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Connective tissue content of skeletal muscle plays a key role in meat quality. Previous pilot studies carried out in our lab have indicated that the smallest littermate may have a higher proportion of connective tissue in skeletal muscle (Clelland A., 2001). Connective tissue provides a structure to the muscle belly and is composed of ground substance, fibres and connective tissue cells. A proportion of these three elements of the connective tissue comprise of collagen I and fat deposits. This is an important concept to the meat industry as an increased amount of these components can increase meat toughness and intramuscular fat respectively, both having an impact on the resultant meat quality. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between undernutrition, collagen and fat content using a naturally occurring model. In the pig, it can be argued that differing levels of nutrition received, in utero, are a major cause of intra-litter variation. Therefore the smallest and largest littermates were chosen and content of collagen I and fat deposition were analysed in the M. semitendinosus of both.
Coastal ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to alien invasions. Regular, standardized, targeted monitoring of coastal areas helps to detect the arrival of non-native species early, identify sites most vulnerable to invasion, and assess potential for further spread. This study quantified the spread and changes in distribution of non-native oyster, Crassostrea gigas, populations around the coast of Ireland. In total 37 sites were surveyed, in areas which either currently or previously harboured cultivated C. gigas, for the presence and abundance of ‘wild’ C. gigas. Wild populations were identified at 20 sites and at four additional sites C. gigas was observed as recently discarded from aquaculture activity. Five of the invaded sites were identified as being highly suitable for a population expansion based on their current population status. Importantly, we also identified individuals of C. gigas and native European oysters, Ostrea edulis, co-occurring within the same shore at five sites. This is the first record to our knowledge of such co-occurrence within Europe. This evidence of co-existing oyster species raises concerns regarding the potential impact of C. gigas on recovering O. edulis populations. In Ireland, however, C. gigas does not typically spread extensively from introduction points, and although self-containing populations exist, they are currently sustained at a much lower density than those observed in other regions such as the Wadden Sea or French Atlantic coasts. We suggest, therefore, that to protect native oyster populations, C. gigas should be eradicated where co-occurring with O. edulis and recommend continuous monitoring of invaded sites.
Most of the recent advances in X-ray astronomy have resulted from satellite observations in the low energy (< 20 keV) range. The Einstein X-ray Observatory in particular has been responsible for a dramatic increase in our knowledge of the X-ray sky, in that all major classes of astronomical objects have been detected.
In November 2013, national public health agencies in England and Scotland identified an increase in laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Mikawasima. The role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a risk factor for salmonellosis is unclear; we therefore captured information on PPI usage as part of our outbreak investigation. We conducted a case-control study, comparing each case with two controls. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Thirty-nine of 61 eligible cases were included in the study. The median age of cases was 45 years; 56% were female. Of these, 33% were admitted to hospital and 31% reported taking PPIs. We identified an association between PPIs and non-typhoidal salmonellosis (aOR 8·8, 95% CI 2·0–38·3). There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of an association between salmonellosis and PPIs; however, biological studies are needed to understand the effect of PPIs in the pathogenesis of Salmonella. We recommend future outbreak studies investigate PPI usage to strengthen evidence on the relevance of PPIs in Salmonella infection. These findings should be used to support the development of guidelines for patients and prescribers on the risk of gastrointestinal infection and PPI usage.
A community outbreak of legionellosis occurred in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, during July and August 2002. A descriptive study and active case-finding were instigated and all known wet cooling systems and other potential sources were investigated. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism of clinical human and environmental isolates confirmed the air-conditioning unit of a council-owned arts and leisure centre to be the source of infection. Subsequent sequence-based typing confirmed this link. One hundred and seventy-nine cases, including seven deaths [case fatality rate (CFR) 3·9%] were attributed to the outbreak. Timely recognition and management of the incident very likely led to the low CFR compared to other outbreaks. The outbreak highlights the responsibility associated with managing an aerosol-producing system, with the potential to expose and infect a large proportion of the local population and the consequent legal ramifications and human cost.
The classical equations of irrotational water waves have recently been reformulated as a system of two equations, one of which is an explicit non-local equation for the wave height and for the velocity potential evaluated on the free surface. Here, in the two-dimensional case: (a) we generalize the relevant formulation to the case of constant vorticity, as well as to the case where the free surface is described by a multivalued function; (b) in the case of travelling waves we derive an upper bound for the free surface; (c) in the case of constant vorticity we construct a sequence of nearly Hamiltonian systems which provide an approximation in the asymptotic limit of certain physical small parameters. In particular, the explicit dependence of the vorticity on the coefficients of the Korteweg–de Vries equation is clarified.
