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Reliable population size estimates are imperative for effective conservation and management of globally threatened birds like the ‘Critically Endangered’ Blue-throated Macaw Ara glaucogularis. Endemic to one of South America’s largest grassland floodplains, the Llanos de Moxos in northern Bolivia, the species’ global population size is uncertain. The region’s inaccessibility renders the application of traditional methods for obtaining bird population estimates impracticable or cost prohibitive. We developed a simultaneous, multilocality, double-sampling approach combined with quantitative habitat availability analyses to obtain the first rigorous population size estimate for the Blue-throated Macaw. We established 11 survey areas across its three subpopulations that were visited twice by one team in each subpopulation over a 23-day period in the 2015 dry season and obtained additional count data from two roost sites. We classified suitable habitat (palm forest islands) using Landsat 8 images and CLASlite forest monitoring software. We extrapolated the number of macaws detected (conservative estimate of the total number of macaws [CETN], highest single count [HSC]) per 100 ha of suitable habitat in each survey area to the entire area of suitable habitat in all subpopulations combined, corrected for the species’ range occupancy of 34.3%. The total number of Blue-throated Macaws detected by survey (CETN) and roost site counts was 137. Across all survey areas, the number of macaws per 100 ha of suitable habitat was 4.7 for the first and 4.4 for the second period for CETN and 3.2 and 3.4, respectively, for HSC data. Corresponding global population estimates were 426–455 (CETN) and 312–329 (HSC) individuals. Other recent research and anecdotal data support these estimates. Although it would be premature to propose downlisting the species to ‘Endangered’, our findings indicate that it has a larger population and slightly larger range than previously thought, and that the positive effects of conservation actions are now becoming apparent.
The TaqIA polymorphism linked to the DRD2 gene has been associated with alcoholism. The aim of this work is to study attention and inhibitory control as per the continuous performance test and the stop task in a sample of 50 Spanish male alcoholic patients split into two groups according to the presence of the TaqIA1 allele in their genotype. Our results show that alcoholics carrying the TaqIA1 allele present lower sustained attention and less inhibitory control than those patients without such allele.
We aimed to explore the expert perspective on relevant issues of individuals with bipolar disorder. The specific aims are to identify problems in functioning important to individuals with BD and to quantify these using the ICF.
An online survey on functioning in BD was conduced. For each ICF domain one question was presented. Recruited participants were psychiatrists, general physicians, psychologists, nurses and social workers worldwide. Answers were linked to the ICF according to predefined rules (Cieza, 2001). Data analyses include frequencies of ICF categories named by experts.
Health professionals from all WHO-world regions and from different professional backgrounds accepted our invitation to participate. The Americas was the highest represented region (36%) and a significant part of the professionals involved were psychiatrists. From all the concepts contained in the answers, body functions categories with highest frequency of appearance were emotional functions (3,5%), mentioned by 62% of the experts and sleep functions (2,4%) mentioned by 58%. The body structure brain corresponds to 2% of the total categories obtained and was included by 56% of the experts. Maintaining one's health was the most mentioned activity and participation (2,8%), referred by 36% of the participants and important environmental factors include health services (4,8%) and immediate family(3,8%), which appeared in 82% of the questionnaires.
The present study is an important step in applying of the ICF to BD. It also shows an important level of agreement between experts around the world regarding central issues of the disorder.
Different types of behavioural impulsivity have been associated with the development of substance use disorders but little is know about what type of impulsivity is provoked by the effect of chronic use of substances.
Determine what type of behavioural impulsivity was associated with the use of alcohol and cocaine.
Design and measurements:
A prospective cohort study was conducted to identify changes on behavioural impulsivity. Non-dependent heavy drinkers (N=471) were recruited from primary care centres. The following assessments were used at baseline and at the end of the 4-year follow-up period: The continuous performance test (CPT) and stop-signal task (SST) assessed behavioural inhibition. Differential reinforcement for low-rate responding (DRLR) was used to evaluate the delay discounting dimension. Diagnoses were rendered using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV.
Amounts on alcohol and cocaine consumption during follow-up correlated positively with changes on all impulsivity measures. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cocaine used was associated specifically with poor performance on CPT and SST and amount of alcohol used during follow-up was related to changes on DRLR.
Substances provoke different pattern of behavioural impulsivity: chronic cocaine use provokes changes mainly on behavioural inhibition dimension and alcohol use induces changes on delay discounting paradigm.
The link between impulsivity and alcohol use disorders has been established in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, but little is know about the role of behavioural impulsivity in the development of substance use disorders.
