present investigation addresses the issue of tissue scaffold shelf life, with possible changes in directive signals to cells.
Experimental animal studies have shown that nicotine exposure during gestation alters the expression of fetal hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of appetite. We aimed to determine whether the exposure to maternal smoking during gestation in humans is associated with an altered feeding behavior of the adult offspring. A longitudinal prospective cohort study was conducted including all births from Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo, Brazil) between 1978 and 1979. At 24 years of age, a representative random sample was re-evaluated and divided into groups exposed (n = 424) or not (n = 1586) to maternal smoking during gestation. Feeding behavior was analyzed using a food frequency questionnaire. Covariance analysis was used for continuous data and the χ2 test for categorical data. Results were adjusted for birth weight ratio, body mass index, gender, physical activity and smoking, as well as maternal and subjects’ schooling. Individuals exposed to maternal smoking during gestation ate more carbohydrates than proteins (as per the carbohydrate-to-protein ratio) than non-exposed individuals. There were no differences in the consumption of the macronutrients themselves. We propose that this adverse fetal life event programs the individual's physiology and metabolism persistently, leading to an altered feeding behavior that could contribute to the development of chronic diseases in the long term.
We report evidence for graphene layer rearrangements in heavy ion interactions with carbon onions at 140 MeV and 70 MeV per nucleon kinetic energies. Graphene layer rearrangements have been recently predicted in spherical and cylindrical multi-layer graphene systems. The implications of graphene layer rearrangement on the tribological performance of multi-layer nano-carbons in extreme environments are discussed.
A technique to synthesize high-quality single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on Ge Stranski-Krastanow dots has been developed. From transmission electron microscopy and Raman measurements, the grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are identified as SWNTs with diameters ranging from 1.6 to 2.1 nm. Extensive scanning electron microscopy and atomic force characterisation of the effect of each stage in the growth process is presented. Our hypothesis is that pre-treatment stages lead to the formation of Ge nanoparticles, which act as seeds for CNT growth. This technique demonstrates the ability to synthesize high-quality SWNTs without the need for a metal catalyst, using processes and equipment standard to a silicon foundry.
The business meeting of Commission 36 was held during the General Assembly in Prague on 16 August. It was attended by about 15 members. The issues presented included a review of the work made by members of Commission 36, and the election of the new Organising Committee. We note that a comprehensive report on the activities of the commission during the last triennium has been published in Reports on Astronomy, Transactions IAU Volume XXVIA. The scientific activity of the members of the commission has been very intense, and has led to the publication of a large number of papers.
Commission 36 covers all the physics of stellar atmospheres. The scientific activity in this large field has been very intense during the last triennium and led to the publication of a large number of papers which makes an exhaustive report practically not feasible. As a consequence we decided to keep the format of the preceding report: first a list of areas of current research, then web links for obtaining further information.
Heavy ion irradiations of single and multi walled carbon nanotubes and total ionization dose of gallium nitride nanowires were investigated. Post irradiation analyses of samples were performed with transmission and scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy.
The identification of fluctuating confusion is central to improving the differential diagnosis of the common dementias.
To determine the value of two rating scales to measure fluctuating confusion.
The agreement between the clinician-rated scale and the scale completed by a non-clinician was determined. Correlations between the two scales were calculated; variability in attention was calculated on a computerised cognitive assessment and variability in delta rhythm on an electroencephalogram (EEG).
The Clinician Assessment of Fluctuation and the computerised cognitive assessment were completed for 155 patients (61 Alzheimer's disease, 37 dementia with Lewy bodies, 22 vascular dementia, 35 elderly controls). A subgroup (n=40) received a further evaluation using the One Day Fluctuation Assessment Scale and an EEG. The two scales correlated significantly with each other, and with the neuropsychological and electrophysiological measures of fluctuation.
Both scales are useful instruments for the clinical assessment of fluctuation in dementia.
There is interest in reducing the shot number in the poly-Si laser crystallisation process in order to improve its throughput. Two distinct shot number dependent effects have been identified, which are both laser intensity dependent. The critical laser energy density is that which causes full film melt-through, and the major issue occurs at energies greater than this, where there is a considerable degradation in device uniformity with reducing shot number. The cause of this is non-uniform recovery of the full-melt-through fine grain poly-Si, and it is demonstrated that by extending the trailing edge of the beam, the material uniformity at reduced shot number can be improved. For energies less than this, the issue is not so much uniformity, as a general degradation in overall device properties with reducing shot number, which has been correlated with reducing grain size.
In more demanding, future applications (such as system-on-panel), it will be necessary to improve circuit performance and approach that of current MOSFET devices. This will require short channel, self-aligned (SA) TFTs, and some of the issues with this architecture, particularly lateral ion implantation damage beneath the gate edge and drain field relief are discussed.
During the period 1970–1990 the Military Aircraft Division of British Aerospace based at Warton developed a structural sizing and optimisation system initially based on an “in-house” developed finite element analysis (FEA) system. This subsequently progressed to using NASTRAN, which was rapidly evolving to be the standard FEA system used within all divisions of British Aerospace (BAe).
The many problems associated with the development and application of this evolving system are described. These problems covered a wide range from software development, engineering application, resource management and hardware dependence.
One problems which has received a great deal of attention since 1990 is the incorporation of the panel buckling constraint particularly when applied to laminated structures. This paper describes an early attempt to incorporate this constraint followed by a brief description of the application and integration of a specialised Panel Buckling code.
The paper concludes by describing how BAe Military Aircraft Division is attempting to incorporate the buckling constraint using NASTRAN into a high performance computing (HPC) environment. In addition this development illustrates how many of the problems described earlier are being overcome by working in partnership with software vendors, hardware vendors and other business units within BAe.
Chemical analysis on a microscopic scale was performed on a TiN particle sample on silicon and on two patterned samples using a synchrotron source scanning photoemission microscope. For all the experiments, we exploit the ability, developed in our experimental system, to reach specific locations on the wafer and analyze the local chemical state.