Nocturnal enuresis has been reported in patients taking clozapine, but
the incidence has not been accurately established. The incidence of
enuresis in patients taking risperidone, olanzapine or quetiapine is
To compare nocturnal enuresis in patients taking clozapine with that in
patients taking risperidone, olanzapine or quetiapine.
Observational cohort study using prescription event monitoring methods.
Patients prescribed atypical antipsychotic medicines were followed up by
questionnaires that were sent to their medical practitioner.
Practitioners were asked to directly ask their patients about
Nocturnal enuresis was reported by 17 of 82 (20.7%) patients taking
clozapine, 11 of 115 (9.6%) taking olanzapine, 7 of 105 (6.7%) taking
quetiapine and 12 of 195 (6.2%) taking risperidone. Compared with
clozapine, the risk of nocturnal enuresis was significantly lower in
patients taking olanzapine (odds ratio, OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.19–0.96),
quetiapine (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.13–0.59) or risperidone (OR = 0.27,
0.12–0.59), with odds ratios adjusted for age, gender and duration of
Approximately one in five patients prescribed clozapine experienced
bed-wetting. This was significantly higher than the rate of nocturnal
enuresis in patients taking olanzapine, quetiapine or risperidone.
Background: Late life depression is often accompanied by slowed information processing during neuropsychological testing, and this has been related to underlying cerebrovascular disease. We investigated whether changes in electrophysiological markers of information processing might share the same pathological correlates.
Methods: Differences in power spectra frequency, contingent negative variation (CNV), post-imperative negative variation (PINV), and auditory P300a amplitude and latency in 19 patients with DSM-IV major depression aged ≥ 60 years were compared with 25 recordings in age-matched healthy controls. Associations with total brain volume and degree of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were examined in those who had undergone additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients had more slow-wave delta (group difference: p = 0.024) and theta activity (p = 0.015) as well as alpha activity (p = 0.005) but no decrease in beta band frequency (p = 0.077). None of these changes related differently to brain volume or WMH in patients or controls. Patients further showed prolonged P300a latencies (p = 0.027), which were associated with decreased total brain volume in patients but not controls (interaction by group: p = 0.004). While there were no overall differences in PINV between both groups, patients showed a decrease in PINV magnitude with increasing WMH, a relation that was not seen in controls (interaction by group: p = 0.024).
Conclusion: Patients with late life depression show changes in several electrophysiological markers of cerebral arousal and information processing, some of which relate to brain atrophy and WMH on MRI.
Skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic and malleable tissue that is able to adapt to different stimuli placed upon it, both during gestation and after birth, ultimately resulting in anatomical changes to muscle fibre composition. Variation in nutrient supply throughout gestation is common, whether in livestock or in the human. The specific effects of maternal nutrition on foetal development are at the forefront of scientific research. However, results describing how different maternal feeding strategies affect skeletal muscle fibre development in the offspring are not fully consistent, even where the same time windows during gestation have been examined. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of increased maternal nutrition (above the recommended levels) on the Musculus semitendinosus phenotype of progeny. In all, 24 pregnant sows were assigned to one of four feeding regimes during gestation; T1 (control group): 30 MJ digestible energy per day (MJ DE/day) throughout gestation, T2: same as that for T1 but increased to 60 MJ DE/day from 25 to 50 days of gestation (dg), T3: same as that for T1 but increased to 60 MJ DE/day from 50 to 80 dg, T4: same as that for T1 but increased nutrition to 60 MJ DE/day from 25 to 80 dg. Light- and heavy-weight littermate pairs of the same sex were selected at birth and individually fed to slaughter (c. 158 days). Histochemical and immunohistochemical staining were used to identify the predominantly oxidative (deep) and less oxidative (superficial) regions of the M. semitendinosus, and to determine total fibre number and proportions of fibre types. The results demonstrate that increased maternal nutrition alters skeletal muscle phenotype in the offspring by changing fibre-type proportions, leading to an increased oxidative capacity due to an increase in Type IIA fibres. No change in total muscle area, total muscle fibre number, or fibre cross-sectional area is observed. The precise molecular mechanism(s) by which these findings occur is being investigated.