Determine the role of behavioural measures of impulsivity in the development of alcohol use disorders.
Design and measurements:
A prospective cohort study was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with alcohol dependence. Non-dependent heavy drinkers (N=471) and healthy controls (N=149) were recruited from primary care centres. They were assessed at the end of the 4-year follow-up period. Diagnoses were rendered using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV. The continuous performance test (CPT) and stop-signal task (SST) assessed behavioural inhibition. Differential reinforcement for low-rate responding (DRLR) was used to evaluate the delay discounting dimension.
HD participants have significant impairments on all laboratory measures of impulsivity. In the logistic regression model, impairment on DRLR (delay discounting dimension) was the only measure that classified accurately HD. Baseline behavioural measures of impulsivity correlated positively with amount of alcohol consumption during the follow-up period. Logistic regression analysis indicated that performance on inhibitory control (SST) (behavioural inhibition dimension) was a significant predictor (odds=1.52[1.08-2.31]) for developing alcohol dependence.
Our data support the link between behavioural measures of impulsivity and alcohol use disorders. Delay discounting dimension may be a risk factor for begin alcohol use heavily and behavioural inhibition impairment is more involved in the development of dependence.
Suicide is a serious public health problem. In 2005, 793 people were hospitalized in Madrid due to suicide attempt. However, most of the attempts do not require hospitalization and patients are discharged after the intervention in the emergency units. With the aim to implement local policies to prevent suicide, it is important to know the whole spectrum of suicide attempts that contact emergency units in Madrid.
To explore the incidence of suicide attempts assisted in the public health system in Madrid and to analyze their characteristics and the response of the health system.
Clinical reports of all patients attempting suicide were analyzed during 4 months in 4 general public hospitals (covering 44.7% of the whole population) in the Community of Madrid.
1009 suicide attempts committed by 921 people (66.2% women) were collected, with an incidence of 34.3 people per 100.000 in 4 months. 57 people (6.2%) committed more than one attempt (range 2 to 10, mean=2.5 ± 1.3). After the emergency intervention 71.9% of the patients were discharged, 25.3% hospitalized, 2.6% fled, and 0.2% died. Regarding suicidal ideation, 7.5% presented very high levels during evaluation, while 13.1% had high levels, 20.3% moderate and 47.3% had no suicidal ideation.
Compared with other European countries, our findings show moderate incidence of suicide attempts, most of which were mild, treated in the emergency units and derived to outpatient psychiatric follow-up. These results suggest places to develop and implement prevention measures.
Potentially inappropriate prescribing, is highly prevalent among older patients hospitalized with major psychiatric illness. Inappropriate use of psychotropic medications in elderly patients has become a focus of concern.
To determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing including potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential prescription omissions (PPOs), according to STOPP-START, Beers and PRISCUS criteria applied by CheckTheMeds®.
To identify potentially IP, PPo and the prevalence of contraindications, interactions and precautions in older patients hospitalized with major psychiatric illness.
Retrospective cross-sectional study with patients over 65 discharged from the Psychiatric acute unit of the university hospital of La Princesa (Madrid) between January 2013 and October 2015 was conducted. The CheckTheMeds® program was used to identify IP.
A total of 104 elders–74 females and 30 males–were included, with a mean age of 76 years (range: 65–91). An average of 5.73 (range: 1–16) was prescribed drugs at discharge. The Ip results STOPP 81.73% (n = 85), START 43.26% (n = 45), Beers 94.23% (n = 98) y PRISCUS 40.38% (n = 42). Contraindications were described in the 21.15% of the patients, precautions in 83.65% and interactions in 83.65%. Psychotropic drugs were the most often inappropriate prescribed medicaments.
Prescribing omissions are twice as prevalent as IP in the elderly. Currently, inappropriate prescription of psychotropic agents is very common for the elderly. Application of such screening tools to prescribing decisions may reduce unnecessary medication, related adverse events, healthcare utilization and cost and nonpharmacological interventions, should be thoroughly explored.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Determine the incidence of suicide attempts in women exposed to sexual violence in Ecuador.
We applied a transversal descriptive study accomplished by the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC). The INEC recruited Ecuadorian women from 15-years-old and ahead, the surveys were focused on this population. Eighteen thousand and eight hundred (18,800) rural and urban housings were selected all over the country, 24 provinces. Date of the survey: November 16–December 15 of 2011. The sample included 737 women of several marital status (single, married and separated woman) who reported had been victims of sexual violence.
The average age of the sample was 28-years-old. The standard deviation was 21 years, ages: 15–25 years old: 14.265 (21.6%), 25–35-years-old: 9.324 (14.1%), 35–45-years-old: 8.132 (12.3%), 45–55-years-old: 6.283 (9.5%), 55–65-years-old: 4.302 (6.5%) and > 65 years old: 23.745 (35.9%). The incidence of women who had attempted suicide due to sexual violence was 73.95% (545 of 737 women surveyed). According to the marital status, the incidence was 79.3% on single, 65.5% on married and 79.0% on separated women.
The rate of suicide attempts in Ecuadorian women undergoing situations of sexual violence is very elevated. The traumatic incident in descending order according to the classification by marital status is: single, separated and married. It was identified the population of unmarried women in our society to be the most vulnerable to develop suicidal behaviors (8 out of 10 women). However, we must keep in mind that these statistics could be even higher due to the fear and rejection to expose personal traumatic experiences in conservative societies such as the Ecuadorian. These results represent a powerful call to the Mental Health Systems. They must increase protection and follow-up programs on sexually abused women in Ecuador and other Latin-American countries.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Rhabdias pocoto n. sp. is herein described from the lungs of the swamp frog Pseudopaludicola pocoto Magalhães, Loebmann, Nogueira, Kokubum, Baptista, Haddad & Garda, 2014, from the Caatinga biome in the state of Ceará, in north-eastern Brazil. The new species is characterized by a body that dilates posteriorly, six small lips (protuberances) and two rounded lateral expansions of cuticular inflation on the anterior end, each containing an amorphous gland-like structure inside and a short and conical tail. Additionally, molecular analysis and comparison of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I sequence of R. pocoto n. sp. revealed genetic divergence between the new species and the sequences of Rhabdias spp. previously deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the new taxon into the R. pseudosphaerocephala species complex + R. glaurungi clade. The new discovery represents the 19th species of Rhabdias spp. described in the Neotropical region, the ninth in Brazil and the first species of Rhabdias found parasitizing South American frogs of the genus Pseudopaludicola, as well as the first Caatinga biome species of Rhabdias.
Four Holstein steers (297 ± 56 kg of body weight (BW)) fitted with duodenal cannula and rumen catheter, were housed in metabolism cages and used in a 4 × 4 Latin Square trial to evaluate the effect of both protein source and Acacia mearnsii tannin extract on digestibility, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial protein synthesis, N utilization and on duodenal flow of individual amino acids. The diet was offered at restricted amount of 25 g of dry matter (DM)/kg BW and consisted of maize silage plus concentrate, in a proportion of 0·7:0·3 (DM basis) respectively. Concentrate was formulated with either soybean meal or canola meal as protein source, with or without 50 g/kg of A. mearnsii tannin extract (i.e. 15 g/kg of total dietary DM). There was no effect of protein source on most variables. The apparent and true organic matter (OM) digestibilities, as well as neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility were negatively affected by tannin extract inclusion without, however, affecting digestible OM intake. The amount of nitrogen (N) excreted in faeces increased whereas the urinary N excretion decreased in tannin extract treatments. No interaction time × treatment was detected for any rumen variable and no treatment effect was observed for rumen fluid pH and reducing sugars concentration. Rumen fluid concentration of ammonia N was lower for the canola meal plus tannin extract treatment. Rumen concentration of α-amino compounds was not affected by tannin extract but was higher when canola meal was the protein source. The duodenal flow of OM, total N, α-amino N and non-ammonia non-microbial N increased with tannin extract inclusion, whereas the duodenal flow of microbial N was not affected by treatment. For both protein sources, the amount of most individual amino acids flowing to the duodenum increased due to tannin extract addition. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of 15 g/kg DM of tannin extract from A. mearnsii improved the amino acid supply independently of whether the protein source was canola meal or soybean meal, without affecting the amino acid profile, to steers fed maize silage plus concentrate, with a minor but significant impact on OM digestibility.
Background: Studies on functional capacity in community-dwelling older people have shown associations between declines in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and several factors. Among these, age has been the most consistently related to functional capacity independent of other variables. We aimed at evaluating the performance of a sample of healthy and cognitively intact Brazilian older people on activities of daily living and to analyze its relation to social-demographic variables.
Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected for previous epidemiological studies with community-dwelling subjects aged 60 years or more. We selected subjects who did not have dementia or depression, and with no history of neurological diseases, heart attack, HIV, hepatitis or arthritis (n = 1,111). Functional capacity was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Older American Resources and Services Questionnaire (BOMFAQ). ADL performance was analyzed according to age, gender, education, and marital status (Pearson's χ2, logistic regression).