Serum samples from 1963 Merino sheep were examined for serum transferrin type. Two of the five transferrin alleles previously described in British breeds of sheep, viz. T fA and T fc, were found, but T fB, T fD and T fE were absent. Evidence for seven further transferrin alleles was obtained. These alleles were coded T fF, T fG, T fH, T fJ, T fN, T fK and T fL in decreasing order of mobility of the zones they produce in starch gel.
Gene frequency data is presented for the populations studied.
The serum transferrin and post-albumin phenotype distributions of 228 Sahiwal, 138 Nganda, 265 Boran, 114 Tanganyika Shorthorned Zebu, 72 Teso and 267 Ankole cattle from East Africa were determined.
Five transferrin alleles, TfA, TfB, TfD, TfE, and TfF were present in all the breeds examined, and a sixth allele, TfG, was present in three of the Borans. TfE and TfF were the most frequent alleles, except in the Nganda cattle where TfA was the most frequent. TfB had a frequency of less than 0·1 in each breed. Two post-albumin alleles, PaF and Pas, were present in each breed. In each breed except Sahiwal PaF was two to three times more frequent than Pas. In the Sahiwal PaF and Pas had about the same frequency. It was concluded that both transferrin and post-albumin gene frequencies in East African cattle differ significantly from the corresponding frequencies in European cattle.
There was no evidence of an excess of heterozygotes in the post-albumin system other than that expected from the use of relatively small numbers of bulls in these herds. However, allowing for the same factor in the transferrin system, there appeared to be an excess of transferrin heterozygotes in the cattle populations sampled although the extent of this excess could not be calculated accurately.
Discrete humus layers are common on podzols under temperate coniferous and tropical heath forests, and patchy layers also occur under some temperate broadleaved forests on non-podzolic soils. We used multiple data sets to test the reported association of humus with oligotrophic but non-podzolic soils under non-heath dipterocarp forest at Lambir, Sarawak. We examined the distribution, morphology and nutrient dynamics of necromass on soils derived from sandstone and shale. Concentrations of the main mineral nutrients were lower in fresh litter on the very oligotrophic sandstone soils than on shale. The rates of litterfall were similar, so that annual litterfall fluxes of all nutrients were lower on sandstone. The lower nutrient concentrations and fluxes in the litter on sandstone resulted in slower decomposition, longer residence times and larger standing crops of forest-floor necromass, with lower concentrations of nutrients. The necromass on sandstone sequestered significantly more N, K and Mg but less Ca and Mn than on shale, with no significant difference for P. The variations in necromass nutrient dynamics were associated with morphological differences. There were mats of densely rooted humus under the litter on sandstone, whereas litter lay directly over the mineral topsoil on shale. Spatial associations with soil nutrients were weak for necromass thickness, but clear for humus. The proportions of nutrients in the litterfall and necromass reflected the stoichiometric profiles of the soils. We attribute the differences in necromass nutrient dynamics and their association with soil reserve nutrients to lower rates of nutrient replenishment from the weathering of sandstone than from shale. Necromass characteristics are robust field indicators of multivariate edaphic differences in these and other tropical forests on Acrisols/Ultisols derived from Tertiary clastic sediments.
Forest structure and species distribution patterns were examined among eight topographically defined habitats for the 205 species with stems ≥ 1 cm dbh inhabiting a 25-ha plot in the Sinharaja rain forest, Sri Lanka. The habitats were steep spurs, less-steep spurs, steep gullies and less-steep gullies, all at either lower or upper elevations. Mean stem density was significantly greater on the upper spurs than in the lower, less-steep gullies. Stem density was also higher on spurs than in gullies within each elevation category and in each upper-elevation habitat than in its corresponding lower-elevation habitat. Basal area varied less among habitats, but followed similar trends to stem density. Species richness and Fisher's alpha were lower in the upper-elevation habitats than in the lower-elevation habitats. These differences appeared to be related to the abundances of the dominant species. Of the 125 species subjected to torus-translation tests, 99 species (abundant and less abundant and those in different strata) showed at least one positive or negative association to one or more of the habitats. Species associations were relatively more frequent with the lower-elevation gullies. These and the previous findings on seedling ecophysiology, morphology and anatomy of some of the habitat specialists suggest that edaphic and hydrological variation related to topography, accompanied by canopy disturbances of varying intensity, type and extent along the catenal landscape, plays a major role in habitat partitioning in this forest.