Results: IADL difficulties were present in our sample, especially in subjects aged 80 years or more, with lower levels of education, or widowed. The logistic regression analysis results indicated that “higher age” and “lower education” (p ≤ 0.001) remained significantly associated with IADL difficulty.
Conclusions: Functional decline was present in older subjects even in the absence of medical conditions and cognitive impairment. Clinicians and researchers could benefit from knowing what to expect from older people regarding IADL performance in the absence of medical conditions.
The fracture behavior of polypropylene (PP) and its composites was studied as a function of concentration of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and modified montmorillonite (m-MMT). SAXS and WAXS (Small/Wide Angle X-ray Scattering) techniques were used to monitor the morphological changes (i.e. nanocomposite structure and crystalline morphology) caused by various nanoparticle concentrations and polymer uniaxial stretching deformation. The effect of nanoparticle nature was also investigated. The mechanical analysis shows a great effect of nanoclay concentration on the PP deformation, while uniaxial stretching of the PP/MWCNT nanocomposites was less affected by carbon nanotubes concentration. The SAXS and WAXS analysis of stretched samples indicated that the pure polypropylene and nanocomposites with low nanoparticles concentrations (1 wt/wt%) developed a fracture governed by shear yielding mechanism, while PP nanocomposites with higher concentrations of carbon nanotubes and nanoclay showed a crazing and microcraking fracture mechanism. On the other hand, different chemical nature of MWCNT and m-MMT did not affect the fracture mechanism of polypropylene at low nanoparticles concentrations.
Plasma surface activation and antibacterial properties of nanocomposites of polypropylene/silver nanoparticles (PP/nAg) and nylon-6/silver nanoparticles (Ny6/nAg) were investigated. The nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending assisted by ultrasound, while surface activation was achieved by means of argon plasma. To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the nanocomposites, pathogen microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger were tested. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses showed a uniform dispersion of nanoparticles within the polymer matrix, though the presence of some agglomerates was also appreciated. On the other hand, surface topography by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) suggested that ions from the argon plasma generated ion collisions with the surface of the nanocomposites removing or etching polymer from surface and improving silver nanoparticles exposure, increasing their antimicrobial properties as corroborated by antimicrobial analyses. Nanocomposites exposed to argon plasma presented higher antimicrobial properties than the ones not exposed. These results indicated that plasma treatment increased the contact area of the nanoparticles with the microorganisms and enhanced the antimicrobial properties of nanocomposites. The results also showed that PP/nAg nanocomposites presented higher bacterial inhibition than Ny6/nAg nanocomposites, indicating that the chemical structure of the polymer also plays a big role in the final performance of the composite.
Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Nylon-6 nanohybrids were prepared by in situ polymerization under microwave irradiation. The effect of time and power of irradiation on the surface conductivity of the nanohybrid was studied. It was observed that the resistivity increases with irradiation time at low microwave power (200W). On the other hand, at high power (600W) an opposite behavior was observed. And at intermediate power (400W) the resistivity was independent of the irradiation time. Resistivity values range from 102 to 101 Ω/sq. This behavior was associated with the polymer nanocoating covering the surface of the carbon nanotubes.
As one of the latest beamlines at the Synchrotron Radiation SOLEIL facility, ANTARES beamline will offer an X-ray nanoprobe able to combine four powerful non-destructive techniques: (i) angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, (ii) core-level photoemission (X-ray photo electron spectroscopy), (iii) X-ray absorption spectroscopy and (iv) X-ray fluorescence. ANTARES microscope has implemented a powerful and innovative nano-scanning photoemission microscope technique using three independent detectors in combination with a 14 integrated-axes manipulator. Microscope motion requirements involve linear and rotary positioning based on non-magnetic ceramic servo motors, compatible with ultra-high-vacuum conditions. A complete four-head interferometer system monitors continuously, with nano-metric precision, the alignment of the sample and focalization optics during the scanning operation. An accurate electronic feedback avoids image distortion due to mechanical vibrations or thermal effects.
A new opisthobranch gastropod is reported from the Azores resulting from fieldwork undertaken in the island of São Miguel (Western Group, Azores) during October–November 2009 and March–April 2010. Intertidal and subtidal areas down to 25 m deep were sampled. Thirteen species were collected one of which, Crimora papillata is recorded for the first time in the Azores, increasing the number of opisthobranchs in these islands to 142 (108 littoral species and 34 deep-water species).